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FIREBOAT WALKS ON MOUNTAINS: RAILROADS THE THE TRANSFORMATION OF SIOUX CULTURE, 1830-90

Benjamin Sheehan (Author) Laura Cruz (Research Sponsor) Department of History Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC 28723

Many of the contemporary sources which examine the subject of western expansion in the United States in the nineteenth century paint a different picture of events that what might have actually transipred. According to the traditional Eurocentric view, the railroad was a symbol of man's ingenuity and western progress. 'History', though, is subject to the teller's interpretation and this privilege has historically belonged to dominant cultures. Rather than viewing history through the eyes of American settlers and politicians of the day, this paper is designed to provide the reader with the ability to view historical events through the eyes of the Sioux people. To achieve this perspective, the paper is meticulous in its utilization of primary source documents originating from Native American authors, including myths, prophecies, images, and rituals. This paper examines the construction and operation of the Western railroad network as a turning point in the destruction of the Sioux people. Conflicting views on land use and ownership, settlement patterns, and trade are among the causes which provided the impetus for further hostilities between the two cultures. These cultural disctinctions were heightened as a result of the construction and operation of the western railroad network.


ON NOT BECOMING TOO OLD FOR ONE'S VICTORIES: AUTHENTIC DASEIN AND THE OPENNESS TO TIME IN HOMER'S ODYSSEY

Zinzi E. Edmundson (Damian Stocking) Department of English and Comparative Literary Studies, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041

In his recent work on Homer's Iliad, Damian Stocking suggests that the sorrow of Achilles stems from his inability to effectively and consistently ‘be' in the world as a res agens, an effect-producing agent. By the opening of the Odyssey, however, Achilles' failures already seem self-evident, as Odysseus refuses the stagnant stability of immortality on Calypso's island in favor of worldly ‘becoming'. Whereas Achilles fails to achieve a stable existential foothold in the world, and ultimately chooses the stasis of Hades and to ‘live on' through kleos, Odysseus embraces the flux, as a necessary condition of ‘being in the world'. While the Iliad is largely a story of Achilles' desire for ‘being', the Odyssey is a story of constant change and ‘becoming'. Yet, the notion of ‘becoming' is ambiguous, for it could imply Aristotle's idea of teleological change, the movement from an acorn to an oak tree. I suggest, however, that the sense of ‘becoming' found in the Odyssey is actually more like the more radical one of Martin Heidegger in Being and Time. Whereas an Aristotlean reading might describe Odysseus' changes over the narrative as a striving for an end, his own home, I would like to argue that Odysseus' journey home is not an end in itself; it is motivated by his sense, as Dasein (there-being) of his own finitude, of his Being-in-the-world, of his openness to time and of his existence as a series of potentialities and projects. The Odyssey, then, is a story not merely of an archaic ancient hero's fantastical adventures, but a negotiation of issues as relevant to us as to the ancient Greeks, that of Being-in-the-world.


CLARIFYING THE NATURAL HISTORY OF THE CLASS III LINEAGE IN THE HD-ZIP GENE FAMILY AMONG LAND PLANTS

Gwynne DeBoer, Wenli Li (Robert Kuzoff) Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI 53190; Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408

Functional divergence in gene families is a major force in the evolution of plant form. Due to the crucial roles that they play in leaf and floral development, members of the class III lineage in the HD-ZIP gene family (HDZ-III) have attracted much recent attention. Surveyed embryophytes generally have one or two HDZ-III genes per species, except in angiosperms, which have as many as six. We used a series of weighted parsimony and Bayesian analyses to assess the phylogenetic structure of the HDZ-III lineage among land plants. Included in our analyses were 72 HD-ZIP sequences sampled from liverworts, bryophytes, lycophytes, spermatophytes, and angiosperms. The inferred topology for HDZ-III recapitulates land plant phylogeny, with minor exceptions. In our analyses HDZ-III sequences form a monophyletic group. Lycophytes, liverworts, and bryophytes did not resolve as distinct clades, but, together, form the first diverging branch. The second branch, which received little internal support, includes all gymnosperm HDZ-III. Angiosperm sequences form a large, but poorly supported clade that comprises three sub-lineages; COR, REV, and PHB. These three sub-lineages are moderately to well supported. Within the angiosperms, PHB and REV are sister to one another. After the origin of flowering plants, the gene family underwent an appreciable proliferation as a result of several gene duplication events. Our results indicate that five ancient duplications in the gene family propelled its early expansion among flowering plants. Preliminary molecular-clock based estimates suggest that these ancient duplications occurred between 226 and 91 MYA. Eleven more recent duplication events are estimated to have occurred within specific sub-lineages of the angiosperms between 81 and 1.7 MYA. Ongoing analyses seek to: (1) clarify the phylogenetic positions of several more recently sequenced HDZ-III; (2) improve the calibration and application of the HDZ-III molecular clock; and (3) test for the signature of positive selection in some rapidly diverging HDZ-III family members.


FT-IR CHARACTERIZATION FOR THE ACTIVE SITE OF FE-FE HYDROGENASE FROM CHLAMYDOMONAS REINHARDTII

Christian Coe, Dr. John Peters, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Montana State University, Bozeman, 108 Gaines Hall, Bozeman, MT 59715

Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen into protons and appear in a wide variety of microorganisms. [Fe]-H2ases enzymes employ iron-sulfer clusters that are believed to mediate the electron transport processes that are critical to the function of this enzyme. These Fe-S clusters work in concert with carbonyl (CO) and cyanide (CN) ligands attached to the active site; these ligands are believed to stabilize the low iron oxidation and spin states that are accepted as a criterion for activity. The ability for this finely tuned active site, termed the H-cluster, to efficiently catalyze the production of hydrogen at high reaction rates (~mol min-1 g-1) in a large array of microorganisms has resulted in significant scientific interest. Recent work on the [Fe]-H2ases from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has shown that four proteins are required for the in vitro activation of this enzyme. Combining crude extracts from the inactive apo-hydrogenase protein, HydA, with co-expression of the inactive accessory proteins HydE, HydF, and HydG results in significant hydrogen production. The inactive HydA protein will be combined with the co-expressed HydEFG proteins in vitro, followed by purification and concentration. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy will be employed to detect the presence of CO and CN ligands in the active H-cluster. FT-IR will then be used to individually probe the aforementioned accessory proteins for CO and CN ligands. The possible presence of CO and/or CN ligands in these inactive accessory proteins will help elucidate their role in assembling the active H-cluster.


INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH ETHICS FOR UNDERGRADUATES: A CASE EXAMPLE OF RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH

Ellen B. Buckner and Sylvia Waweru, University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1210

Students often enter university experience interested in study abroad; it is rare for one to complete undergraduate research in such a setting. This case study explores the steps taken for a nursing honors student to implement her study in two countries. The infrastructure of human subjects' protection requires all investigators to submit their planned studies for review by the institutional review board (IRB). Going through the IRB process can be of value to undergraduate students. The preparation of the application forces them to describe their studies in lay language and to specify procedures for recruitment, consent, data collection, and data management. Students form collaborative relationships with the IRB. A case example of an international study conducted by an undergraduate is presented. Issues in protection of human participants in the research were extensive. The project was divided into two phases to enhance feasibility. Full review for the international component required collaborating with an institution holding a federal-wide assurance (FWA). Online research training of international co-investigator was completed and administrative head of the agency provided a support letter for the project. It was necessary to provide for an advocate and community consultant, to translate consents and assents, and to identify the legally authorized representative for the participants who were children. The process of approval required 10 months for the two phases. In addition, the student worked with the WHO Collaborating Center at the UAB School of Nursing and the UAB Sparkman Center for Global Health to obtain permission and funding for international travel to conduct the project. In an era of growing interest in international opportunities, faculty members have the opportunity to gain knowledge in international research procedures as we facilitate student experiences in these areas. Such faculty roles are absolutely critical to the success of the research.


AFTER THE PARTY'S OVER: DESIGNING EFFECTIVE EVALUATION TOOLS FOR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH SYMPOSIA

Jennifer Harris, Undergraduate Research Program, Box 352803, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2803

Evaluation of campus celebrations of undergraduate research is an underutilized program support mechanism. Undergraduate research program administrators expend a tremendous amount of time and energy to carry out campus celebrations of undergraduate research. We work to ensure that these events provide an enriching forum for students to share their work with the campus community, friends, and family. While focused on the minutiae of event planning and the needs of student preparation, a critical component of symposium planning is often neglected—soliciting feedback to examine our past impact and aid future planning. This session will focus on how to design effective evaluation tools for student and faculty participants in undergraduate research symposia. The 2006 University of Washington Undergraduate Research Symposium had well over 500 student participants and we managed an over 60% response rate on our feedback surveys—a dramatic improvement from prior years. After redesigning both our questions and our delivery (from paper comment sheets to electronic surveys) we were able to reach more of our stakeholders and collect valuable data that helps to bolster our mission and improve symposium programming. By sharing our experiences with recent improvements to our own evaluation tools we hope to help other program administrators plan or revamp their feedback mechanisms.


'INTERPRETER OF MALADIES': INDO-CARIBBEAN LITERATURE AND STATE OF

Reshma Ramkellawan (Dr. Sherron Killingsworth Roberts) Department of Teaching and Learning Principles; University of Central Florida; 4000 Central Florida Blvd. Orlando, FL 32816

Secondary level in language arts for the state of Florida has faced increasing scrutiny during the past decade under often conflicting influences such as a rapidly diversifying student population, activism for and against multicultural curriculum reform, and pressure to streamline curricula and make it conform to national testing standards. Against this social backdrop, the question of how to introduce Indo-Caribbean literature at the secondary level presents unique intellectual and political challenges. On the one hand, first and second generation Indo-Caribbean migrants make up an increasingly significant percentage of Florida's student population. Like other first and second generation Caribbean migrants, Indo-Caribbean students must straddle between their modern Caribbean traditions, juxtaposed with North American societal values; however, their East Indian heritage is rarely reflected in those Caribbean texts that do make it into secondary language arts reading lists. In my paper, I will explore some of the demographic shifts in Central Florida, consider the extent to which Indo-Caribbean texts might be regarded as representative expressions of Caribbean experience, and suggest how the inclusion of Indo-Caribbean literature in the Caribbean might provide a model for similar curriculum reform in the Florida.


EMPATHIZING WITH ROGUE LEADERS: MAHMOUD AHMADINEJAD AND BASHAR AL-ASAD

Dr. Akan Malici and Allison L. Buckner, Department of Political Science, Furman University, 3300 Poinsett Highway Greenville, SC 29613

The conventional wisdom regarding Iran and Syria is that these are belligerent states headed by hostile leaders. However, rarely do policymakers and international security analysts make an effort to imagine how international politics are perceived from the Iranian or the Syrian perspectives, or consider how these perceptions are part of an interactive security dilemma in which the West, and the U.S. in particular, may be implicated as deeply as the vilified regimes in Tehran and Damascus. In this paper we investigate the United States' ongoing security dilemma with Iran and Syria from the vantage point of their leadership. Our central research questions are general and recurring in the psychologically informed literature on international conflict resolution: What kind of leaders are Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran and Bashar al Asad of Syria? More specifically, what are their cognitive diagnostic beliefs of the ensuing conflict and their prescriptive beliefs toward them? What is an appropriate strategy for the U.S. towards Iran and Syria? The answers to these questions speak to the conventional wisdom of Ahmadinejad and al Asad as simply hostile and propose strategies for averting a dangerous escalation of the conflict. Our central goal in this paper is to develop towards Iran and Syria what the preeminent peace researcher Ralph White labled "realistic empathy" as we share his argument that realistic empathy stands as "the great corrective for all forms of war-provoking misperception."


MENTORING UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN COMPUTING RESEARCH: EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED

Fatma Mili, Computer Science and Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4478 Ishwar Sethi, Computer Science and Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4478 Imad Elhajj, Computer Science and Engineering, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4478 Christine Hansen, Psychology, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309-4478

We have run an REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) site at Oakland University during the summers of 2002 through 2006 targeted towards women students from primarily undergraduate institutions. In this paper we share our experience and the lessons that we have learned in recruiting, motivating, and mentoring undergraduate students in all aspects of research and research careers. We also discuss some of the benefits of undergraduate research not only to the students mentored, but also to the faculty mentors and to the institution.


MEETING OUR UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH NEEDS IN THE NATURAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES AT BARRY UNIVERSITY

Flona Redway, Sr. John Karen Frei, Graham Shaw; Barry University, School of Natural & Health Sciences; 11300 NE Second Avenue; Miami Shores, FL 33161-6695

Barry University, a Catholic international university, serves a diverse student population of 8,652 (Fall, 2006), consisting of full and part-time, undergraduate, graduate and non-traditional students. The university offers 76 undergraduate programs through its 10 schools including the School of Natural & Health Sciences (SNHS). SNHS administers federally and privately funded undergraduate research programs, and in an effort to meet student needs, has incorporated undergraduate research and mentoring as a goal. Through these undergraduate research efforts, SNHS promotes Barry's larger strategic plan to better prepare undergraduate students for graduate work, specifically attainment of doctoral degrees. SNHS encourages and facilitates student pursuit of graduate degrees and professional careers in the life sciences. Therefore, SNHS, with the funding support of MARC and MBRS-RISE grants: a) identifies research needs of students; b) organizes and executes activities to meet those needs: c) addresses faculty concerns relating to the research needs of students; d) promotes activities to strengthen the professional life of faculty who conduct research. The presentation will address how SNHS: collaborates with other schools and departments; fosters undergraduate research interest through effective faculty mentoring, and; encourages undergraduates students participating in the program to attend conferences, make presentations, report and publish findings with the ultimate goal of entering into graduate research programs. Supported by NIH NIGMS MARC U*STAR, T34 GM 08021, MBRS SCORE S06 GM45455 and MBRS RISE R25 GM059244 Grants, Barry University


IMPACTING STUDENT MOTIVATION THROUGH EARLY RESEARCH EXPERIENCES

Dr. Juan f. Arratia, Director and Principal Investigator, Universidad Metropolitna, P.O. Box 21150, San Juan, Puerto Rico

In 1995, the National Science Foundation (NSF) selected Universidad Metropolitana (UMET) in the Metropolitan area in San Juan, Puerto Rico, to be one of the six institutions in the United States together with the University of Texas, El Paso; Xavier University of Louisiana; Bowie State University; Spelman College and Oglala Lakota College, to start the experiment of seeking excellence through the Model Institutions for Excellence (MIE) Program of the Foundation. UMET took this challenge and made this program one of the most important projects in its fifty-year history. A national model with seven components was developed by the six MIE institutions covering a wide range of fundamental issues in higher education. The outcomes of the Program activities at the pre-college and undergraduate level, with emphasis on Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) research experiences, will be presented in this conference. The Summer Adventure Research Training Program, along with the Saturday Academy and the Pre-College Research Symposium, comprise one of the most exciting and comprehensive pre-college research programs in Puerto Rico. Similarly, the experience of transforming UMET from mainly a teaching institution into an undergraduate research organization with a wide range of scientific activities for STEM majors from UMET will be examined. Emphasis will be placed on the dynamics of the undergraduate research activities at UMET research laboratories, at colleges and universities in the US mainland, Puerto Rico and foreign universities and research centers around the world. The undergraduate research symposia and their impact on the MIE scholars at UMET, and on STEM majors from institutions in the US mainland and Puerto Rico, will be examined. The bridge to graduate school, the building of a pipeline from pre-college to undergraduate and from undergraduate to research institutions for underrepresented minority students will be discussed at the 21st National Conference on Undergraduate Research (NCUR), April 12-14, 2007 in Dominican University of California, San Rafael, California.


ORGANIZING A STATEWIDE UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH CONFERENCE

Carolyn Connell, Ph.D. Professor of Mathematics Westminster College Associate Dean, School of Arts & Sciences 1840 South 1300 East Salt Lake City, UT 84105 (801)832.2402 FAX: (801)832.3102 cconnell@westminstercollege.edu Jill Baeder Administrative Program Coordinator, UROP (801) 581-8070 baeder-j@ugs.utah.edu FAX: (801) 585-3581 Office of Undergraduate Studies Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program University of Utah 195 S. Central Campus Dr. SLC, UT 84112 Loretta Palmer Ph.D. Associate Vice President Academic Affairs Undergraduate Research & International Programs Utah Valley State College 800 West University Pkwy., ms 267 Orem UT 84058 801) 863-7067 801) 226-5207 palmerlo@uvsc.edu

This session will provide a roadmap to participants on how to organize and implement a statewide undergraduate research day, drawing on the model set by Utah in which all institutions within the state (public and private) joined with the state system office and Campus Compact to offer undergraduate researchers, scholars, and artists an opportunity to present and disseminate their work. Details about planning for the event, drawing in important stakeholders — government officials, business leaders, graduate students, faculty, and parents — and preparing a reasonable budget will be shared. The Utah Conference on Undergraduate Research (UCUR) also features a special strand on community-based research, the intersection of service learning and undergraduate research. A statewide conference allows for collaboration among institutions but also drives expanded institutional capacity for undergraduate research. This session is appropriate for any institutional type—technical colleges through research universities.


RESEARCH METHODS COURSE AS PART OF SRAI AT FIU

Irma Alonso, Honors College, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199

Given the importance of exposing undergraduate students to various research experiences, and as part of the Student Research and Artistic Initiative (SRAI) of the Honors College at FIU, I have developed a one-year course on Research Methods. This course is taken by juniors at the Honors College. This year is the third time that the course is offered, and the enrollment has doubled. The purpose of my presentation is to share with other faculty members my experiences in teaching this course, which includes a variety of componets to satisfy the needs of a diversity of students coming from a variety of majors, including the natural sciences, business, and the social sciences.


ART STUDENTS UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH DIFFICULTIES AND PROBLEMS AT THE INSTITUTIONAL LEVEL

Foad Satterfield, Professor of Art

Undergraduate students who engaged in studio Art practice often do not understand or realize that the creative work they will be trained to do will not occur in a vacuum. Most work and especially creative work is collaborative as a result of the technology connectivity that has placed our studio directly at the market place of the world. I will outline some of the institutional problems that further contribute to the lag time of students being properly prepared to engage this dynamic international sphere and what it means to be an artist in this new era.


CONNECTING UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH THROUGH DISCIPLINARY HONORS

Deb Stanford, MSN, RN and Mona Shattell, PhD, RN The University of North Carolina Greensboro's College of Nursing and Lloyd International Honors College P.O. Box 26170 Greensboro, NC 27402-6170

Title: Connecting Undergraduate Research Through Disciplinary Honors Description: Our presentation shares a dynamic combination that we've found to be essential for integrating research into our undergraduate nursing program. We combine an innovative triad for maximum research and learning effectiveness. The deliberate interactions of our triad: honors liaison, research faculty and honors students have resulted in significant success. These dynamics have increased both the quantity and quality of undergraduate research in the nursing discipline here at the University of North Carolina Greensboro. Facets of this triad will be dissected, exposing the important role each plays in the outcomes of student research, student learning and benefits to all.


INTEGRATING SERVICE LEARNING AND RESEARCH IN ECONOMICS

Stella K Hofrenning, Ph.D., Augsburg College, 2211 Riverside Avenue, Minneapolis, MN 55454

A number of approaches and changes for improving undergraduate economic education have been suggested for students to “think like economists" (Siegfried et al, 1991). Thinking like an economist involves creating opportunities for students to use their critical thinking and creative skills. Service learning is a form of experiential learning that links the classroom with the community. For example, students volunteer for an organization and relate their experiences to the economic theories they learn in the classroom. Service-learning is distinctive because it incorporates many of the changes suggested by Siegried et al. for students to think like economists. In this paper, I will describe an economics course which incorporates a service learning and research component into an undergraduate econometrics class. Econometrics emphasizes statistical techniques to analyze empirical data. Typically, real world data is used as examples for students to follow. However, the data and questions are given to students in their textbooks. I have students participate with community organizations to identify economic problems specific to that organization, develop policy proposals for dealing with the problems and analyze the effects of policies. In addition, students collect data and use econometric techniques to carry out their own research project. In this way, students take an active approach in learning economic theory.


REFLECTIONS OF LANCY GRANT PARTICIPANTS: A WINDOW ON THE WORLDS OF NATIVE AMERICAN WOMEN RESEARCHERS

Sally M. Alcoze, PhD, College of Education, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5774, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5774

Ten Native American women, supported by NCUR's Lancy Grant and the Community Forestry Research Foundation, comprised an interdisciplinary research team that conducted research for the Department of Wildlife, Fisheries and Parks of the Kaibab Paiute Tribe in northern Arizona. The team collaborated with the Director of Wildlife for the Tribe, were supported and assisted by two faculty members from their home institution (Northern Arizona University), and provided consultation to various faculty and administrators from Purdue University interested in conducting research in native communities. From May to August of 2006, the participants conducted four research trips that averaged seven days each. During additional summer seminars and into the academic year 2006-2007 they met to compile and analyze data from the summer's multiple wildlife and vegetation studies and make additional trips to the reservation. The research skills they learned and the data they analyzed and presented to the Kaibab Paiute Tribal Council and the 2007 NCUR gathering at Dominican University are only part of the story of ISIS: Indigenous Sisterhood of Interdisciplinary Scholars. The presenter will offer individual portraits of the Native American women who made up the 2006 Lancy summer research team. Successful interdisciplinary research goes beyond obvious outcomes: each participant has her own story to tell. The presenter accesses these stories through qualitative interviews with each participant to create a database that paints portraits of the experiences of Native women in multiple undergraduate programs and the opportunities the Lancy Grant provided them. The voices of the participants are honored through emerging themes from their interviews, along with pictures of their summer 2006 experiences.


EVERYONE BENEFITS: A SYSTEM APPROACH TO SUPPORTING UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH

Virginia M. Tomlinson, Drinko Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA

While we may all know the benefits of undergraduate research programs, this presentation examines the strategy used to establish and support an undergraduate research program at a private, liberal arts college of 1,400 students. By examining the perspectives of multiple constituencies within the institution, this presentation identifies the benefits of undergraduate research for not only students and faculty, but department chairs, budget managers, student government, and the board of trustees. External resources available through CUR and local consortia are recognized as vital components of the system. The roles of self-interest and community building as complementary processes are also examined.


DEVELOPING A STUDY ABROAD RESEARCH METHODS COURSE WITH AN INTERDISCIPLINARY EMPHASIS

Barton A. Thompson and David T. Osgood, Departments of Sociology and Biology, Albright College, Box 15234, Reading, PA 19612

We describe a model for developing a field-based study abroad research methods course using ecological and anthropological approaches. In the context of a field-based course we define interdisciplinary as merging the application of two or more disciplinary approaches to provide alternative means of collecting and assessing data. We will discuss the pedagogical development of the course and procedures for choosing an appropriate field site and organizing travel logistics and cost. The interdisciplinary backdrop for the course was community-based tropical forest conservation. Our approach required a combination of conservation elements, involvement of indigenous populations, and flexible lodging accommodations and services. We specifically chose the Tamshiyacu-Tahuayo Communal Bioreserve in Northeastern Peru which provided the necessary elements to conduct a variety of interdisciplinary field studies (e.g. appropriate guide/student ratios, strong connections with the local populations). After providing students with basic background into the methodological approaches, we paired individuals to develop their own research proposals focused on the efficacy of the Communal Bioreserve concept. The team format required that students discuss their objectives and enhanced development of the interdisciplinary requirements. Each project was required to address a problem with elements of ecological field study and anthropological explorations through personal interviews. Student projects focused on ecotourism impacts on wildlife populations, ethnomedicine, nutritional choices by local residents, and sustainable cultivation of the Aguaje Palm. Assessment revealed multiple challenges and successes during course development and implementation. Challenges to successful development of an interdisciplinary approach included getting students to plan for and utilize more than one disciplinary method. Interestingly, this obstacle presented greater difficulties for the students in the planning and final writing stages than during field implementation. In addition, the relatively compressed time frame increased the challenge of gaining sufficient data to produce conclusions. Ingredients of success included sufficient preparations with students, project-based engaged learning, cultivation of an appropriate group dynamic, choice of appropriate host, and readiness to adapt to unforeseen field conditions.


THE BENEFITS OF INTEGRATING FACULTY LIBRARIANS WITH CAMPUS FUNDED UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE RESEARCH PROGRAMS

Kathryn J. Wilson, PhD. Executive Director IUPUI, Center for Research & Learning 755 W. Michigan St. Indianapolis, IN 46202-5195 Edward L. F. González, M.L.S. Associate Librarian Director, Louis Stokes Alliance for Minority Participation Summer Research Training Program IUPUI, University Library 755 W. Michigan St. Indianapolis, IN 46202-5159

The mission of the IUPUI Center for Research and Learning (CRL) is to develop, expand, and promote independent undergraduate research opportunities on a campus of 30,000 students of which 22,000 are undergraduates! The CRL facilitates active engagement of students with faculty members in research and scholarship to enhance student learning through inquiry and hands-on experience in all disciplines on campus. The Center engages two full-time faculty librarians each about 20% FTE to work with undergraduate programs affiliated or directly supported by the CRL and with individual undergraduate research students to expand the use of library resources in a manner fully integrated with the CRL mission. Undergraduate research scholars acquire significantly more independence and confidence when taught how to approach the research process by librarians. This programmatic approach covers basic and advanced library competencies aimed to address the needs of undergraduate and graduate research interests. The faculty librarians hold active-learning sessions on the use of relevant library resources, services, and collections. Other instructional objectives include the purpose of research projects, how to articulate a hypothesis and formulate a research statement, the purpose of an abstract and its essential elements, the purpose of the literature review, and more. This instruction may be tailored to an individual school or may be synchronized to any undergraduate research program funded at IUPUI. This FAN session will discuss how CRL uses the faculty librarians to enhance the IUPUI undergraduate research support infrastructure.


DIRECT-TO-CONSUMER ADVERTISING AND ITS EFFECTS ON THE COSTS OF HEALTHCARE

Jason Schreiber, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, Political Science/Public Administration Department, 1725 State St., La Crosse, WI 54601

Health care costs have been rising dramatically over the past decade. In particular, the cost of prescription drugs has been rising at an alarming rate, several times the rate of inflation. This project hypothesizes that direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of pharmaceuticals in the media is a significant cost driver. I engaged in a lengthy literature review through a capstone program last semester, and results suggest that direct-to-consumer advertising is the major culprit for this trend, from increasing doctor visits, to persuading patients to request name-brand pharmaceuticals when cheaper, equally effective methods of treatment are available, to influencing doctors to prescribe the drugs that are seen in the media. Current literature on the subject looks at particular parts of this phenomenon, yet there appears to be no comprehensive study on the issue. This research is that comprehensive study. This research surveys dozens of health care facilities, asking physicians a series of questions about prescribing practices, perceived influences of DTCA on themselves, the physician-patient relationship, and potential modes to remedy the influence of DTCA. The physicians will encompass all medical fields and results will be broken down by specialty as well as being presented as a whole. Furthermore, one-on-one interviews will be conducted to learn of personal experiences physicians have had with patients due to DTCA. In the end, if data suggests that DTCA is a major contributor to increased healthcare costs, policy recommendations will be made based on this research in order to determine how best the country can deal with healthcare costs in the DTCA era.


ADVANCING UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH AT KENNESAW STATE UNIVERSITY

Marina Koether, Bill Hill, Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning, Kennesaw State University, 1000 Chastain Road, MS 5400, Kennesaw, GA 30144

The Center for Excellence in Teaching & Learning (CETL) at Kennesaw State University (KSU) supports several faculty fellows who serve CETL through a half-time course reassignment over a two or three year commitment. In May 2006, two new areas of service were introduced to complement the two continuing topics of E-Learning and Diversity in the Curriculum. One was Learner-Centered Teaching and the other was Advancing Undergraduate Research. Through the financial support of the administration, the latter faculty fellow has developed two internal granting mechanisms that encourage the team as well as the interdisciplinary research model. The first program entitled Creative Activities and Research Experiences for Teams (CARET) has two funding cycles (Spring-Summer and Summer-Fall) each year. A minimum of four students must participate in this program with at least one faculty member. The second program entitled Summer Undergraduate Scholarship & Creative Activity Institute (SUSCAI) solicits proposals from interdisciplinary collaborative faculty teams for a themed summer experience for nine or more students. The faculty are provided with a substantial budget and the nature of the themed SUSCAI is completely up to the discretion of the faculty team involved but should include a series of seminars that are focused on expanding undergraduate research and creative activity skills both within their major and across disciplines. To encourage an interdisciplinary focus in the SUSCAI, a minimum of two faculty from different disciplines, especially across colleges, should collaborate such that the cohesive theme chosen is inclusive of a multi-discipline perspective. For those faculty and students who have engaged in undergraduate research, a annual special ceremony was established to honor them, which includes formal invitations and certificates presented by the President and Provost of KSU. One of these faculty/student pairs is also awarded with travel funds, which this year will fund attendance at NCUR 2007. The outcomes of these initiatives will be described.


USING AN INTERPRETIVE RESEARCH GROUP TO ENGAGE UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN RESEARCH

Mona M. Shattell, PhD, RN Assistant Professor School of Nursing University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Amidst the process of analyzing transcripts in an interpretive research group (IRG) from a study about the patient's experience of the hospital environment, I became aware of the potential value of having students participate in such an analysis. I hypothesized that students would benefit by participating in the interpretation/analysis of a research interview affording them a unique opportunity to hear patients' descriptions of nursing care and to actively engage in research. That was two years ago. Since that time, I have facilitated IRGs with undergraduate students enrolled in a psychiatric nursing course. Weekly IRGs consist of 8-10 students and are held in a private room at a local coffeehouse. Students enrolled in the course are required to attend at least two; three-hour interpretive research group sessions. The focus of the IRG is to analyze real qualitative data (transcribed interviews from one of my current research studies). Students learn about communication, interpretation, and qualitative research methods. The research topics are always related to some aspect of mental health and therefore immediately relevant to the course. After each IRG, students are required to write a one-page paper of their experience. Students are asked to focus on what they learned about the patient/research participant's experience of nursing care, communication, group process, and research. Students' verbal and written reflections have been extremely positive. They enjoy the relaxed atmosphere of the coffeehouse, even though the whirling sound of the espresso machine and lively jazz music are a nearly constant presence. Students enjoy IRG so much that they tend to “hang around" afterwards to continue discussing issues that emerged during group. Interpretive research group introduces them to research that they describe as “fun."


A REQUIRED RESEARCH METHODS COURSE AS A TOOL FOR ENCOURAGING UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH: A FIVE-YEAR RETROSPECTIVE

Kerry Cheesman, Catherine Boulant, Karl Romstedt, Terry Lahm, and Alan Stam, Biological Sciences Department, Capital University, Columbus, OH 43209

A required Research Methods course (BIOL 315) was added to the Biological Sciences curriculum in 2001. Central to this decision was the intention to encourage greater participation in and understanding of the research process around which modern biology pivots. The course has been team-taught for the past five years, with faculty teams rotating in this valuable teaching assignment. Students in the course learn about various types of biological research, types of journals, basic biostatistics, research ethics (including the use of animals and human subjects), and how to critically review scientific literature. In addition, students design and carry out a semester-long research project as a class. A search for pertinent background materials, working out detailed methodology, and analysis of data obtained are all part of the process for students, as is learning how to obtain data in a meaningful format. The final results are written in the form of a scientific paper (usually working in small groups), and are critiqued by other members of the class. While not all students appreciate the experience of doing research, the overall level of undergraduate research in the department has increased dramatically over the past five years, with many students feeling the research bug and wanting to continue doing projects with department faculty. Several submissions to NCUR and other presentation venues in the past three years have come about as a result of this course. Details of course structure, results, and changes to be made in the future, as well as lessons we have learned about our students and the role of research in the curriculum at a primarily undergraduate institution, will be shared.


ENHANCING STUDENT INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH: A COLLABORATIVE UNIVERSITY-GOVERNMENTAL APPROACH TO EXPAND DIVERSITY IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

John B. Williams, Sponsor: DOE-SRS, Department of Biological & Physical Sciences, SC State University, Orangeburg, SC 29117

Technical fields related to energy and environmental sciences, out of necessity, require teamwork and an interdisciplinary approach. These essential components have been combined at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) to provide students with a unique research training experience. DOE has a long history of training minority students through its HBCU program and these efforts have become more research-focused through collaboration between SRS, SC State University (SCSU), and University of Georgia Savannah River Ecology Lab (SREL). Institutional collaboration has also created a research team environment that is, of itself, interdisciplinary. The federal agency, DOE, exposes students to the regulatory and management aspects of research as well as vital training in safety and national security. SCSU, as home institution, handles recruitment, basic research training, student oversight, and grant administration. SREL, the major research institution, provides students with advanced technical training and access to high-end analytical instrumentation, e.g. GC-mass spectrometry, with oversight from internationally-recognized research faculty. SCSU's student research team is also interdisciplinary with regards to undergraduate majors, ranging from engineering to biology. Our purpose in selecting students with diverse technical majors is to help them interact in a team approach similar to real-world research efforts and SRS technical operations. This is an excellent opportunity for students to cross-train each other; sharing technologies learned in their different majors. Multiple benefits have resulted from these interdisciplinary student research efforts. DOE-SRS has benefited by student data helping to improve their estimates of environmental remediation rates and by expanding the pool of potential future employees from underrepresented groups. SCSU students have gained new research skills and exposure to employment fields. SREL has benefited by assisting undergraduates in their research projects who then generate data relevant to SREL's mission in assisting SRS environmental cleanup. These efforts can serve as a model for smaller institutions seeking to expand their student's research experiences by partnering with a funding agency and major research university.


CHALLENGES FACING FACULTY - DEVELOPING STUDENTS INTO SCHOLARS USING UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH

Diara Spain and Sibdas Ghosh, Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics Dominican University of California, 50 Acacia Avenue, San Rafael California 94901

Until recently, the opportunities for undergraduate students to participate in scientific research have almost exclusively been provided by residential summer research programs at major universities. There has been a gradual transition to the informal and formal implementation of semester-long mentored research experiences by more colleges and universities. Since 2002, the Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics has been offering directed research experiences for undergraduates in the program. During the past 5 semesters a series of four consecutive research courses was developed, formalized, and incorporated into our curriculum. Throughout this time, certain issues have surfaced for the department and faculty teaching these courses that needed to be addressed. We will present and discuss the challenges involved in developing student potential from undergraduate research experiences focusing on a) hands-on scientific research and b) oral and written communication skills. Challenges include the following: adding credits to the student's major, having dynamic discussions with administration, managing faculty work-load issues, utilizing non-standard classroom methodologies, training issues for advanced level laboratory techniques, and fostering effective mentoring skills. In addition, we will present some potential compensatory mechanisms and solutions to these challenges.


CELL CULTURE AS A MODULE FOR TEACHING UNDERGRADUATE BIOLOGY CLASSES

Dr. Mohammed El Majdoubi, Dr. Maggie Louie, Dr. Diara Spain Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dominican University of California, 50 Acacia Avenue, San Rafael, CA 94901

Cell culture is a well established technique developed in the early 20th century to study individual cell populations without the confounding effects of the surrounding tissues or the variations due to experimental stress applied to the animals. This technique is used in many molecular biology, developmental biology, and biotechnology laboratories. Additionally, its usage is becoming more prevalent because cell culture reduces the handling and maintenance of live animals which consequently reduces the costs of conducting many scientific investigations. However, mammalian cell culture is not traditionally taught at the undergraduate level. We established a model system for cultivating two mammalian cell lines: embryonic mouse stem cell line (129/Ola cell line) and human breast cancer cell line (MCF7). Students involved were instructed in the appropriate methods of performing cell culture techniques to become proficient in their usage and thus advancing their knowledge of the field. Over the past two semesters, it was successfully used in the molecular cell biotechnology, cell and developmental biology, and histology laboratory classes. Since most primary undergraduate schools are shifting to more hands-on training, teaching our undergraduate students cell culture further equips them with skills vital to succeed in graduate school or a career in biotechnology.


GROWING CAPABILITIES AT SMALL UNIVERSITIES: DEVELOPING PARTNERSHIPS AS A PRACTICAL APPROACH TO UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH

Sibdas Ghosh, Kenneth Frost, Diara Spain and Mietek Kolipinski Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, CA 94901, National Park Service, Pacific West Regional Office, Oakland, CA 94607

The Department of Natural Sciences and Mathematics at Dominican University of California has developed a way to incorporate an affordable and sustainable undergraduate research program into its curriculum. We offer our approach as a model for involving a university community and its neighbors in creating rich undergraduate research experiences for students in a liberal arts setting. We present our experience in gathering needed resources from industry, governmental agencies, and other public and private institutions. A best management practice is to involve and develop partnerships locally to provide both scholarly expertise and financial resources. We present our experience in building such partnerships to initiate and incorporate a viable undergraduate research program emphasizing interdisciplinary initiatives at small universities and colleges. In addition, we share our successes and challenges along the way. Successful components include: enhancing undergraduate research projects in natural sciences by including adjunct faculty, international students, and student participation in research abroad. For example, work on production of soap using banana peels applicable to the Tanzanian context, research on sudden oak death with Canada, planning and creating an international bison exhibit with the National Parks in Poland and the U.S., and a project on coral reef education and protection in the Cayman Islands and Hawaii. U.S. mainland projects include research with genetically altered plants, a study of fish parasites in California, impact of heavy metals and cosmetics on cancer, and use of transgenic rats to study obesity and aging. The focus of our presentation includes how to find non-traditional and affordable resources including faculty expertise and funding from private industry and governmental organizations. Success comes from engaging adjunct faculty members in studies, and incorporating international students into the campus research community. And integrating international scope to projects expands their relevance.


ONE SIZE DOES NOT FIT ALL

Cyndy R. Doherty (Thomas Burke) Department of Humanities Dominican University of California San Rafael, California 94901

“One Size Does Not Fit All" is a work of fiction based on autobiographical references. It is the story of a woman who has recently experienced a divorce after over twenty years of marriage. Written as a trilogy, “One Size Does Not Fit All" begins with the woman exploring her history with her ex – how they met, married and began a life together. She recognizes that long ago the seeds were planted for the eventual decay of her marriage. The second story unfolds in an airport as the woman and her ex wait for the plane that will take them on a shared vacation to Japan to visit their son. The woman watches a toddler sitting across from her in the airport become increasingly frustrated with his mother's lack of attention to his needs. He seems unable to find the words that will allow his mother to hear him. The woman muses that perhaps there is a correlation between the toddler's inability to be heard and some of the very same issues that appeared in her own relationship. The third story deals with the woman's travels in Japan and her fascination with the Japanese cultural habit of bowing and giving thanks to others, many times for simple every day tasks we Americans take for granted. The woman takes back to the United States what she has learned in Japan, applying it to her own life when her good friend is faced with a life threatening circumstance. “One Size Does Not Fit All" addresses the issue of divorce in the twenty first century, particularly divorce following a long term marriage. The woman ultimately comes to the realization that divorce is not just an end. It is a beginning, as all of life is a series of beginnings. She finds herself comforted by the fact that there are no villains, only flawed human beings who do the best they can, given the limitations of their species.


THE CULTIVATION OF THE EMPATHETIC SELF: AUTHORIAL VISION AND MODERATE FEMINISM IN GEORGE ELIOT'S MIDDLEMARCH

S. Elizabeth Forsythe, Gretchen Buggeln, Christ College, Valparaiso University, 1300 Chapel Drive, Valparaiso, IN 46383

In her 1874 novel Middlemarch, George Eliot challenges the social stereotypes and literary trends of her time with a new kind of female authorship. Dorothea Brooke, the main character in Middlemarch, embodies George Eliot's unique authorial vision of moderate feminism, emphasizing the relationship between women's self-cultivation and empathy for others. Throughout the novel, Dorothea cultivates the awareness of self, morality, and society which Eliot promotes and envisions for her characters, especially her female characters. To achieve this self-cultivation, Dorothea must develop the power to judge critically both herself and those around her. As a result of her intellectual and moral self-cultivation, Dorothea is better able to empathize with others. Encapsulating Eliot's own empathetic vision, Dorothea's empathy is not limited to women but transcends gender as she reaches out in an active love for all humanity. The result of Dorothea's self-culture and empathy is not the epic life that radical feminists would desire, but a quiet life of moderate feminism that stands out as an empowering alternative to the limiting Victorian feminine ideal which Eliot criticizes through the character of Rosamond, Dorothea's foil. Ultimately, through the character of Dorothea, Eliot's vision of the self both for women in particular and for humanity as a whole has an effective, powerful impact that should not disappoint but should inspire feminists in their pursuit of social reform.


THE SYNTHESIS OF 1-HEXYLCYCLOBUTENE FOR SYNTHETIC STUDIES WITH DIFLUOROCARBENE

Christopher M. Kane (Dr. Scott Lewis), College of Math and Science, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22801

Organofluorine compounds are prevalent in pharmacological agrochemical applications worldwide and are a source of constant research. Chemically, the fluorine atom is ideal for biological applications. The carbon-fluorine bond length is 138 pm but the atom has a similar size to its non-fluorinated analogues to fit certain receptor types, thus sharing inherent biological activity. Moreover, the C-F bond is very strong with an energy of 485 kJ/mol, so they are more resistant to metabolic degradation. Increased lipophilicity is another quality that is provided by the fluorine atom. Fluorinated aromatics include, but are not limited to, anti-bacterial, pesticides, liquid crystals and anti-inflammatory agents. However, due to problems with handling elemental fluorine, the synthesis of fluoroaromatics with benzene as a starting material has been proven to be a complicated process. In addition, a fluorine atom's ortho/para directing influence during substitution of a benzene ring causes difficulty in obtaining a 1,3-difluoroaromatic compound. As a solution to this difficulty, instead of adding F2 to the benzene ring, one may add difluorocarbene to a highly substituted cyclobutene. A double ring expansion will lead to the desired formation of the 1,3-difluoroaromatic compound. The synthesis of the 1-hexylcyclobutene was accomplished in four synthetic steps from 1-octyne. Characterization of intermediates has been made using Bruker 400 and 600 MHz NMR, GC-MS, and HR-MS. Future research is expected to produce the desired 1,3-difluoro-2-hexylbenzene product.


ATP SYNTHASE ACTIVITES OF STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS IN SUSPENSIONS AND BIOFILMS

Erin R Noble, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14627

In aerobic organisms, the F-ATPase mainly acts as an ATP synthase by using the energy of the transmembrane proton gradient for synthesis of ATP from ADP and Pi. This process is the reverse of that carried out by facultatively anaerobic Streptococcus mutans to maintain a relatively alkaline cytoplasm. Previous literature indicates that S. mutans does not exhibit this ATP synthase activity because the creation of an artificial proton motive force did not result in ATP synthesis. In this study, by measuring ATP levels after starving cells of S. mutans and lowering the environmental pH, the cells ability to synthesize ATP was directly measured. ATP synthase activity was observed in both suspension and biofilm cells of S. mutans. This synthase activity was shown to be due to the activity of the F-ATPase by using dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), which binds to the F-ATPase thereby inhibiting ATP synthesis after acidification. The effects of triclosan and fluoride on ATP synthesis were also measured and found to be effective inhibitors. Understanding the role of ATP synthesis in acid tolerance in this organism is important because the organism is the major etiological agent of dental caries, which is the most prevalent infection among young people in this country and acid tolerance is thought to be a major virulence factor.


FREE-MARKET MORALITY: JEAN-PAUL SARTRE AND THE ECONOMICS OF EXISTENTIALISM

Daniel Jarratt Dr. Andrew Murphy, Christ College, Valparaiso University 1300 Chapel Drive, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383

Americans understand consumerism. The United States' powerful market-driven economy is based on an assessment of the worth of our treasure, time, and talent. But Americans place value on more than material items: we also make value judgments on ethical choices regarding life decisions from marijuana use to abortions. What makes the things in our lives so valuable, and what can be sacrificed for a greater good? Philosophers such as Jean-Paul Sartre and economists like Adam Smith have advanced several important theses on the nature of valuation, though always restricted to their chosen field. This paper will offer groundbreaking insights into a new environment of ethical supply and demand and create a new theory of free-market morality. It examines critical issues, such as whether actions have a priori worth, the plausibility and necessity of arbitrary value judgments, and an economic-existentialist method that most humans apply without realization. Illustrated with charts and graphs, this presentation demonstrates why microeconomic theory is pivotal in the study of ethical choices, and contends that the process of American value selection is no different with morals than it is with motor vehicles.


SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF OXYGEN-SENSING AEROGELS

John R. Ferrarone, Amanda J. Barrow (Mary K. Carroll and Ann M. Anderson) Department of Chemistry, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308

An aerogel is highly porous material that is comprised of 90-99% air. The solid sol-gel matrix of an aerogel is created via a polymerization reaction; after gelation, the pores in the sol-gel matrix are filled with a liquid solvent mixture. In order to remove the solvent and create an aerogel, the liquid in the pores must be brought to its supercritical point. At that point, the surface tension of the solvent is eliminated, so the liquid can be removed without pore collapse. Previous research in our group has shown that introducing probe species into the sol-gel precursor mixture can result in probe-doped aerogel materials. In this study, we created oxygen-sensing, silica-based aerogels, using tetramethyl orthosilicate (TMOS) for the matrix precursor and platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP) as the probe. To remove solvent from our gels, we used the Union College rapid supercritical extraction technique (RSCE), in which aerogels are formed in a contained mold in a hydraulic hot press, and the conventional method, which employs solvent exchange to carbon dioxide and extraction in a critical point dryer. We used fluorescence spectroscopy to examine the PtTFPP-doped aerogels in different environments. The sensing ability of PtTFPP was then compared to PtOEP, another oxygen-sensing species. In addition, we compared the luminescence intensity of the signal from the conventionally prepared aerogels to the signal from the RSCE aerogels. In 100 percent nitrogen, we found that the PtTFPP-doped aerogels produced a luminescence peak at 650 nm. In air (ca. 21.5% oxygen), the fluorescence signal was fully quenched, and this peak was not observed. Time-based scans, where proportions of air and nitrogen in the aerogel's environment were varied, also revealed that the interaction between oxygen and PtTFPP was fully reversible. Stern-Volmer plots of this data indicate that PtTFPP is found in two different microenvironments in the RSCE aerogels; in one environment, the probe is accessible to oxygen, with quenching constant ≈ 30.


Q-ADMISSIBILITY OF PSL(2,8)

Po-Ling Loh, Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship, Math Department, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd.

A finite group G is Q-admissible if there exists a field extension K/Q with Galois group G such that K is a maximal subfield of a Q-division algebra. Using a condition for Q-admissibility developed by the mathematicians Allman and Schacher, we study the Q-admissibility of PSL(2,8). We show that the conditions for Q-admissibility are met at a prime p whenever a Sylow p-subgroup of the general group G is cyclic. We use the method of interpolation to obtain multiparameter polynomials with different Galois groups. We also use the method of discriminants to obtain multiparameter polynomials with Galois groups contained in the alternating group, A_n. We hope to extend these results to obtain a multiparameter polynomial with Galois group PSL(2,8), then use the polynomial to satisfy the remaining criteria for Q-admissibility. This work involves a refinement of the Inverse Galois Problem, which states that every finite group is realizable as a Galois group over Q.


FINANCING ORTHODOX MONASTACISM

Peter J. Patitsas, (Patricia Weaver), Economics and Business, Juniata College 1700 Moore Street, Huntingdon, PA, 16652

This study follows and reviews the various ways Orthodox monasteries and convents were financed throughout Christian History. Traditional sources include benefactors, internal self sustaining business models, and financial support from the government, while others include not-for-profit service organizations. Data will be gathered through research of historical literature, supplemented and enriched through interviews with monastics from St. Gregory of Sinai Monastery in California and The Holy Transfiguration Monastery in Massachusetts, and through an in-depth analysis of a modern day service organization known as St. Paul's Fellowship of Labor (SPFL). SPFL is a nonprofit whose mission is to service and support monasteries and convents around the world. This organization provides volunteers to complete service projects, giving them an opportunity to learn about the monastic tradition. Through this research, we can understand what sustained Monasticism through the centuries, what contributed to the decline of the monastic tradition during modern times, and what might be supporting it into the future. Research of this topic is of critical importance as it identifies a practical element of this ascetic tradition, finance. Financial support for monasteries and convents is often overlooked and is a crucial concern to the survival of a nearly 2000 year old Christian way of life.


TURKEY, EUROPE, EUROPEANISM - CONCEPTS REDEFINED

Magda Sarnowska, Dr. Emil Nagengast, Politics Department, Juniata College, 1700 Moore Street, Huntingdon, PA 16652, USA.

"In the course of history, Turkey has always represented a different continent, in permanent contrast to Europe. . . [Turkey has] a culture with its own identity," said Cardinal Ratzinger, later known as Pope Benedict XVI. The offensive essentialism employed in this comment continues through European thought of the East. Turkey, as a Muslim country, is seen as innately, unchangingly, statically different and somehow essentially non-European. Turkish bid to the European Union challenges the reductionism assumptions employed both by the European Union and by Turkey. It forces Europe to redefine itself and ask: “What is the European Union and what does it take to be European?" It forces Turkey to pause in its frenzy of becoming European and wonder: Why should Turkey assimilate to Europe at all? This research paper aims to examine the notion of "Europeanism" defending a bold hypothesis that "European nationalism" is a very recent phenomenon, largely driven by institutional initiatives and contrary to the primary objectives of the European Union. The foundings uncover an important hypocrysy in many arguments against Turkish accession. The research is based on articles, books, interviews, experience living in Poland and working at the European Parliament while the issue of Turkish membership is being decided upon. The paper incorporates Edward Said's and Benedict Anderson's theories of nationalism and representation making insightful contributions to the understanding of relations between Turkey and Europe.


MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF THE POWER DISTRIBUTION IN DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AS A FUNCTION OF INCIDENT ANGLE AND WAVELENGTH

Violet Poole, Raghav Chhetri (Michael Goggin) Division of Science, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

Under certain conditions, a significant fraction of the light diffracted from a diffraction grating is absorbed by the grating. Existing experimental results and theory indicate there are two main reasons for power loss in diffraction gratings: (1) emergence or disappearance of a spectral order and (2) the coupling of the incident light wave with electrons at the surface of the grating in a resonance type phenomenon. We studied the overall efficiency (the ratio of the total diffracted power in all orders over the total incident power) for diffraction gratings at various incident angles and wavelengths. We also make comparisons to theory.


FABRICATION OF A PIPETTE SYSTEM USING RAPID PROTOTYPING

Julie A. Blumreiter, (Dr. Subha Kumpaty, Dr. Vipin Paliwal), Rapid Prototyping Center, Milwaukee School of Engineering, 1025 N. Broadway, Milwaukee, WI 53202

The purpose of this research is to explore alternative pipetting methods in order to give biochemists tools which will accelerate biochemical research. The practices of biochemists and laboratory devices were examined in order to develop a pipette system which can fill all wells of an 8x12 microplate simultaneously while delivering a different volume to each row. A twelve tip precursor device was made using rapid prototyping to test the effectiveness of the pipetting method. The device functions using air displacement to create a vacuum which aspirates liquid into standard disposable sterile tips with which the device is compatible. The device contains 12 rows of spring-loaded syringes limited by a tilted beam to vary the volume delivered in a linear fashion from row to row. The pipetting approach developed in this research allows a user to set a dial for an upper and lower volume limit, which adjusts the height of each end of the beam. Ninety-six well microplates are frequently used in cell biology and combinatorial chemistry research, but filling such plates is slow and tedious. It is anticipated that this research will lead to reduced shoulder and thumb overuse injuries such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tendonitis, prevalent in lab technicians who operate pipettes. Furthermore, it has unique potential to increase throughput by simultaneously delivering different volumes of a solution to each row of a 96-well plate and increase experimentation effectiveness by allowing simultaneous delivery of accurate reagent concentrations. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218


WHAT ARE THE KIDS UP TO NOW?: A CROSS-CULTURAL COMPARISON OF CHILDHOOD ACTIVITIES IN EL PARAíSO, DEPARTAMENTO DE COPáN, HONDURAS, AND KNOX COUNTY, OHIO.

Wileyda Cardona ( Ellen Bell) PAREP Anthropology Department 101 Ward Street Kenyon College Gambier OH 43022

While everyone has a general idea of what children do, childhood activities vary considerably across space and time. A great deal of research has been done to understand differences in daily activities related to age, but there is less data concerning the role of social and cultural factors in shaping activity patterns. To address this problem, I gathered data on activities carried out by children of different ages in rural Honduras and rural Ohio. The research was designed to better understand the roles that children have in their families, and the questions asked helped me understand how much the children contribute to their families, if at all. During a five-month (Jan-May, 2006) field season in El Paraíso, a town of approximately 5,000 people located in the mountainous region of western Honduras, questionnaire-based interviews and longer, semi-structured interviews with local mothers were used to gather general information about childhood activities. The questions focused on the roles that children have in their family and the sorts of activities they tend to carry out on a regular basis. To complement and cross-check the interview data, I conducted field observations of two children (one aged XX, one aged XX), logging all activities carried out during the observation period. A complementary study will be conducted in the town of Gambier, a college community of 800 permanent residents located in north-central Ohio, and the results will be compared with those from the Honduras research. In the twenty-five interviews conducted in Honduras, it was clear that the families who live closer to the central plaza are better off economically and were able to keep their children in school longer, while the children of families who lived on the edges of town often left school to work selling food, etc. door-to-door to help their families. In the Gambier study, I compare the roles of children U.S. families to emphasize how much Honduran children must do in order to live and enjoy life.


DYNAMIC HONEYPOT GENERATION

Authors: Stephen Hudak, Anthony Mattazaro, and Francisco Martinez Research Sponsor: Dr. Ron Dodge Department: EE&CS Institution: U.S. Military Academy, West Point, New York 10996

Networks are vulnerable to attacks. In order to provide the most security for a given network, its administrator must know what type of attacks it is susceptible to. Honeypots are computer systems placed on a network to attract attacks, allowing administrators to capture and analyze current attack methodologies and use that information to harden their systems and networks. Unfortunately, a honeypot is only useful if it is actually present when the attack is conducted. What's needed is a means for analyzing traffic, rapidly detecting attacks, and dynamically generating a honeypot appropriate for that attack to interact with. Our approach for dynamic honeypot generation in response to identified attacks is the automatic generation of virtual machines (VMs) in a robust and realistic manner for the hacker to interact with. The system uses a special application to detect and classify attacks and separate them from bona fide production network traffic. A separate honeypot controller performs three functions. First, it starts a low-interaction honeypot to keep the attack engaged. Then, it directs a VMware server to generate the appropriate target VM. These VMs provide the operating system and applications (web server, FTP server, etc.) targeted by the attack. The controller then establishes a dedicated network tunnel and adjusts routing information so that the attack traffic is forwarded to the target VM for high interaction. All data from this interaction is logged for later analysis. A higher-level responsibility of the honeypot controller is to manage and prioritize the set of VMs, shutting them down and starting new ones based on priorities. If no appropriate VM can be generated, the classification of the attack can be used by the system administrator to create updated VMs and add them to the set of targets. This paper will report on the design and implementation of the system, the issues being addressed, the approaches taken to solve those issues, and our conclusions regarding the effectiveness of dynamic honeypot generation. The propotype systems and network used in this research are relatively small, but should provide good insights into scalability for larger networks.


INDUSTRY PRACTICE AND RATIONALE FOR THE ACCOUNTING TREATMENT OF CONSERVATION EASEMENTS BY LAND CONSERVANCY ORGANIZATIONS

Joel Allen (Linda Nelms), Department of Management and Accountancy, The University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804

Land conservancy organizations are required to communicate financial information to third parties through tax returns and financial reports. These communications must adhere to rules of presentation dictated by authoritative pronouncements from the Internal Revenue Service and the Financial Accounting Standards Board. However, conservancy organizations are without guidance from either source when reporting conservation easements. Conservation easements are a set of specific property rights monitored by the organization. These rights allow a land conservancy to advance its organizational function by protecting the conservational value of a property without taking complete ownership of the land. The landowner donates or sells these rights to the organization and, in doing so, agrees to forfeit the ability to develop the property in a way that would harm its conservational value. Conservation easements are granted in perpetuity and stay with the property even if it is sold. The conservancy organization acts as steward of the rights, ensuring that the landowner or subsequent landowners honor the easement. The transfer or forfeiture of partial ownership interest makes an easement transaction unique and the accounting treatment for this transfer unclear. In the absence of an authoritative pronouncement, guidelines allow accountants to use industry practice in presentation. Possible accounting treatment includes: treating the easement as a liability, assigning no value to the easement, or assigning an asset value to it. A survey was used to query one thousand members of the Land Trust Alliance resulting in a response rate of 14% (140 responses). Research results, from the survey data and the collection of tax returns and other financial records, show the accounting treatment most currently used assigns no value. The lack of foreseeable future cash flow benefits and absence of a secondary easement market are examples of rationale provided for this treatment. Further research conducted at the National Land Conservation Conference confirmed the lack of consistency on the issue. Directors of the land conservancies can make arguments for any one of these treatments, but some arguments are theoretically more persuasive, while others have the value of immediate practicality. More research is needed to select the most appropriate treatment.


THE BUSINESS OF ADDICTION: INTERNET SOCIAL NETWORKING AND THE COLLEGE STUDENT

Rachel Hains (Robert Wolk) Department of Management, School of Business, Bridgewater State College 131 Summer St. Bridgewater, MA 02325

On many college campuses, laptop computers are mandatory and the wireless Internet is ubiquitous. These technological innovations are undeniably in place to bring students into a new era of web-based learning. Systems such as Blackboard allow Internet classrooms, discussion boards for students, and a forum for student-professor exchange. However, in this omnipresence of Internet activity, use of popular online social communities may be inevitable. The access to sites such as Facebook.com (originally for college networking) and Myspace.com are providing the opportunity for distraction. The business of these communities is to keep students engaged allowing sponsors to profit from pay-per-click advertisements. Previous studies show that students have addictions to these sites and use them primarily for non-scholarly pursuits. My research is intended to prove the hypothesis that online social networking communities are negatively affecting the academic qualities of college students. A survey has been designed to examine whether grade point averages are being affected by social online community addictions. The methodology includes the surveying of students from a wireless campus in two formats: online and hard copy paper surveys administered face-to-face. Statistical software using chi-square and correlations are used to analyze the survey data collected. The importance of this study is related to highlighting the dangers of yet another form of addiction caused by ubiquitous technology.


IS ACCESSIBLE EDUCATION THE KEY FOR SOUTH AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT?

Gabrielle D. Schonder, Politics Department, Hendrix College Conway,AR 72032

South Africa lies on the most southern tip of the African continent, cliffs plummet into the coastline where the Atlantic meets the Indian Ocean and African penguins line the beaches. Yet it is South African's turbulent and discriminatory political system that has defined the nation in the international world. This paper is the culmination of work completed in Cape Town over the past two summers studying the educational ramifications of the Apartheid government. The goal of the research was to understand the relationship that exists between poverty alleviation and an adequate education. This research concludes that while such a relationship may often exist in newly industrialized nations, there is no relationship between ending poverty through education alone. The legacy that is a result of years of discriminatory political practice can not be remedied by the current education system. Too many other factors exist in the preservation of poverty. To decide education is the root of such inequality and the answer to ending it is unreasonable. However, while education is not the sole answer to eradicating poverty in Cape Town, a strong education system is absolutely necessary. The economy requires a strong education system to produce an educated and motivated work force. Without an educated society, unemployment ascends and jobs move elsewhere. The University of Cape Town Manuscript and Archive Library provided an array of researching material that is employed in this analysis, allowing access to private memos and notes from planning meeting in the 1950's when the "Bantu" or education system for blacks and coloureds (of Asian or Muslim decent) was originally constructed. Government documents from the 1930s and 1940s, before the Nationalist Party was in power, explained the segregation of classes and curricula that would come decades later. Analysis of these documents across time indicates that education is not the key for South African development, but a necessary tool.


VARIATIONS IN BODY IMAGE AND SEXUAL FUNCTIONING AS A RESULT OF SEXUAL RELATIONSHIPS

Audra Poirier (Dr. Teresa King) Department of Psychology, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, MA 02325

There are an array of variables that influence and affect our body image, or how we view our own bodies. Research suggests that women currently in a relationship perceive their bodies as more attractive than women not currently in a relationship. However, there are many factors relevant to relationships that have not been investigated. My research will explore the sexual relationships of a sample of both male and female students from Bridgewater State College. It is expected that a variety of factors including an individual's sexual orientation, degree of sexual relationship, and level of androgyny will have an affect on that individual's body image and sexual functioning. These factors will be measured using the Body Esteem Scale, figure rating scales, the Multidimensional Sexual-Self Concept Questionnaire, the BEM Scale for Psycho-Sexual Androgyny, and a brief description of sexual orientation and relationship status. It is hypothesized that individuals in a secure, long term relationship with a female partner will have a more positive body image when compared to those in more casual relationships, in no relationship at all, or in relationships with a male partner. It is anticipated that this study will lead to future research on body image in the gay and lesbian community, as well as among individuals with varying degrees of intimate relationships.


PICTURE THIS: AN UNDERGRADUATE FORAY INTO DIGITAL MEDIA PRESERVATION

Amanda L. Viana (Dr. Lee Torda) Department of English, Bridgewater State College, 131 Summer Street, Bridgewater, MA 02325

Sheila McAlister and Gregor Trinkaus-Randall warn that “the library and archival community at large is not at a point where large numbers of institutions can commit to [digitization]" in their article “"Wouldn't be prudent": Digitization as a Preservation Reformatting Method". Ultimately this presentation serves as a cautionary tale against digitalization without preparation of the traditional archive. The presentation explores the decision-making and technical aspects of creating a digital archive on a small scale, in order to make qualified claims about the process of digitizing archives on a larger scale. This presentation examines a number of academic and popular archives, including UNLV's Vegas archive. This project began as an undergraduate honors thesis. The goal was to create a small digital archive for the existing special collections about Bridgewater State College. Through photograph selection, as well as technical and theoretical work on digitizing an archive, the project mimics the processes performed and issues explored by larger institutions creating archives of their own. Reading in Archival theory, which includes arguments on the purpose of archives, both traditional and digital, decisions about whether to digitize, which archival objects will be digitized and controversy over the authenticity of digital surrogates have also greatly influenced this presentation. This project's significance lies in the emerging presence and increasing public consumption of popular culture archives. This project continues research I began this past summer as part of an Adrian Tinsley Program Summer Grant offered to undergraduate students through Bridgewater State College as I complete an Undergraduate Honors Thesis.


FULLY HUMAN, FULLY DIVINE: MASCULINITY AND DECONSTRUCTION IN THE LAST TEMPTATION OF CHRIST

Lindsay Bacher (Timothy Polk) Religion Department, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN 55104

Much of the writing on faith and film focuses on how film narratives represent faith through individual characters at the expense of questioning how cinematic technique might inflect or influence a given film's theological exploration. Lloyd Baugh, among others, has brought the two disciplines together using a theological lens to critique film and vice versa, working towards a new, theological film studies. Building upon this “film theology," I analyze how cinematic conventions in Martin Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ attempt to demystify the character of Jesus, a reaction to the ultra-divine Jesus of the 1950's biblical epics. In the process, this paper shows how such conventions both build and detract from Jesus' masculinity through his interactions with Mary Magdalene and Judas, an auteur trait running through Scorsese's work. Using Hans Frei's analysis of modern Christ-figures in The Identity of Jesus Christ, this paper argues that whether the final temptation sequence is read as a dream, by some critics, or an actual event, by others, either way the sequence has theologically implausible conclusions that detract from a Chalcedonian understanding of Jesus Christ as fully human and fully divine. In either case, Scorsese's attempt to construct a fully human Jesus inadvertently deconstructs the humanity of the Jesus character, creating either a divine being who “plays man" or a superhuman who resists temptation for his own will, not God's. Besides providing a unique interpretation of the most controversial Jesus film, this work takes an important step towards fully engaging film and theology in a substantive interdisciplinary dialogue. Film has often been disregarded in its contributions to theological discourse; however, this paper intends to help bridge the gap between popular culture and religious studies, especially in a time when religious leaders and scholars mourn a lack of connection to younger generations. By opening these theoretical doors, scholars and casual observers alike can link a Saturday night movie to Sunday morning worship.


METHANE SEEP MACROFAUNA COLONIZING RATES AND RESPONSES TO VARYING AMOUNTS OF SULFIDE IN SEDIMENTS: AN IN SITU EXPERIMENT

Tracy Washington, Lisa Levin, Guillermo Mendoza, Wiebke Ziebis Integrative Oceanography Divison, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla,CA, 92093 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089

Methane seep sediments offer some of the most toxic living conditions on the earth due to high sulfide concentrations and extremely low levels of oxygen. There have been very few in situ experiments that study the evolution and adaptation of metazoan communities at these extreme sites. The environmental sulfide level preferences of metazoans will be examined by studying their settlement and distribution patterns in different amounts of experimentally-enriched sulfidic sediments. Although the macrofauna that inhabit these areas can tolerate the high sulfide conditions in benthic sediments, I hypothesize they have preferences that determine the concentration of sulfur in sediments they inhabit. Sampling was done in benthic clam-beds and microbial mats within methane seeps present along the California and Oregon coast to study the colonizing rates of metazoans in various experimental sulfide concentrations in sediments. Colonization trays, which had treatments with different amounts of sulfide-enriched seafloor sediment, were used to examine macrofauna preferences. The colonization trays were placed at water depths between 700m and 900m in seep sediments using the submergence vehicle ALVIN. Trays were left out for colonization over 3-day, 10-day and 2 ½ months intervals. The results as of now indicate that polychaetes, amphipods, tanaids, and nemerteans are some of the first colonizers of sulfide rich sediments.


IDENTIFICATION OF NOVEL GENES AFFECTING THE DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER IMMUNE RESPONSE TO DROSOPHILA X VIRUS (DXV)

Anne M. Macgregor (Louisa Wu), Center for Biosystems Research, University of Maryland Biotechnology Institute, College Park, MD 20742; University of Maryland, College Park

The innate immune system is an important component in an organism's overall immune response to various pathogens. Much of the primary research in the field of innate immunity was accomplished using Drosophila melanogaster, as Drosophila are only equipped with an innate immune response. The focus of viral research in our lab lies in understanding the innate immune response to viral infection. To this end, I have employed a forward genetic screen to identify mutant Drosophila lines, which are more susceptible to viral infection. Drosophila X Virus (DXV), a double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Birnaviridae family, is known to induce anoxia sensitivity and death in Drosophila. Experiments show that this heightened sensitivity occurs between seven and ten days post-injection and correlates with amplified DXV titer loads. To date, over 160 lines have been screened and 12 have been identified as more susceptible to DXV infection. A secondary screen of these 12 lines has shown that 6 are significantly more susceptible to DXV infection. Complementation tests are used to determine whether these mutations are affecting the same or different genes and viral titers are performed to determine relative levels of virus in these mutant infected lines. These mutant lines will also be infected with the Drosophila C Virus to determine whether the response is specific to DXV. Additionally, the lab has shown that mutations in the RNAi or Toll pathways affect the ability of Drosophila to respond to DXV infection. I will determine if the new mutations identified from the screen are affecting one of these two pathways.


THE CHAPEL AT CHAPINGO: DIEGO RIVERA'S ART AS RELIGION AND REVOLUTION

Christopher Hanawalt (Adriano Duque) Department of Modern Languages, Kenyon College, Gambier, OH 43022.

The research in this paper, titled “The Chapel at Chapingo: Diego Rivera's Art as Religion and Revolution," focuses around the concept of reinventing revolution as both a form of religion and worship. The frescoes in the chapel of Chapingo combine imagery and motifs from indigenous culture, Marxist beliefs, and religious artistic structure, creating a temple for Diego Rivera's ideas of personal and social revolution. While basing his messages in Marxism, Diego went beyond this foundation, creating his own form of revolution – a revolution through art. The murals in the chapel of Chapingo show us a criticism of the bourgeoisie lifestyle, Christianity, and capitalism. Instead of saints, fighters of the Mexican Revolution as well as workers become the depicted martyrs and influences that leach through the soil and vegetation of Mexico. The space within the chapel reserved for the figure of Jesus is replaced with that of a large, pregnant, nude woman, evoking imagery of the traditional goddess of Tlazoteotl as well as reminding us of childbirth and fertility. The viewer is being told that the chapel has become a place of fertilization and germination for revolutionary ideals and movement. Worshippers to this new form of religion are meant to leave the chapel, overwhelmed with the history and ideas of social change, Marxism, and Mexico's history, and are prepared to enforce new levels and forms of change in modern Mexico. This paper synthesizes the early artistic beliefs of Diego Rivera, during a time before he knew Frida Kahlo – a person he is often inextricably linked with. By focusing on these murals, we are able to understand the foundation for Rivera's future murals as we see his early self-discovery and understanding of Marxism, the influence of personal and national history, as well as his rejection of a traditional capitalist, Christian lifestyle. These paintings, while artistically exquisite and luminous, are also a demonstration of Rivera's revolutionary art, an ideal that Rivera poured into all of his public artwork.


LET US ENTER THE DWELLING: MATERIAL OBJECTS AND THEIR EFFECT ON VIRTUE

Kimberly C. Waechter, Christ College, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383

In 1909, an issue of Good Housekeeping stated, “a house plan could affect one's fundamental conception of the universe itself". The publication printed this article following a time when society held up the home and its contents as indicative of the lives of the people who dwelt within it. During the Victorian era, the woman portrayed in novels began to have a sense of freedom and depth of character; however, popular societal ideas of the time, which involved placing women in a domestic setting, confined these narratives. Due to wildly popular conduct literature, the domesticity of a woman became the main identifier of her virtue. Aided by this conduct literature and popular sentiment of the time, Victorian women's novels superficially perpetuated the idea that a woman's domestic space and material objects were indicators of her inner virtue. In spite of this trend, the reaction within the novels to material objects is not uniform across all characters, as one would expect. This paper takes a look at four popular Victorian novels and reveals how, through characters with differing opinions, Victorian women authors subversively shook the notion that material objects were strict representations of the women who owned them.


IMAGE AND POWER: RICHARD THE LIONHEART'S POLITICAL STRATEGY, 1157-1192 C.E.

Basit H Qureshi (Garrett McAinsh) Department of History, Hendrix College, 1600 Washington Avenue, Conway, AR 72032

Toward the latter half of the 12th century there emerged a ruler who was more shrewdly aware of the power inherent in an image than many European sovereigns of the time: Richard the Lionheart. Most medieval kings understood that embodying the contemporary concept of an ideal ruler, one who was indomitable, honorable, resolute, generous, and pious, was essential for having a stable reign. They also realized that outwardly pretending to embody that ideal would achieve practically the same end. Indeed, a suzerain who successfully established and then preserved an image of model kingship could maintain the unwavering support of his constituency even while executing policies that might conflict with societal expectations. Unfortunately, sustaining such an image constituted no small feat. Many rulers failed in this regard and thereby incurred the enmity of their subjects. A rare few, such as Richard, succeeded in personifying an enduring image and then retaining it. Most historical literature dismisses Richard as a simple brute. Even modern works, more favorable toward the Lionheart, do not comprehensively treat his image manipulation as a deliberate political strategy despite its consistent occurrence and resultant effectiveness. This paper, employing a number of contemporary chronicles, examines Richard's image cultivation and preservation through his reign as duke of Aquitaine and then as the king of England on crusade. The first portion of the work analyzes how Henry II of England and Philip II of France, contemporaries of Richard, critically influenced the young Duke's political strategies. Then, the paper examines how the Lionheart, upon acceding to the English throne, demonstrated an unrivaled aptitude for establishing and then retaining an indomitable image of ideal kingship. Indeed, his outward appearance so holistically embodied his contemporaries' expectations that Richard could behave contrary to the regal model yet not incur blemishes to his esteemed reputation as the ideal of medieval kingship.


"SHANTIH, SHANTIH, SHANTIH": RESOLUTION, AND LACK THEREOF, AT THE END OF THE WASTE LAND

Benjamin K. Gaulke (Scott Huelin) Department of English, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383

The text of T. S. Eliot's The Waste Land embodies several negative concepts as central themes; among them are sterility, desiccation, nihilism, ignorance, crassness, unreality, and fragmentation. A central (perhaps the central) question concerning interpretation of the poem is whether the end of the poem represents any sort of redemption from the poet's purgatorial, even hellish, vision. A close analysis of “What the Thunder Said" reveals that even though there is a solution to the ills Eliot sees in society, culture, community, and civilization as a whole, the speaker/speakers of the poem utterly fail to embrace this solution. The solution is presented by the voice of the Thunder when it three times strikes, “DA," which in Sanskrit tradition are commands to give, sympathize, and control. The things that speaker says in reply to the Thunder show that he either misunderstands these commands, or is simply unwilling to obey them. The only unity found in the last section of the poem is an artistic unity, since the various recurring images in the section, and the poem itself, are all knitted together into a cohesive whole to portray a fragmented mind.


DICTIONARIES AND THE DEATH PENALTY: A CASE STUDY OF ALLEGED JURY MISCONDUCT

Christina R. Hukill, Stacey M. Thrall, Jimmy McEwen (Debra D. Burke) Department of Marketing and Business Administration and Law, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723

State prisoners employ the writ of habeas corpus, Latin for “you have the body," to petition for freedom by alleging that their confinement is in violation of the federal constitution. This research involves a comprehensive case study of one such prisoner, John Davis McNeill, and his appeal to the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Using primary sources, the study examines all the original filings in the appeal, including the parties' briefs to the appeals court. The researchers also attended oral argument before the Fourth Circuit, as eyewitnesses to the appellate process in a death penalty case, and are arranging to interview the attorneys after the decision is announced. Substantively, the case study focuses on the Fourteenth Amendment Due Process Clause and the legitimacy of the jury's function in imposing the death sentence. Specifically, it examines the improper consultation of a dictionary by one of Mr. McNeill's jurors in an effort to define “mitigate," for the alleged purpose of swaying the decision in violation of his right to a fair hearing by an impartial jury. Using legal research sources, the paper analyzes the statutory definition of mitigating circumstances as interpreted by state courts to determine the extent to which the dictionary definition departed from that mandated by North Carolina law. Previously, in Robinson v. Polk, a split Fourth Circuit refused to grant habeas relief in a capital murder case, in which the jury consulted the Bible during the sentencing phase of the trial. This paper explores and articulates arguments as to why McNeil v. Polk is distinguishable, concluding that the jury's apparent substitution of the dictionary's definition for the judge's instructions regarding mitigating circumstances constitutes fundamental error. Whatever the Fourth Circuit decides, this case is significant and uniquely ripe for appeal to the Supreme Court because of the increasing number of death penalty cases in which jurors consult outside references in an attempt to reach a consensus, and render what they consider to be a moral verdict.


THE EFFECTS OF THE IIRIRA LAWS ON LEGAL IMMIGRANTS

Trang Nguyen, Department of Legal Studies, Hamline University, 1536 Hewitt Ave. St. Paul, MN 55104.

Since the inception of the 1996 IIRIRA laws, very few studies have researched the effects on legal immigrants. Government statistics record highest numbers of deportations by crime and country but few studies measure the length of residency in the United States before deportation. Furthermore, I have found no studies that measure the extent and seriousness of the crimes of those deported. As a part of this project, deported immigrants are surveyed on seriousness of crime and residency in years as well as survey immigrants in Minnesota to measure knowledge of IIRIRA laws. This effort is completed by working with the Immigrant Law Center of Minnesota (ILCM). Through the ILCM's outreach program, immigrants will be surveyed on knowledge of crime. Than ILCM and other non-profit organizations and law firms are a part of network that represents detained immigrants awaiting deportation. By connecting with this network, the detained immigrants will be asked to partake in a survey to measure their length of residency in the US and seriousness of crimes. Those with lawful permanent residency, residency of 15 years or more, and were deported for a minor crime such as a misdemeanor will be a case study to outline the details of their case.


A MODERN GREEK TRAGED: EUGENE O'NEILL'S USE OF GREEK ELEMENTS IN THE HAIRY APE

Melissa M. Jakub (Elizabeth Peck) Department of Fine Arts and Humanities, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68845

Contrary to Arthur Miller's contention that modern writers failed to recognize the tragic potential of the common man (The Tragedy of the Common Man [1948]), Eugene O'Neill's drama, The Hairy Ape, published twenty-six years earlier is a pioneering contribution to modern Greek drama that clearly embodies the primary characteristics of Greek tragedy. Not only does O'Neill draw his tragic protagonist, Yank, from the depths of the common working class society, but he also artfully subscribes the text of The Hairy Ape to the blueprint for tragedy described in Aristotle's Poetics. By providing a detailed analysis of O'Neill's incorporation of Greek dramatic elements – including tragic plot development, reliance on the prescribed characteristics for tragic protagonists, the use of the tragic chorus and the deus ex machine ending – my study proves that in The Hairy Ape O'Neill masterfully applied and revised Greek dramatic strategies, reshaping them to make them suitable for modern audiences. Similarities between O'Neill's engine room stokers and the Greek tragic chorus, as well as Yank's sudden death with the deus ex machina ending, reveal that a complex and complete tragic world exists within The Hairy Ape. O'Neill's use of not one, but four distinct choral groups that comment upon the dramatic action while adhering to the Greek practices of song and dance, convincingly illustrates O'Neill's familiarity with traditional elements of Greek drama. In addition, O'Neill's liberal adherence to the traditional plot structure of developing a tragic hero offers contemporary insight to the struggling protagonist. Ultimately, my study demonstrates that O'Neill's occasional alterations of various Greek tragic elements fit within the parameters of Greek drama and are justified as successful attempts to mold a modern tragic hero.


EDUCATION IN THE HANDS OF THE U.S. SUPREME COURT: WHY IS RACIAL SEGREGATION STILL AN ISSUE?

Kathleen A. Smith, Department of Political Science, Dominican University of California, 50 Acacia Ave, San Rafael, CA 94901

The 1954 Supreme Court decision of Brown v. Board of Education marked a pivotal change within American society. Legal racial segregation was outlawed, presumably resulting in equal educational opportunity and a decrease in de facto segregation. Since that decision, however, scholars have questioned whether the promise of Brown has been fulfilled. This paper offers a critical evaluation of Brown and the role of the Supreme Court in the subsequent history of racial segregation in education. First, I will describe the historical context of the Brown decision and its implications for American society. Next, I will explain the role of the Supreme Court following Brown, focusing first on cases dealing with an integrationist phase of court action, and then on the subsequent retreat. Finally, I will argue that the Supreme Court's “retreat" from its strict legal integration policy following its decision in Brown has allowed for racial segregation to remain within America's educational system.


IMPROVING A PARALLEL COMPUTATION OF THE CONJUGATE GRADIENT METHOD

Babajide J. Osatuyi, Dr Leigh J. Little, Department of Computational Science, 350 New Campus Drive, Brockport, NY 14420

The conjugate gradient algorithm is a popular method for the iterative solution of linear systems of equations. The basic components of this algorithm (matrix-vector products, vector updates and dot products) make are especially appealing for parallel implementations. As with many parallel interpretations of algorithms, the most straightforward manner of implementing the algorithm does not lead to the best parallel performance. This paper will discuss 2 approaches for a parallel implementation of the conjugate gradient algorithm and examine the results using standard parallel benchmark parameters. The example problem to be solved is a 1-dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. This problem leads to a symmetric, positive definite coefficient matrix that is suitable for the conjugate gradient method. The most straightforward parallel version of the conjugate gradient method relies on a row-wise block decomposition of the coefficient matrix with a conformal partitioning of the remaining vectors. It is known that for this partitioning of the matrix, the computation of a matrix vector product requires that each process have a complete copy of the vector. The most common way to do this is via the use of the MPI_Allgather command, which will assemble the components of the distributed vector into a global vector on all processes. Benchmark testing of this version of the algorithm indicates that the parallel performance is subpar. For the specific problem being examined however, the use of the Allgather comand can be eliminated and replaced with a more efficient swapping procedure that uses no more communication than is necessary. Experiments reveal that this improved algorithm is much better in terms of parallel performance.


OVERWEIGHT IN THE STROKE BELT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN SELF-PERCEIVED OVERWEIGHT AND CLINICAL STANDARDS.

Eileen C. Miller (Office of Undergraduate Research) Department of Public Health University of North Carolina, Greensboro 1000 Spring Garden Street Greensboro, NC 27403

Background: Understanding the reasons for overweight and obesity is critical to addressing the obesity epidemic. Often the decision to lose weight is based as much on one's self-perception of being overweight as on the inherent health benefits.

Objective: Examine the influence of sex, race, socioeconomic factors, and self-reported health status on self-perceived weight, controlling for objective weight as determined by BMI.

Design: Cross-sectional study of factors associated with self-perceived overweight status at the Community Initiative to Eliminate Stroke (CITIES). At their baseline screening, participants (n= 4,053) were asked, “Are you overweight?" before determining objective weight status from measured weight and self-reported height. Demographics including, sex, race, education, and location along with health status variables including history of CVD, diabetes and stress were collected.

Results: Mean BMI for the group was 30 kg/m2. Most women (53%) perceived themselves to be overweight while most men (59.6%) perceived themselves not to be overweight. A greater proportion of normal weight women (13.9%) than men (2.2%) perceived themselves to be overweight. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that even when adjusting for BMI and age, female sex, lack of exercise, and self-reported stress were positively associated with self-perceived overweight status. African-American race, rural residence, and current smoker were inversely associated with self-perceived overweight status.

Discussion: Social acceptance of being overweight among men and African American women is reflected in their perception of their overweight status. Explaining the disconnect between clinical measures of overweight and self-evaluated overweight may assist in addressing the causes of increased obesity in these subgroups.


A SCENARIO-BASED ONTOLOGICAL ARCHITECTURE FOR THE ACQUISITION, STORAGE, AND SHARING OF KNOWLEDGE – A CASE OF ACADEMIC TUTORING

Osatuyi, Babajide, SUNY Brockport Incentive Grant, Department of Computer Science, SUNY Brockport, 350 New Campus Drive, Brockport NY 14420

Tutoring is an important tool that higher institutions of learning use to enhance students' learning. Typically, professors recommend students who exhibit excellent academic skills in a particular course or program as tutors. Tutors gain problem solving knowledge in their specific domain but such knowledge may be difficult to explicate to tutees. This kind of knowledge is referred to as tacit knowledge ingrained in the individual tutors. Institutions of higher learning can leverage the expertise of their tutors by capturing such tacit knowledge into a repository for knowledge sharing. Scenarios can be used to capture intentions and problem solving skills of domain experts in response to atypical situations. Scenario-based Ontologies have been used in several domains including the healthcare to capture the tacit knowledge of experts. Scenario is a collection or sequence of hypothetical situations that a domain expert encounters and the responses that the expert provides. Ontology is a formal explicit description of concepts in a domain of discourse, providing a vocabulary for specifying information resources and information need, and establishing the relationships between entities that share knowledge. Thus Ontologies facilitate access and reuse of knowledge. In this paper, we present a Scenario-based architecture for the acquisition, storage and sharing of knowledge among tutors and tutees. The architecture has four components [2]: Meta Scenario, Scenario-Construct, Episode and Event. The Meta-Scenario is a repository of the different categories of scenarios represented as classes and subclasses. The Scenario-Construct is the component that stores the descriptions of the individual scenarios. The Episode is a storage component for the details of each episode in the scenario. Finally, the Event component stores the details of each event that provides direction of course of action that the tutor may take.


A MOTHER'S CHOICE

Jacqueline Enge, (Dr. Fahima Aziz), Department of Management and Economics, Hamline University, St. Paul, MN 55104

The issue of “working mothers" vs. “stay-at-home mothers" is an important one in our society today. It is widely believed that women have many more choices and opportunities in the labor market today than they did in the past. Previous research indicates that these opportunities lead to various decisions made by mothers and particularly, their decision with regards to their role as a homemaker and their participation in the labor market. This research will examine specifically which factors influence mothers to make these decisions. Women are a crucial part of our job market, and so their participation is important. Maternity leave policies and public spending on childcare may have a large effect on whether women choose to participate in the labor market or not. In order to help see the effect that these policies have, this research will create an economic model examining how maternity leave policies, public spending on childcare, and other relevant factors such as GDP, divorce and fertility rates, education and female unemployment affect women's labor force participation in different European and American countries from 1994-2004. This paper hopes to provide insights and a better understanding of why mothers make certain choices in our society and the effects that these policies have on their labor market participation.


REGULATION, LITIGATION, AND LEGISLATION: HOW THE GOVERNMENT'S TREATMENT OF BUSINESS IS UNDERMINING THE RULE OF LAW

Andrew M. Schlueter, (Dr. Andrew Murphy), Christ College, Valparaiso University, Mueller Hall, 1300 Chapel Drive, Valparaiso, IN, 46383

The Rule of Law is one of the most widely lauded, yet least understood, political concepts of all time. It is easily grasped, however, that this institution is vital in restraining the arbitrary power of the state in order to preserve the liberty of the individual. But due to a recent flurry of legislation and litigation from the government directed at publicly owned corporations, the Rule of Law is slowly being eroded. This paper begins by accepting a non-controversial, “formal legality," definition of the Rule of Law based on the work of F.A. Hayek. Such a theory, embraced by many legal theorists, is based on the intuition that the purpose of laws is to govern the behavior of the people while allowing them to retain some measure of autonomy. From this is drawn a list of principles requiring that the law be prospective, clear, general, public, equal, and stable. Law is also constrained to prohibit of itself retroactivity, requiring the impossible, and self contradiction. The paper then proceeds to illustrate that by removing the “mens rea" requirement for criminal culpability with the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, by passing the Maryland Fair Share Health Care Fund Act, which defies the requirement that laws be general by applying solely to one corporation, and by using “ex post facto law" to press civil charges against Big Tobacco for “crimes" committed years before the law in question was passed, the United States government, at both the state and federal levels, is undermining the Rule of Law – and thus endangering the liberty of the American people.


VARIATIONAL INTEGRATORS AND THE THREE-BODY PROBLEM

Evan S. Gawlik (Jerrold E. Marsden and Philip du Toit) Department of Control and Dynamical Systems, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125

This study applies variational integrators to the three-body problem, a classic problem from celestial mechanics that asks for the motion of three masses in space under mutual gravitational interaction. The use of variational integrators, a class of numerical methods used to simulate mechanical systems, is of value because they are known to exhibit accurate behavior with respect to the preservation of physical constants of motion when applied to systems with conserved quantities like energy and momentum. This contrasts with the performance of other numerical differential equation-solving algorithms like the Runge-Kutta method, which typically experience artificial dissipation of conserved quantities over successive iterations. A comparison of the performance of variational integrators versus the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method applied to the planar circular restricted three-body problem composes the core of this study. In particular, the algorithms were evaluated based on their ability to accurately model individual trajectories, conserve integrals of motion, predict statistical quantities like transport rates, and preserve the structure of Poincaré section plots. Computational tests verified the superiority of variational integrators over the Runge-Kutta method in conserving energy and producing accurate Poincaré section plots, but revealed no significant differences between the two algorithms' ability to predict individual trajectories and calculate transport rates. In addition to contributing to the development of numerical methodology, these investigations have applications to solar system simulations and to the design of spacecraft mission trajectories.


COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT IN ELDER LATINOS: DOES GENDER MATTER?

Angelica M. Hernandez (David V. Espino, M.D., Dept. of Family Practice, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio), Lancy Scholars Program, Honors College, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249-0656

Several factors contribute to differences in morbidity and mortality rates between Latino males and females. The specific aspects on which this study focused include differences in risk factors for cognitive impairment, which include age, near vision impairment, depressive symptomatology, increasing blood pressure, and low education level. Women appear to exhibit more of these risk factors than do men. The objective of this paper was to establish whether or not female gender is independently associated with cognitive impairment among the Latino elderly. Data from the 1993-94 wave of the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (H-EPESE) were used for this study. Folstein's Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), a commonly used instrument in screening cognitive function, was used to measure cognitive impairment. In order to determine if any significant differences existed between men and women, analysis of covariance was used to control for age while MMSE scores were examined. Both men and women in this sample had mean MMSE scores of about 25. In addition, there was no significant difference in education level between men and women. The data from the H-EPESE do not support the hypothesis that gender has a direct association with cognitive impairment; however, further research into culturally distinct risk factors is beneficial in early detection of cognitive impairment. As opposed to their younger counterparts, elders in general consume a greater proportion of the health care dollars, and are more likely to seek health care services. Because the average household income of an elderly Hispanic household is considerably low, and Latinos aged 65 and older make up the fastest growing portion of the population, the potential burden on society is immense. Therefore, the reform of public policy is essential.


THE ROLE OF CONTACT PHEROMONES IN ATTRACTION AND ELUSION BEHAVIOR IN RETICULITERMES SP SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES AND IN SOLENOPSIS SP FIRE ANTS

Taurean F. Snow and Dr. Duane M. Jackson (Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program and MBRS-RISE) Department of Psychology, Morehouse College, 830 Westview Drive, Atlanta, GA 30314

We tested the hypothesis that the worker castes of social insects are more attracted to the contact pheromones of their own species, and avoided being near the contact pheromones of different social insects. Bioassays were performed to determine the approach and avoidance behavioral responses of the subterranean termite species, Reticulitermes SP, and the red imported fire ant species, Solenopsis SP, when placed into a closed environment that contained four equal sections which were either saturated in termite pheromones, ant pheromones, laboratory grade hexane, or nothing at all. An organic solvent (hexane) that removes cuticular hydrocarbons was used, and then these hydrocarbons were applied onto filter paper and presented to the insects. Conclusions from an earlier study containing fewer choice options showed that both termites and ants preferred being around their own contact pheromones compared to being around nothing at all, and when positioned in an environment that encompassed a control option and the contact pheromone of a different insect, both termites and ants preferred to avoid the contact pheromones of the other insect. Furthermore, when put in an environment that offered the choice between either termite contact pheromones or ant contact pheromones, both the termites and the ants preferred to be around the pheromones from their own species. The results of this particular segment of this study show that, again, both termites and insects are attracted to their own species' contact pheromones, and avoid the those of the other insect; the order of attraction among the four choice options and the significance (if any) between options differ for both insects. The findings of this study, and further work in the area, may lead to significant advances in more effective insect traps and repellants and environmentally-safer damage prevention.


KIDNEY DISEASE AWARENESS IN AFRICAN AMERICANS WITH DIABETES

Tama L. Smith, Rosalind M. Peters, PhD, RN (Office of Undergraduate Research, McNair Scholars Program) College Of Nursing, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

Diabetes is the fifth deadliest disease in the United States. When diabetes is uncontrolled, it can lead to micro vascular diseases, such as nephropathy (kidney disease). It is known, given the high rate of diabetes in African Americans that they are at an increased risk for developing kidney failure. What is not known is the level of awareness of kidney disease among African Americans with diabetes. This study used a cross-sectional, descriptive-correlational design to explore the knowledge and perceived risk of chronic kidney disease among African Americans with diabetes mellitus. Eighty-five African Americans with Type 2 DM completed a larger study; only 18 of these participants had DM alone, without co morbidities to qualify for this analysis. Since there was limited access to health care, it was difficult for many of the patients to be seen by a health care provider. Thirteen participants checked their blood glucose levels on a regular basis. Of those who checked their blood sugar levels, 69% (n=9) reported blood sugar levels above 130 mg/dl, indicating poor DM control. Participants rated their perceived risk of developing chronic kidney disease on a scale of one (no risk) to ten (very high risk), 89% (n=16) did not believe that controlling DM would prevent CKD. The participants did not realize that CKD is a progressive, irreversible condition and do not see DM as a cause of developing CKD. They did not believe that controlling their DM will prevent CKD. The results of this study show that this group of African Americans are at very high risk of developing CKD and requires much more education regarding the relationship between DM and CKD.


COMBATING TERRORISM AND PRESERVING THE INTERNATIONAL NONPROLIFERATION REGIME: A FOCUS ON THE ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF IRAN

ANDREW J. GIVENS (DR. DENISE DEGARMO) DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE, SOUTHERN ILLINOIS UNIVERSITY of EDWARDSVILLE, SIUE-BOX 1453, EDWARDSVILLE, ILLINOIS 62026

Global terrorism trends are at levels unprecedented in recent history. The rise of the proliferation of biological, chemical, nuclear weapons and delivery systems threaten the integrity of the entire international nonproliferation regime to degrees unheard of since the Cold War. Combined, these two threats constitute a grave challenge to regional and international security. At the center of the challenges is the Middle East, more specifically- the Islamic Republic of Iran. Since the Islamic Revolution of 1979, Iran has been the leading state sponsor of terrorism regionally and internationally. Since the fall of the Shah, Iran has pursued nuclear weapons and has defied the international community's demands to halt such activities. Iran is the featured case study to examine both the issue of terrorism and proliferation. In regards to terrorism, the Iranian experience is used to develop a prospective policy framework to discourage its appeal and support as a political tool. In regards to proliferation, the Iranian case is used to exhibit the negative implications to the international nonproliferation regime. Similarly to terrorism, a policy framework to halt the increased trend towards proliferation is developed.


BIRD SPECIES DIVERSITY IN PONDEROSA PINE AND PINYON JUNIPER HABITATS IN FLAGSTAFF, ARIZONA

Tabitha M. Finch (Lee C. Drickamer) Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, PO Box 5640 Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5640

Different habitats provide vital resources for varying numbers and types of bird species. Season also affects species diversity, richness, and abundance for a particular area. To test if these factors independently or collectively impact bird species diversity, richness, or abundance, I conducted bird censuses at six Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Pinyon Juniper (Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma) sites in Flagstaff, Arizona. These two habitats vary greatly in foliage composition, and exist in close proximity in northern Arizona. During two seasons (February/March and April/May) I collected data nine times per site using the point count method. Once the data were compiled, I used ANOVA to analyze for the statistical significance of habitat, season, and the interaction between the two on bird species diversity, richness, and abundance. I found that bird species diversity was significantly affected by the habitat and month, but was not influenced by the interaction of these variables. Results for avian richness were not significant for the habitat or habitat/season interaction, but were highly significant for the month that the census was conducted. Finally, abundance was not statistically impacted by any of these factors. Behavioral and social dynamics, such as migration and mixed flocks, may help explain why season influenced species diversity and richness. Another possibility may be that only a minimal number of bird species can withstand the harsh winter environment. The results for abundance may be explained by the concept that each habitat only provides a finite number of niches in which birds can live, regardless of the season. This study shows that although distinct habitats are present in close proximity, each supports their own unique avian community.


"A CULTURAL STUDY OF THE RURAL PEOPLE AND WORKING CONDITIONS THROUGHOUT THE GENERATIONS IN EL VALLE DEL CAUCA, COLOMBIA."

Author - Jazmin Puicon Advisor – Professor Teresa Meade Department – Latin American & Caribbean Studies; Spanish; History Institution – Union College

Much research has been done on Colombia, focusing mostly on the drug trade and/or guerrilla violence that has plagued that Latin American nation for decades. However, rural life overall has been overshadowed by the media's inaccurate portrayal of the Colombian urban culture of violence. I am researching several small towns in one state, El Valle del Cauca, to get a better understanding of as well as analyze how rural life in these small towns has changed (or not changed) over time, from around the 1940s until present times. I am particularly interested in the role of women, and how it contrasts/compliments that of men, in rural Colombian society. Another particular subtopic that I will examine is race and how it affects the social and political hierarchy of these towns. As part of the research, I will be looking into depth at how these issues are reflected in politics, labor, film, literature, as well as using personal interviews for my thesis. I will also research the emergence of different multi-national corporations and how they have influenced daily life for women and men in the area. In particular, a focus shall be placed on labor politics and culture in three different companies in that area: Nestlé, Colombina, and RioPaila. These are food, candy and sugar-producing companies, respectively. I will also follow the daily life of a worker (male and female) in each factory to compare and contrast each experience, then correlate that with rural culture and life in El Valle. Overall, this research project will attempt to record a side of Colombia that is overlooked in sensationalist media reports by collecting information and experiencing first hand what Colombian rural life in these small towns is all about.


RETROVIRUS-INDUCED LYMPHOMA IN A MOUSE MODEL

Kimberly Morton (Joana Chakraborty) Department of Physiology and Molecular Medicine, The University of Toledo Health Science Campus, 3000 Arlington Ave. Toledo OH 43614

It is estimated that 5-10% of all HIV-infected individuals develop lymphoma if not treated effectively with antiretroviral therapy. Of that specific population, 95% of those patients' lymphomas are of B-cell origin. This high number is attributed to cell surface expression of B-cell antigens, immunoglobulin gene (Ig) rearrangements or tumor cell production of Ig. Although unusual, monoclonal T-cell lymphomas can develop. With such a large population of HIV infected individuals developing lymphomas, it is clear that a mouse model would be useful to correlate new discoveries and pathophysiological findings to the treatment of human patients. Our lab believes that a unique model has been found that is T-cell derived instead of the common B-cell derived lymphomas in most murine leukemia viruses. The goal of this study was to identify whether a T-cell or B-cell response was derived upon development of lymphoma within these mice. Immunohistochemistry can be used to determine whether a T-cell or B-cell response has been initiated. This method localizes specific antigens in cells by exploiting antigen-antibody recognition. These sites are visually recognized by using colored tags. There are two different methods used, direct and indirect. The direct method is one-step and uses a labeled antibody, but is insensitive. The indirect method utilizes an unlabeled primary antibody and then a labeled secondary antibody which makes the process sensitive. Therefore, the indirect method was used in this study. Murine Leukemia temperature sensitive virus (MoMuLv-ts1) in BALB/c mice has been established as a model for retroviral disease similar to HIV. When these mice are inoculated within 10 days of birth with ts1, almost all mice develop an immunodeficiency marked by wasting, lymphoma and other conditions. Although almost 95% of HIV-1 associated lymphomas are of B-cell origin, these experiments confirm previous observations from our lab that a class of monoclonal T-cell lymphoma exists that is composed of CD4+ T-cells. This unique model, that is T-cell derived, will be useful in the study of HIV-related lymphomas.


OUR EYES AS MUSICAL AND TEXTUAL INSTRUMENTS: ONLINE PROCESSING OF MUSIC AND TEXT

Megan Zirnstein, (Dr. Max Louwerse), Psychology Department, Institute for Intelligent Systems, University of Memphis; 202 Psychology Building, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, 38152

Past research has indicated a strong relationship in eye gaze behavior between language and music. This study investigated interactions between prior music ability and reading difficulty on eye gaze behavior in two domains: reading music and text. Participants were categorized according to their expertise in reading and understanding music and text (high or low music and text reading ability). Difficulty of the reading examples was measured using a computational linguistic tool. Low difficulty texts had high cohesion (i.e., were easier to understand), and high difficulty texts had low cohesion (i.e. were more difficulty to understand). Music example difficulty was manipulated by the complexity of rhythm and presentation of different musical pitches, wherein high difficulty examples included changes in not only rhythm, but also in pitch. Low difficulty music examples, however, included only changes in rhythm and remained on the same pitch. Participants read these high and low difficulty music and text samples while their eye gaze was recorded using an eye tracker. Following the presentation of each category of reading examples (music or text), participants were administered comprehension questions to test their recall and understanding of the presented material. Research suggests that those with advanced reading skills will read music more easily, while those with less advanced music skills will read text less easily. Participants with more advanced reading ability in both domains are expected to perform better when reading expository texts of low cohesion, while the opposite is expected of participants with less advanced reading ability.


ENERGY HARVESTING FOR MICRO-UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES USING ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

Travis B. Wolf (Lloyd P. Brown and Chris L. Pettit) Aerospace Engineering Department, United States Naval Academy, 101 Buchanan Road, Annapolis, MD 21402

Recent U.S. military operations are often located in an urban environment, posing new challenges to troops on the ground. Satellites cannot penetrate buildings or distinguish between innocents and hostiles. Micro-unmanned aerial vehicles (MAVs) could provide the information needed to eliminate this problem. These small devices could fly around corners or inside buildings and provide real-time sensor data to their remote operators. The low weight of MAVs limits the amount of fuel available onboard and hence their flight time. Spare batteries are heavy and require that the operator have frequent access to the MAV. A better solution would be for the MAV to recharge itself using energy harvesting. Energy harvesting is essentially converting ambient energy into a usable form. This research has focused on using electromagnetic induction to convert the energy of mechanical vibrations into electrical energy stored in a battery. An electromagnetic generator contains a coil and a magnet, which provides a steady magnetic field. Using a spring of some sort, ambient mechanical vibrations cause the coil and magnetic field to move relative to each other resulting in a change in flux through the coil and a corresponding induced current and voltage. The goal of this project has been to gain insight into the magnitudes of the various parameters that are necessary to generate usable amounts of power. These parameters include the magnetic field strength of permanent magnets, the induced voltage, the induced current, the number of turns of wire in the coil, and the physical dimensions of all of the components. The effects of damping caused by the magnetic field associated with the induced current and the implications for input frequencies were also explored. The project consisted of constructing a simple electromagnetic generator and using it to verify a mathematical model of the system. The second portion was focused on optimization of such a device for use on MAVs in order to give guidelines and suggestions for future design of such devices.


IMPOSED VIBRATION IN SHEARED GRANULAR SYSTEMS

Eric P Hoppmann (Brian C Utter), Department of Physics and Astronomy, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807

The complex nature of granular materials has left us without a fundamental understanding of how they behave. No general equations exist which govern their flow. At best we have statistical approaches to estimate their behaviors. Systems such as these act like solids in some situations and liquids in others, but mostly exhibit a very unusual set of properties. We are studying granular shear using energy added via vibration to break up the force chains in a jammed system. The experiment consists of a 2D shearing plane between which a single layer of photoelastic grains are sandwiched. The walls of the experiment consist of belts moving in opposite directions so that we can simulate planar shearing in the center region. We have two methods of adding vibration to the system. In the first method we vibrate one of the shearing planes at a known frequency, amplitude and acceleration. This causes the force chains to both break in the bulk of the material and to slip at the shearing plane. We find that while changing the frequency of vibration has no effect on the material, amplitude has a dramatic affect. Our second method involves shaking the entire system to provide bulk forcing and leads to breaking of force chains in the interior of the sample.


FALLING OFF TRACK: HOW THE WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE MOVEMENT EMBRACED RACISM

Risa Katzen, Carl Harris, History, University of California Santa Barbara, Department of History University of California Santa Barbara, CA 93106

There are times, regardless of genuine efforts, that even the best of intentions become distorted and devoid of their original character. Upon examination of the American women's suffrage movement, it is simple to assume that founding concepts of equality directly contributed to women's enfranchisement. Alas, there is an underlying, more complex storyline that contradicts this notion. The feminist conception of inalienable, or inherent rights guaranteed to all human beings was not automatically adopted by the American citizenry. In 19th century American society, these beliefs were unpopular in an environment within which races, ethnicities, and genders were viewed as anything but equal. Throughout this period, suffragists who once allied themselves with the “natural rights" dogma advocated by abolitionists drifted away from this founding vision. Taking their fight from state to state, victory for suffragists became based upon a practical achievement of franchise rather than upon abstract and easily sacrificed conceptions of equality. Exemplified by the 1867 Kansas election, feminists turned away from their egalitarian roots and strategically allied themselves with the prejudiced Democratic Party. As illustrated by efforts at women's suffrage in the American South, this political necessity became less strategic and more a fundamental and racist principle of the movement.


ENDOCRINE AND REPRODUCTIVE EFFECTS OF UV-FILTERS, OXYBENZONE AND BENZOPHENONE IN FISH

Michael Coronado, Mary Ann Rempel, Daniel Schlenk (UCLEADS, Louis Stokes California Alliance for Minority Participation (LSCAMP)) Department of Environmental Toxicology, University of California, Riverside, 900 University Avenue, Riverside CA 92521

Recent studies in extracts of sediments surrounding municipal outfalls off the coast of California, USA indicated the UV-filtering agents (oxybenzone) as a potential estrogen. To confirm these results, oxybenzone and benzophenone were evaluated for estrogenic activity using a juvenile rainbow trout assay. Three 14 day static-renewal exposures were carried out: one with oxybenzone, one with benzophenone and the other with a commercial sunscreen containing oxybenzone as the active ingredient. At the end of the 14 day exposure, the fish were sacrificed and vitellogenin expression was measured in the plasma by ELISA. Results showed estrogenic activity at 1000 ng/L approximately is 100 times greater than concentrations observed in previous wastewater effluent. Intraperitoneal injection of oxybenzone up to 1000 ng/g body weight failed to show a relationship to that of the studies previously with sediment extracts near the outfalls off the coast of California, USA. To evaluate the reproductive effects of each agent, Japanese Medaka were exposed to aqueous concentrations of oxybenzone and benzophenone that elicited vitellogenin induction from the previous study. Fecundity and hatchability showed a similar trend with that of vitellogenin induction, but no significant differences were observed relative to control with both agents. These data indicate that the UV filters, oxybenzone and benzophenone do not alter endocrine or reproduction endpoints in two fish species at concentrations measured in the environment.


CREATING AN UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH EXPERIENCE IN THE HUMANITIES

Naomi Yavneh, Office of Undergraduate Research, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, SVC1088, Tampa, FL 33620

While the traditional thesis or directed study model of undergraduate research in humanities allows for close mentorship of an advanced student, for faculty members it is generally a labor- intensive process that does not contribute to the mentor's personal research agenda. Moreover, faculty and students are often resistant to attempting the “apprentice researcher" model more prominent in the sciences, both because this style of mentorship is not part of the humanities “culture," and because students often lack the skills necessary to make them useful members of the research team. The USF Summer Humanities REU is designed to address these problems by adapting the format of REUs in the sciences, in order to achieve the same benefits: creating opportunities for a range of students (often rising juniors with potential and enthusiasm); creating a research community and support network for students; and, perhaps most significantly, providing students with a meaningful research opportunity while advancing their mentors' research agenda. During the pilot six-week session (2005) on “Women and Gender in Early Modern Europe," the 7 REU students (along with 25-30 non-REU students) enrolled in one of two regularly-offered content-based courses in Women's Studies and Humanities. In addition, the 7 students participated in a humanities research methods course specifically for this program, where they learned research skills applicable to their personal research topics for the other REU course, but also designed to train the students to be useful research apprentices. At the end of the summer, students presented their work at a colloquium to which interested humanities faculty were invited; the students were then matched with faculty members as stipended research apprentices for the academic year. Since then, we have followed this model in creating interdisciplinary REUs in Hurricane Studies and Sociology (Summer 2006), Peace Studies, and Women's Health (2007).


INTEGRATING UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH

Assistant Dean Dr. Lisa Kiely, Undergraduate Studies, University of Maryland, 2130 Mitchell Building, College Park 20742 Jennifer Dix, Program Coordinator, Maryland Center for Undergraduate Research, 2130 Mitchell Building, College Park 20742

Since 2002, the Maryland Center for Undergraduate Research (MCUR) has offered support for University of Maryland undergraduates at all stages of their academic careers and served as a clearinghouse for on- and off-campus research opportunities. In order to reach greater numbers of students and to meet our mission of enriching undergraduate education, in Fall 2006 MCUR identified several new areas for potential growth. In particular, we sought to significantly increase the Center's relationship to the undergraduate curricular experience by creating connections to general education requirements, the First Year Book program and international/global education. Our presentation provides details on two new MCUR program models that resulted from this initiative: • Undergraduate Research Module: This stand-alone unit is designed to be taught in already existing extended orientation courses that introduce students to University life. This module presents students with a sample research problem and links the way the student asks a research question to a discipline. Students are exposed to multiple disciplinary approaches to this issue and also learn about the strategies used by faculty exploring similar research problems on campus. By exposing students to the functions of a research university, and clearly identifying ways in which they can become a part of research teams, this module helps students to discover strategies for enriching their academic experiences at the University of Maryland. • First-Year Book Researchers: This initiative matches undergraduates with faculty whose research interests are reflected in the First Year Book (FYB). The FYB program is well established on campus and has been in existence since 1992. Distributed to all first-year students, the FYB provides a shared intellectual experience for all new students. First-Year Book Researchers benefit from faculty mentoring as they explore the themes and issues of the FYB. Participants will present an overview of their experiences at Undergraduate Research Day, and they will also benefit from FYB-related programming sponsored by the Office of Undergraduate Research and other campus units.


DETECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7 IN FOODSTUFFS BY MODIFIED ELISA METHOD USING ANTIBODY AND PHAGE DISPLAY.

Author: Katherine R. Prosen Research Sponsor: Dr. My Lien Dao Division of Cell Biology, Microbiology, and Molecular Biology; Department of Biology, University of South Florida 4202 E. Fowler Ave. Tampa, FL 33620

It has become increasingly apparent from the advent of the recent epidemic caused by the contamination of both spinach and lettuce, as well as the possibility of terrorist attacks, that a rapid, sensitive, and specific method of identification of Escherichia coli O157:H7, among other pathogens, is needed. The minimum infective dose of E. coli O157:H7 necessary to cause illness is believed to be ten cells. A modified ELISA was shown to detect as few as one E. coli O157:H7 in PBS per well (Dao Laboratory, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL - Patent Pending). It is believed that this method can be adapted to the detection of contamination of various foodstuffs, particularly skim milk and apple cider, both of which present unique difficulties for assays. In addition, ground beef, the most common food found to be contaminated, will be tested, as will spinach. Furthermore, the efficacy of a phage display library as a replacement of goat anti-E. coli O157:H7 polyclonal antibody will be investigated, as these have been shown to be more hardy and specific than antibodies, even when exposed to harsh environmental stresses.


ANALYSIS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL SAMPLING METHODS USING COMPLETE SURFACE DATA FROM THE PIRQUE ALTO SITE IN COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

Elizabeth Green, (Dr. Timothy McAndrews), Sociology and Archaeology, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, 1725 La Crosse, WI, 54601.

The use of sampling methods in archaeology is an extremely important and influential aspect of fieldwork and interpretation. Many archaeological sites, because of financial, labor, or time restraints are only sampled on a portion of their surface, with the results from these samples governing and directing interpretation of the entire site as well as all future research. Therefore, it is important to know that the procedures and methodologies so heavily relied upon are the most conclusive so that their influence on the excavation and interpretation of the site are as constructive as possible. To test these methods, experimental sampling situations were carried out using the data collected from the Pirque Alto archaeological site in Cochabamba, Bolivia. Work on this site, under the direction of Dr. Timothy McAndrews of the University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, included a 100% recovery of artifacts on the surface, serving as an excellent control group. The project addresses the following questions: do results from the sampling methods equal or come close to the results from 100% surface recovery; what method gives the most accurate results for this site and why; in what way are the methods biased and how can these biases be addressed; and, at what percentage of quadrat (unit) samples taken per each method do the results show validity, (5%, 10%, etc)? Completion of the project yielded specific information about how various sampling methods would or would not have effected the interpretation of the Pirque Alto site and can further be applied to a broader study of sampling methods to provide a better understanding of their advantages and limitations.


BLACK BRITONS: RECOLLECTING WEST INDIAN IDENTITY AND HISTORY IN POST-WORLD WAR II BRITAIN

Amarilis Francis, Professor John Cramsie, Department of History, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308.

The formation of British Identity for a significant number of West Indians living in Britain in the mid-twentieth century was the result of both two centuries of Imperialism and the end of World War II. Notions of identity for Jamaican colonial subjects were different than other Commonwealth subjects; they were linked to the British through religion, education, and culture. In essence, Jamaicans felt “English", connected through the interactions brought on by colonialism and the British nationalism instilled in them by their colonizers. West Indians helped the British fight the Second World War; volunteering for service to the “motherland", supporting the imperial system they considered a part of themselves. The war, fought on a global scale, affected all economies and in the advent of decolonization, sparked the movements of colonial subjects to Britain. During and after the war, a seemingly homogenous white Britain turned into a focal point for migration as the “visible" colonial subjects inhabiting the New Britain, came in search of new life. A white reevaluation of the definition of “Englishness" and by default the “Britishness" they associated with imperialism took place. Englishness became solidified as the conceptual definition of whiteness and “Britishness" by default the label for the racial “other". Perceptions of Britain as a homogenous nation, an “English" nation, are refuted in the narratives of the migrants that traveled to the “motherland" and settled there during the mass migration after the end of the war. The narratives of West Indians were lost, “hidden histories" of many “visible" communities in Britain have been left out of the standard historical narrative.


TEENS, GOD, AND SEX: EXAMINING THE EFFECTS OF SPIRITUALITY AND RELIGIOSITY ON ADOLESCENT SEXUAL BEHAVIOR

Nicole Steward (Alison Bianchi, NSYR is funded by the Lilly Endowment Inc) Department of Sociology, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242

Over the past few decades researchers have discussed the effects of religiosity on adolescent sexual behavior. These studies primarily focus on the role of religious affiliation and/or religious service attendance, as well as private religious observance, which could include prayer and scripture reading. This paper will take a more multi-dimensional approach to religiosity; the current study will compare the relative roles and various combinations of public religious commitment and personal spirituality and the relations among these roles and adolescent intercourse and oral sex behavior. Data are derived from the 2560 respondents to both wave 1 and wave 2 of the National Survey for Youth and Religion. Integrating Wuthnow's (1998) "seekers" and "dwellers" framework of religiosity and the ideal-type categories suggested by Smith and Denton (2005) and Good and Willoughby (2006), respondents were grouped into five theoretically based categories: 1. Spiritual Attenders; 2. Non-Spiritual Attenders; 3. Floaters; 4. Non-Spiritual Non-Attenders; and 5. Spiritual Non-Attenders. These categories were developed according to responses to survey questions regarding religious service attendance, perceived intimacy with God, and the role of faith in decision-making. OLS regression analyses were conducted to assess how membership in each category is related to the likelihood of having oral sex and intercourse. Preliminary results suggest that in each wave of data parents' income positively affects, and students' grades negatively affect, the age at first oral sex and intercourse for adolescents, irrespective of their spiritual/religious behavior. In addition, Spiritual Attenders, adolescents with both faithful religious attendance and strong reported intimacy with God, are less likely to participate in sexual behavior than Floaters, the largest percentage of adolescents in the study who report less than weekly religious service attendance and variable intimacy with God.


NAVAJO INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE: BALANCING WELLNESS AND TRADITION

Matthew M. Nelson Dr. Joylin Namie Behavioral Science Department Utah Valley State College 800 West University Parkway Orem, UT 84058-5999

Western medicine's arrival to the Navajo Nation has brought a new paradigm of health and healing to a still traditionally minded people. However, unlike many other Native American ethnic groups throughout the U.S., medicine men and other native health practitioners operate in full force among contemporary Navajo. As their patients are actively engaged in the preservation of native traditional healing practices, Western trained health care workers often actively encourage using methods that conflict with traditional Navajo ideals. This paper explores the choices Navajo patients face when traditional medicine conflicts with the possibility of a Western based cure. Personal interviews with patients served by the Navajo Area Indian Health Service illustrate that the ailing population is in a continual struggle between physical wellness and traditional death.


LANGUAGE FOR THE FUTURE AND THE PAST: HOW PARENTAL BACKGROUNDS INFLUENCE CHOICE OF CHILDREN'S LANGUAGE IMMERSION EDUCATION

Katelynn E. Jensen (Russell Christensen) Department of Modern Languages, Hamline University, St. Paul, MN 55104

Since the first language immersion schools opened in Canada in the 1960's, research has demonstrated the benefits of bilingualism for children. Bilingual children score better on standardized tests and are more likely to “think outside the box". St. Paul, MN, parents are not ignorant of these findings, judging by the large number of language immersion schools in St. Paul and the Twin Cities metropolitan area. The first Spanish immersion school appeared in St. Paul 20 years ago and a Mandarin Chinese program opened as recently as 2006; Spanish, French, German and Mandarin Chinese are currently available as elementary school immersion programs. The German and Mandarin programs were created as a direct response to parents' desires for their children's education. With so many options, what influences parents to choose one school, essentially one language, over the other? Additionally, why turn away from well-established programs in Spanish and French, languages which have many similar programs around the country, to venture into languages which have few programs nationally, and few native speakers in close proximity? To uncover answers to these questions, surveys were distributed to parents of Kindergarten and First Grade students at three language immersion programs in St. Paul, one each in Spanish, French and German. Questions covered topics such as parents' economic and social backgrounds, what other schools they considered for their child, as well as their familiarity with language immersion education and personal background (ancestral or scholastic) with the language of instruction at their child's school. Responses show that parents at these schools are very involved in and knowledgeable about their children's education and that language immersion education was a conscious decision influenced by a number of factors. A recurring factor in choosing a particular language program was the parents' own background in the target language, either ancestral or scholastic. Given this, administrators and communities should consider parental backgrounds when planning language immersion programs in their area.


GROWTH PROCESSES OF COLLEGE FRESHMAN WRITERS

Jaclyn Smith, English Department, Lafayette College, Easton PA, 18042

The transition from high school to college writing is often a diverse one. While some students adapt to the new demands of college writing with ease, others struggle with the expectations placed upon them by the university and their professors. The intended purpose of this study is to better understand the experience of writers in the freshman year. In order to study this period of development, researchers followed the experiences of six first-year students as writers. Three interviews were conducted with each student regarding the challenges, changes, and growths that each experienced in their writing over the course of the fall semester. Participants submitted portfolios of their writing to reflect the strategies they used as writers and any changes that may have occurred therein. Additionally, written surveys were mass distributed to the freshman class of 2007, questioning students on their writing habits, academic backgrounds, and sentiments regarding writing in college. Analysis of survey data, student interviews, and subject portfolio work demonstrates some of the major trends experienced in the freshman year. Few students take their work as writers seriously and many struggle with interpreting the demands of their professors, using resources skillfully and efficiently, taking intellectual risks, welcoming constructive criticism and feedback, and making substantive revisions to their writing. These struggles underscore the often contradictory demands placed upon freshman writers. They are asked to write authoritatively in disciplines they are largely unfamiliar with, to take criticism openly when many still lack confidence in their writing abilities, and to participate in peer editing without seeing the peer as an authority. What the narratives of freshman writers suggest is that the major difference between high school and college writing is how it is perceived. In college, writing is not a product but a process and it is one that invites experimentation, drafting, revision, and indeterminate conclusions.


ALTERING SHAKESPEARE: GIUSEPPE VERDI'S ADAPTATIONS OF SHAKESPEARE'S TRAGEDIES

Katherine E Beane (Dr. James Griesheimer) Music Department, Luther College, Decorah, IA 52101

Of his twenty-four operas, Giuseppe Verdi based two on Shakespearean tragedies: Macbeth and Otello. A thorough comparative analysis of the operas and plays reveals that, in the process of creating their operas, Verdi and his librettists altered the characters, plot, and format of the Shakespearean plays. The most vital changes Verdi made related to characters; in Macbeth, he omitted several characters and changed the intent of several other characters, most notably Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. By omitting, adding, and changing text from the Act One source material, Verdi painted Macbeth as a shaken coward and Lady Macbeth as a heartless murderess. Shakespeare's characters are more human than Verdi's characters, though they behave largely in the same manner. In addition to cutting and changing characters, Verdi also added a chorus of Scottish refugees to appeal to the rising nationalistic sentiment in Italy during that time. Having written Macbeth relatively early in his career, Verdi did not attempt another Shakespearean adaptation until Otello, which he wrote near the end of his career. He made similar changes in the two operas, but in Otello, the changes were even more extreme. Aside from cutting the entire first act of Shakespeare's play, Verdi extremely altered the main characters. By omitting, adding, and changing text throughout the opera, Verdi crafted a clear dichotomy of good versus evil. The conflict of the opera exists between Jago and Desdemona, as the personifications of evil and goodness, respectively. Verdi created Otello and Emilia to be servants of these forces, caught in the middle of the battle, and counterparts to one another insomuch as Otello ultimately succumbs to the evil, but Emilia remains faithful to the good. Verdi kept the story of Shakespeare's Othello but created characters who, like in Macbeth, lose some of their human identity in favor of a more simplistic view of human nature. When Verdi altered Shakespeare's characters, he altered the intent of the plays as a whole, creating two completely new works.


EVOLUTION OF B-CELL EPITOPES IN FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS

Jessica N. Cooke (Kristi M. Westover) Department of Biology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a positive-sense, single stranded RNA virus of approximately 8,000 bases and a member of the family Picornaviridae. FMDV is one of the most contagious animal diseases and has the potential to eradicate tremendous numbers of livestock causing great economic losses if not controlled. Conventional vaccines exist, but have been forbidden in the US and Europe because of the difficulty discriminating between vaccinated and previously infected animals. Several FMDV B-cell epitopes located in regions of the genome associated with proteins 2BC and 3ABD have been identified for use in this effort (2003 J Virol 77:8633-8639). We used statistical analysis of published genomic sequences from all seven recognized serotypes to examine how natural selection by host B-cells has influenced long term evolution of FMDV. For comparison of DNA sequences, the amino acids sequence alignments of 145 complete FMDV genomes were imposed on the DNA sequences, and the number of synonymous differences per synonymous site (pS) and the number of nonsynonymous differences (pN) were computed by Nei and Gojobori's 1986 method (Mol Biol Evol 3:418-426). In general, pS was always greater than pN, suggesting purifying selection. However, pN was significantly higher for serotype O than those for any of the other serotypes. In addition, we found evidence of positive selection (pN > pS) for one B-cell epitope in the 3A protein of serotype O strains of the virus. Understanding the long-term evolution of B-cell epitopes in FMDV will provide important information for understanding the complex interactions between this virus and the host immune system. The present study suggests that, in spite of overall conservation of epitopes, certain B-cell epitopes may be subject to repeated host selection.


FUNCTIONAL SIGNIFICANCE OF T-CELL CO-RECEPTOR CD8 ISOFORMS WITH DIFFERENT CYTOPLASTIMC TAILS

Dewan Kazi Farhana (Dr. Kavathas and Dr. Thakral), Dept. of Immunobiology, Yale University, TAC S641A, New Haven, CT 06520; Home Institution: Rutgers University

The immune system is a collaboration of intricate interactions between various cells and molecules that work in co-ordination to clear infectious microorganisms that enter the body. One of the cell type in adaptive immune system, is the CD8 T lymphocyte that recognizes virally infected cells as peptides associated with MHCI molecules expressed on antigen presenting cell (APC). The early events during T-cell and peptide-MHCI interaction include phosphorylation and intracellular calcium flux. The CD8+ molecule is expressed as an ab heterodimer on thymically derived CD8 T-cells and serves as a co-receptor during T-cell and peptide MHCI interaction. Unlike the mouse, the human CD8a gene undergoes alternative splicing generating four membrane associated isoforms that is represented as M1, M2, M3 and M4. These isoforms differ in their cytoplasmic tails and their functional significance is not known. Preliminary studies have shown that M2 isoform has reduced surface expression in transfected cells. One objective of this research was to investigate the possibilities of M2 instability. Presence of lysine residues in the cytoplasmic tail of M2 makes it a potential target for ubiquitination, a mechanism that tags proteins for degradation and affects stability. Site-directed mutagenesis of lysine (K) residues in M2 cytoplasmic tail was carried out. K195G M2 mutant showed better surface expression than wild-type in transiently transfected Cos-7 cells. Another approach to determine stability was to study down-regulation of CD8 molecule. Presence of dileucine (involved in downregulation) in M2 and M4 tails predisposes them to undergo downregulation upon T-cell activation. Deletion mutants removing dileucine motifs were generated. Additional functional analyses of CD8b isoforms was experimented with phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on M1 and M4 tails upon T-cell stimulation. The overall goal is to determine the functional differences between CD8 isoforms and generate a modified CD8b molecule with the most efficient signaling properties and enhanced binding to the MHC class I for use in immunotherapy.


HUMANITARIANISM AS NEO-COLONIALISM

Bradford Baker, (Vincent Rafael), History, Campus Box 353560, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

I have set out on a 6 month, 7,000 mile overland sojourn through eastern Africa, traveling from Cairo to Cape Town, to answer a deeply problematic question – ‘how does helping help?'. Humanitarianism as it exists at this current historical moment, especially with regards to the socio-political encounters between the US and African countries, shares many commonalities with old colonial discourses. It is my hypothesis that this stems from the existence of a contemporary (post-1964 Civil Rights) racialized US society that privileges whiteness and a post-colonial African continent that is constrained to a state of dependency on ‘the West'. Therefore, I will analyze and historicize the current historical moment of the relationship between the US and Africa and the role of humanitarianism in either subverting and/or sustaining that dependency. To do so, I have broken my research and data collection into two stages. The first is the 3-month overland portion. During this portion, which I am currently in the middle of, I will conduct interviews with US organizations and US citizens who are engaged in ‘helping' projects. The reason that I have chosen this ambitious method of surveying and witnessing, for the collection of data, is to experientially engage with, as much as possible, the multitude of ‘helping projects' that are currently taking place throughout Africa. For the second portion, I will work alongside and shadow a specific US ‘helping project' in Cape Town for 3 months. The purpose of this portion is to gain a deeper and more complex understanding of ‘helping' within a specific geographical and historical context. What I hope to offer from this project is a mapping out of the imaginative geographies of the space between a privileged US ‘helper' and a subaltern African ‘helped', theorizing how to best navigate that space. Though this is a critique of Western humanitarianism, it is not a question of if we help but instead a questioning and problematicizing of how helping currently manifests itself, with the hope that such a project can lead us towards a more humane relationship with Africa.


VISIBLE WAVELENGTH EMISSION FROM HIGH GALACTIC LATITUDE CLOUDS

Paul H. Sell, Adolf N. Witt, Steve Mandel, Thomas Dixon, Uma P. Vijh (National Science Foundation) Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, Ohio 43606

Interstellar clouds consisting of gas and dust occupy the space between stars in our Milky Way Galaxy. At high galactic latitudes such clouds are relatively rare, and, as a result, they can be observed as isolated objects without the confusion caused by multiple clouds along a given line of sight as found at lower galactic latitudes. Thus far, mainly radio and far-infrared instruments have been used to map these clouds, while, at optical wavelengths, they have largely remained unexplored. This is primarily the result of the low optical surface brightness of these clouds as their emissions are at most about 5-10% above the background light of the night sky at even the darkest observing sites. Therefore, mapping these clouds at optical wavelengths requires large amounts of observing time, far more than would normally be granted at a large telescope capable of adequately imaging these clouds. Consequently, we are using small-aperture, fast telescopes that can be used exclusively for our purposes and that have much larger fields-of-view than larger telescopes. We rely on the optical principle that the detection of extended sources of diffuse light does not depend on the aperture of the telescope but is exclusively dependent on the focal ratio of the telescope. We will report on the results of optical medium-band photometry on a set of high galactic latitude clouds using two very fast f/2.8 Takahashi reflecting telescopes and the BATC filter set (we avoid the brightest night sky emission lines when using these filters). From observations of these clouds, we will map the spatial distribution and spectral intensities of emissions from interstellar nanoparticles, manifested in the form of extended red emission (ERE), blue luminescence (BL) (if present), and scattered light in the H-alpha line of atomic hydrogen and in the optical continuum. Given that our optical imaging data offer much better angular resolution than radio and far-infrared observations have provided in the past, we will also be able to study the small-scale structure of individual clouds in better detail.


DETROIT AREA STUDY ON FINANCIAL SERVICES: NON-BANK FINANCIAL BUSINESSES RESEARCH PROJECT

Julio Dominguez (UROP student), Lawrence Molnar (Director), University of Michigan Center for Economic Diversification, Professor Michael S. Barr (Principal Investigator), University of Michigan Law School, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48104

The Detroit Financial Institution Research Project is a collaboration between Michael S. Barr, of the University of Michigan Law School, and the University of Michigan University Center for Economic Diversification. The purpose of the project is to conduct research in the Detroit metropolitan area (Macomb, Oakland and Wayne counties) regarding the supply of alternative financial services, such as check cashing services, loans, money orders, etc. Identifying where theses types of business are located and the specific services they provide will help us better understand the relationship between financial services and local populations, particularly those that are low-income and that are underserved financially. To meet this goal the project is surveying and analyzing what financial services are available from non- banking businesses, the accessibility of financial services, and the costs and benefits of such services. The project has developed a research data base of non- banking businesses with financial services in the metropolitan area that is being surveyed. The research project is part of a larger effort, the Detroit Area Study on Financial Services, being conducted by Professor Barr in conjunction with the Institute for Social Research, Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan. Ultimately researchers at U of M will use the information to recommend and help develop better services for low income and financially underserved households.


PHAGOCYTE FUNCTION DURING DEATH AND REGENERATION IN A COLONIAL SEA SQUIRT

Carolyn A. Castagna, (Robert Lauzon), Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, 807 Union St., Schenectady NY 12308-3107.

The systematic elimination of cells through apoptosis is a vital process in all multicellular animals. The star-shaped, colonial ascidian Botryllus schlosseri is a model system of the mechanisms which underlie apoptotic events at the organismal level. B. schlosseri colonies develop asexually by a process called cyclic blastogenesis. Every 5 days at 21oC during the takeover phase of the cycle, all adult die via apoptosis and their cell corpses are engulfed by blood phagocytes. Resorption is completed within 24 hours and a new asexual generation of adults replaces the old one. This study investigated phagocyte populations in B. schlosseri colonies with respect to composition and function. The first set of experiments addressed whether B. schlosseri expressed a single phagocyte population or multiple specialized populations. Alexa-488 E. coli (Gram -) and Alexa-594 fluorescent Staph. aureus (Gram +) bioparticles were microinjected intravascularly. Separate injections of the fluorescent bioparticles indicated that the phagocytes engulfing them had identical homing patterns during a colony's blastogenic cycle. When simultaneously injected, confocal microscopy confirmed that the same phagocytes engulfed both Gram + and Gram - bioparticles. As a second set of experiments, liposomes containing the phagocidal drug clodronate were also introduced through intravascular microinjection. Clodronate-injected B. schlosseri colonies failed to complete their blastogenic cycle, whereas PBS liposome-injected animals were unaffected. Adult individuals from clodronate-injected colonies contracted and died but their cell corpses remained unengulfed. Furthermore, development of the new asexual generation of buds was curtailed. Our findings indicate that phagocyte function is required for adult resorption and for recycling of macromolecules and building blocks used in organismic regeneration.


EXPLORING THE AFRO-LATINO PRESENCE: THE AFRO-PANAMANIAN EXPERIENCE IN MICHIGAN

Violeta A. Donawa, Ronald McNair Program and Center for Chicano-Boricua Studies Department, Wayne State University 656 West Kirby Rm 3040 Faculty Administration Building, Detroit, MI 48202

This project investigates how Afro-Panamanians adjust to the change of racial identity paradigms. How do Afro-Panamanians reconcile their identity with respect to the Black White dichotomy of United States from the Black-White continuum of Latin America? In the U.S., Afro-Latinos and other black immigrants are largely identified as African-American. A review of the literature indicates that black immigrants are subject to downward mobility in comparison to their white counterparts. Utilizing a qualitative methodological approach, this study will explore how Afro-Panamanians adjust to identity in the US and how that has impacted their lives. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews conducted with three (3) Afro-Panamanians gauged issues such as culture, lifestyle, residential mobility, education, racism, and colorism. Findings from this study suggests that : (1) Afro-Panamanians may lose culture and language without a support system to help sustain cultural identity; (2) Bilingual Afro-Panamanians adjust to American society easier, however racism and colorism complicate adjustment; (3) Although Afro-Panamanians identify as Latino and Black, conflict can still exist with Latin and African-American communities due to differences in culture and colorism. However, due to the sample size (N=3) findings may be limited in an accurate representation of the Afro-Panamanian community in Michigan.


ELECTRONICS AS A TRANSCENDENTAL MEDIUM

Marie Grudzien

My creative project is a contemporary classical electro-acoustic chamber piece entitled 'Dreams and Disasters: Natural or Not'. It is a multi-media work that includes live acoustic instruments, electronics, projected text and theatre. Its theme is multi-faceted in nature, investigating the complex realities of dreams/nightmares, and their counterpart in a modern world. Issues of reality, illusion, conflict, displacement, identity, and the integration (or not) of positive and negative aspects of technology are explored. Through my research, the original theme has developed further, investigating technology as a bridge, a peacemaker. What universal components can it contain – in an effort to balance the universal problems it can create? I feel this project provides no definitive answers, but rather a platform for discussion and interaction. The use of phonemes and various languages implies a universality, while the use of generated and manipulated sounds (from programs such as MAX and Logic) provide a different kind of commonality. Their complete uniqueness and newness expands a sound vocabulary for the whole world. Dr. Chuaqui's expertise has helped me to explore the aforementioned music programs in more depth. For example, analyzed human voice samples aid in the creation of generated sound. Recorded sounds (mainly human) are manipulated and re-invented, at times interweaved with white noise. Live acoustic instruments and voices play together with electronics at points. Throughout the piece, there are links provided between man and technology. I have purposefully recorded voices from people of different races, countries, and genders, in an attempt to employ technology as a transcendent medium for all. I believe by using technology in a creative way, artists can help to rewrite a system for its use that is more holistic, user-friendly, and socially interactive…an aid for better communication and understanding among people. Perhaps through its use in the arts, technology can truly interact with our own deeper nature as human beings.


TRIANGULATORY CONSTRUCTIONISM: EMPIRICS OF LATTER-DAY-SAINT DISAFFILIATION

Brent A. Westover (Jason C. Singh Adviser) Department of Behavioral Sciences Utah Valley State College 800 West University Parkway, Orem, Utah 84058

Is there a fixed course through which an individual must pass in the event of a massive socio-idiographic breakdown, and subsequent reconstruction of the individual's integrated world construction? Within the state of Utah there exists an interconnected religious canopy created by the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day-Saints, whereby ‘Mormonism' is more than the dominant religious faith; it is the overarching social structure by which the culture is dialectically galvanized between individuals and society. Mormon culture and its local propensity for fecundity affects even those who do not directly nor indirectly identify or affiliate with the LDS ethos. Mormonism, as a pseudo-immutable socialization mechanism is of utmost import when attempting to grapple with the unequivocal formation of ‘Utah constructionism'; thus, the study of Mormon disaffiliation enables one to gain a unique view of the chronological course experienced by the collapse of ‘subjective objectification'. Twenty life-long narratives given by prior fervent following LDS affiliates which account for their choice to exit the LDS faith have been analyzed and ‘unpacked' for contextual meaning utilizing the constructionist theories of Jean Piaget, Leon Festinger, and Peter Berger. This triangulation of theoretical ideology provides a powerful base in which the data may be extrapolated into valuable knowledge. Although the findings of Mormon disaffiliation cannot be nomothetized to the general population, the theoretical convergence of Piaget, Festinger, and Berger may be seen as a step in the most academically descriptive direction. As the findings fit well into this triangulated paradigm, deductive reasoning fosters a generalization from which my findings superimpose principles onto the general human population. This information may then be harnessed in an effort to better understand the individual's psycho-emotional journey through other ‘construct' shattering experiences such as divorce, overcoming a powerful addiction, being stripped of professional credentials, as well as other experiences which mandate world reconstruction.


ENVIRONMENT AND BIOGRAPHY AS MOTIVATING FACTORS BEHIND VOLUNTEERISM

Stephanie L. Jax (Sharon Preves) Sociology Department, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN 55104

Studies suggest that the “helper's high" is no longer enough to keep volunteers active within their communities. A variety of theories exist in an attempt to explain what motivates people to serve their communities. Social practice theory asserts that individuals repeatedly partake in particular actions because these behaviors become comfortable and routine. To test this assertion, a focused investigation of what inspires students and faculties who have continued to volunteer over time to transport their personal motivations to the Gulf Coast was conducted. In-depth interviews were conducted with members of the Hamline community, revealing a continuum of commitment. This continuum resulted in the following typology: loyal volunteer, discretionary volunteer, and "to get involved" volunteer. A majority of participants were classified as the loyal volunteer and reported being raised in environments continuously surrounded by messages to serve the community either through active role models or recurrent reinforcements of social awareness and participation. These individuals are now actively involved in efforts along the Coast. The remaining portion of the sample were classified as either discretionary or to get involved volunteers and reported similar experiences of sporadic continued involvement. Overall, familial support, encouragement and activity, religious involvement and continued education are all factors which influence community service involvement.


THE ROLE OF PROTEINS IN THE MUSCLE OF VARIOUS FISH

Kristen Sands (2), Mohit Sirohi (1), Ayanah Duhaney(2) (David Coughlin(2) and Loyd D. Bastin(1), 3) Departments of Biochemistry (1), Biology (2), and Chemistry (3), Widener University, One University Place, Chester, PA 19013

Proteins are vital to many functions of biological organisms including muscle relaxation and antifreeze activity. It is known that the structure of a protein is an important component of the control mechanism. We are characterizing proteins isolated from the muscles of fish to understand how proteins control various processes. The physiological properties of muscle are highly dependent on the various isoforms of several muscle proteins. Parvalbumin, a myoplasmic protein with two isoforms aids in relaxation by releasing Mg(II) and binding free Ca(II) which reduces the intracellular concentration of the ion. Since calcium plays a necessary role in contraction by binding to the regulatory protein troponin, a decrease in its intracellular concentration will result in relaxation of the muscle fiber. Although studies have shown differences in the Ca(II) dissociation constant for parvalbumin from different fish species, there is presently no data on how Ca(II) and Mg(II) dissociation rates might vary between isoforms of a given fish species. To address this issue, we are studying the Ca(II) and Mg(II) binding characteristics of parvalbumin isoforms in sheepshead, rainbow trout, rainbow smelt, and black tip reef shark. Here we report on our isolation and characterization of two isoforms of parvalbumin from sheepshead. Many organisms are able to survive at nearly subzero temperatures where bodily fluids are normally susceptible to freezing. Consequently, numerous organisms have adapted to these temperatures by synthesizing antifreeze proteins, proteins capable of binding to ice thus making further ice crystal growth energetically unfavorable, which allows the organism to endure harsher conditions. We are studying the muscle proteins of smelt in order to elucidate the mechanism by which the protein(s) exerts control over ice nucleation.


EFFECT OF PORPHYRIN STRUCTURE ON BINDING IN HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN (HSA)

Michelle Henderson, Joan Widin, Amanda Hannemann (Olga Rinco), Department of Chemistry, Luther College, Decorah, IA 52101

Supramolecular systems are structures held together by intermolecular interactions and not chemical covalent bonds. This study looked at the photophysical interaction of porphyrin probes with a protein solution. The data shows that the structure of the porphyrin probe affects the ability of the probe to interact with the host protein. Various spectral and kinetic experiments were used to help characterize the host-guest interaction between porphyrins and the human serum albumin (HSA) protein system. Lifetimes of the porphyrins were collected in both buffer and HSA solutions to determine if the changes in the Stern-Volmer constants were affected by differences in lifetimes or were due only to interaction of the porphyrin with the protein. Self-quenching experiments were conducted on each of the probes to determine if self-aggregation occurred at the experimental porphyrin concentrations, which would affect spectral data. Data has been collected for protoporphyrin IX (PPIX), hematoporphyrin (Hme), chlorine e6 (Ce6), deuteroporphyrin IX 2,4 bis ethylene glycol (DPIX), and octaethylporphine (OP) in homogeneous solvents, buffer, and HSA protein solutions. In the presence of protein binding sites some of the porphyrins appear to be incorporated within the binding site while other data is unchanged from the buffer systems. This suggests that the structure of the prophyrin is important to its ability to interact with the host protein.


THE ECONOMIC WELL-BEING OF CHILDREN AND URBAN FAMILIES: A COMPREHENSIVE MODEL

Heidi Flaten (Dr. Fahima Aziz), Department of Management and Economics, Hamline University, St. Paul, MN 55104

Numerous studies have been conducted on how the economic well-being of children affects their performance in school. A review of scholarly literature shows a negative relationship between students receiving free or reduced lunch and scores on tests. Most of this research has studied the results related to individual factors such as measurement of academic achievement, the success and effectiveness of a welfare program, child development, or effectiveness and efficiency of schools. The objective of my research is to present an original comprehensive model and measure of the economic well-being of the urban family by examining a large number of factors that influence their well-being. The well-being of children today reflects the well-being of communities in the future. Therefore, understanding the welfare of children will provide incentive for future improvements in the lives of children. This paper will begin with a discussion of welfare in the U.S., particularly Minnesota, the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), as well as Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP) and its impact on children. The research will specifically examine the relationship between child poverty as measured by the number of students who receive free or reduced lunch and performance on standardized tests. Other factors, such as gender, race, student-teacher ratio, household demographics such as single versus dual parents, parental education, parental occupation, and geographical locations are used to examine the effect on test scores. A regression model is used to test the hypothesis. Data from Saint Paul Public Schools (SPPS) and the Minnesota Department of Human Services (DHS) regarding MFIP will be used to test the model.


MEASURING MONOPSONY POWER: THE CASE OF WAL-MART

Matthew A Sveum (Jennifer W Keil), Department of Management and Economics, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN 55104

Wal-Mart has long been the target of criticism regarding its business practices. Critics have claimed that Wal-Mart harms other retailers by driving prices down and harms workers by cutting pay and benefits. Several studies have shown that Wal-Mart has significant power over its suppliers. This power generally consists of lowering the prices that Wal-Mart pays for goods, sometimes drastically cutting back on suppliers' profits. The question remains whether this anecdotal evidence indicates monopsony power on the part of Wal-Mart. This paper seeks to explore Wal-Mart's potential monopsony power by using econometric analysis and economic theory. Determining whether the power that Wal-Mart seems to have can be attributed to the economic theory of monopsony is also a primary goal of this project. Using a two-stage least squares regression, Wal-Mart's monopsony power is measured. First, the change in prices paid by Wal-Mart to suppliers is analyzed using a function including Wal-Mart's market share and previous prices, plus economic trends. Second, the change in quantity of product demanded in a region is examined using the price found in the first equation. Using these two regression equations, monopsony power can be measured by determining the direction prices and quantity change with the addition of a Wal-Mart store. The paper's hypothesis is that if prices paid and quantity demanded both fall, Wal-Mart has monopsony power. If prices fall but quantity rises, then the hypothesis is rejected, and Wal-Mart does not hold monopsony power. If Wal-Mart is shown to have monopsony power, it could potentially have large anti-trust consequences. Since the government goes after violators of anti-trust laws, Wal-Mart could be a big-name target if it is shown to have illegal power over suppliers. This study is unique in that it includes Wal-Mart's market share in the price regression, it focuses on monopsony power, and it discusses the policy implication of these effects.


MOTIVATIONS FOR DRINKING: A SELF-REPORT OF MEMBERS OF ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS

Megan Jones (James Gilbert) Department of Natural and Social Sciences, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68845; University of Nebraska at Kearney, 905 W. 25th St. Kearney, NE 68845

The purpose of this study was to generate insight regarding motivations that cause people to drink to the point of alcoholism. A survey was developed consisting of reasons for drinking, including social events, suppression, disinhibition, and whether or not other members of the family drank. It was hypothesized that the most common motives for drinking would include such reasons as to escape the stress and problems of daily life and to feel more comfortable in social situations. Twenty participants, all members of Alcoholics Anonymous, completed this survey. The participants were 20 years old and above, with the highest number of respondents in the 20-30 year old age range. The average length of time attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings was 7.98 years. The results demonstrated that although most participants had family members that drank, they did not conclude this to be the reason they began drinking. Rather the surveyed respondents ranked various social causes as being more powerful motivators for their alcoholism than other possible influences. The top three reasons that respondents believed that they began drinking included: to celebrate social occasions (100%), because they liked the positive feelings that they felt while drinking (90%), and to have a good time with friends and peers (85%). Although family influence was not considered a motive for drinking, it is interesting to note the high number of family members that were reported to be social drinkers. Limitations for this research include its small sample size and lack of diversity. It would be beneficial to study, in future research, the differences between the responses of men and women, and the differences between races.


GNOSTIC HERITAGE IN RUSSIAN MONASTICISM: INTIMATIONS IN DOSTOEVSKY'S THE BROTHERS KARAMAZOV AND HISTORICAL EVIDENCE

Matthew Morris-Cook, (Dr. Rebecca Hogan) Department of Languages and Literatures, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, 400 West Main Street, Whitewater, WI 53190

This paper will track the historical connections between Gnosticism and the Russian Church and identify how that influence helped Dostoevsky shape certain characters in The Brothers Karamazov. The influence of Christian Gnosticism upon the Russian Church, and in particular upon a small group of Russian ascetics known as the Institution of Elders, is a subject that has been all but ignored by church scholars. Despite this oversight, there is tangible, documented evidence that Gnosticism has had a significant impact on the Russian Church. Russian monks, for instance, modeled their ascetic life upon the Gnostic ascetics living in Egypt and Syria during the third and fourth centuries, known as the “Desert Fathers." In addition, Medieval Bogomilian Gnostics had a significant effect on the newly formed Russian Church, and in particular, Russian ascetics. This Gnostic strain is evident in various characters in Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov, including the protagonist Alyosha, his mentor, the elder Zosima, and the figure of Satan. The characters, especially Zosima, display distinctly Gnostic viewpoints, and at times seem to relate Gnostic creation myths, folk traditions, and dualism.


AUDIENCE SPECIFIC ADVERTISING BY GENRE : A RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF VIDEO GAME TRAILERS

Laura E. Drews, (Donna Weimer) Department of English and Communications, Juniata College, 1700 Moore St Huntingdon PA, 16652

With the popularity of video games, especially for the PC, there is intense competition among new releases. Today's gamer devotes limited attention to advertising, which makes strategic advertising for games very important. Advertising must not only appeal to gamers within a genre, but draw in those from other areas. This research argues that each trailer focuses on the key aspects of gameplay that players desire in their favored genre. This research examines the trailers of seven top releases in six genres; compares how each advertisement employs different rhetorical strategies; especially audience analysis; and highlights the key elements of gameplay for specific players. Each of the genres approaches advertising differently and the most effective advertising campaigns balance the tension between what the target audience desires in a game, and what new audiences and potential players from other genres seek. As the realm of gaming expands, many new releases are built upon old games with established audiences. This research also illustrates how the trailers accommodate both their established audiences and gamers that have never played their previous games, incorporating aspects of past games, new features, and originality. Findings suggest that within a genre advertising balances key gameplay aspects for hardcore gamers and approachability for other gamers.


EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO PROTEINS FROM THE INSECT LIPID DROPLETS, LSDP1 AND LSDP2.

Laticia Rivera (Jose Luis Soulages and Estela Arrese) Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078. Supported by National Science Foundation and OK-LSAMP.

Like vertebrates, insects store energy in the form of triacylglycerols (TG) in the lipid droplets. Lipid droplets are a type of organelle that is surrounded by a phospholipid monolayer to which a number of proteins bind and participate in the regulation of TG metabolism. A prominent protein of insect lipid droplets is Lipid Storage Protein 1. The activation of TG mobilization (lipolysis) in insects correlates with the increase in the phosphorylation of Lsdp1. It has been hypothesized that this protein is a regulator of lipolysis. In contrast to Lsdp1, Lsdp2 has been related to the mechanism of storage of TG in the lipid droplets. Studies show insects overexpressing Lsdp2 accumulate more fat as TG whereas insects in which this protein was silenced are lean. In the lab we are investigating the properties of these two proteins as a part of a study on the mechanism of regulation of lipolysis in insects. Lsdp1 and 2 from Drosophila melanosgaster were expressed in E.coli as fusion proteins containing thioredoxin and His-Tag. Both proteins were found as inclusion bodies. Lsdp2 was solubilized by sonication in 6M urea and purified as planned by Ni-Affinity chromatography. In contrast, Lsdp1 was highly insoluble. The purification of Lsdp1 was carried out by washing the inclusion bodies extensively with 6M urea to remove the contaminant proteins. Lsdp1 was then solubilized by sonication in the presence of detergents and 8M urea. The removal of the thioredoxin portion of Lsdp2 was accomplished by incubating Lsdp2 in an aqueous buffer with thrombin. However, Lsdp1 was found to be sensitive to thrombin only when the protein was bound to phospholipids. This is suggesting that the protein acquires the expected conformation when it is bound to lipids. Despite the fact that these two proteins are both associated to lipid droplets the purification process has shown them to be characteristically unique.


DISCOVERY AND FREQUENCY MEASUREMENT OF SHORT-WAVELENGTH FAR-INFRARED LASER EMISSIONS

C. Connell, G. M. Borstad, C. Uranga (L. R. Zink and M. Jackson) Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601; Department of Chemistry, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182

A three-laser heterodyne system has been used at the University of Wisconsin-La Crosse to measure far-infrared (FIR) laser frequencies with fractional uncertainties up to 2 parts in ten million. The heterodyne technique used in this work combines the known frequencies of two infrared lasers to create a difference frequency in the FIR region. The difference frequency was then mixed with the unknown FIR laser frequency to produce a beat frequency in the microwave region. The frequency and characteristics of the beat were measured and used to determine the unknown FIR laser frequency. With this system, the frequencies of twelve previously observed far-infrared laser emissions from the partially deuterated methanol isotopologues 13CD3OH and CHD2OH have been determined for the first time. Two laser emissions, having wavelengths of 53.773 and 74.939 micron, have also been discovered and frequency measured. The carbon dioxide pump laser offset frequency was measured with respect to its center frequency for twenty-four FIR laser emissions from methanol and these isotopic forms.


PREGNANT FIRST GENERATION HISPANIC IMMIGRANTS: PREGNANCY, STRESS AND BABY'S APGAR SCORES, GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT

Author's Name: Murphy, Kathleen M Location where research was conducted: Unified Government of Wyandotte County Health Department 701 North 7th Street Kansas City, KS 66101

This study will compare pregnant first generation Hispanic immigrant women's (aged 18-24) perceived stress levels as measured by the perceived stress scale and the pregnancy experience scale with their baby's APGAR scores, birth weight and gestational age. All of the subjects will be in their third trimester of pregnancy. The questionnaire contains 67 questions (including background questions). After the participants fill out the survey and give birth, the APGAR scores, birth weight and gestational age of the baby will be obtained and compared. The study (approx. n=30) is hypothesized to find that the babies of study participants will have significantly lower APGAR scores, gestational ages and birth weight than the national averages. The study will be completed in January 2007.


GLOBAL KNOWLEDGE FLOWS: ORIENTALISM AND INTELLECTUAL CIRCULATION IN THE AGE OF IMPERIALISM

Elizaveta Fouksman (Dr. Dilip Menon) Department of History, Delhi University, University Road, Delhi 110 007, India; University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

The word ‘globalization' has the tendency to conjure up instant associations of modernity, industrial development, free trade economics and the like. However, this paper instead constructs globalization as above all a product of global flows and global integration. Both of these process are much more then simply economic – just as global integration occurs in the social, cultural and intellectual realms, so are global flows not limited to goods or capital, but are also linked to the circulation of knowledge, ideas and culture. And both have been occurring for many centuries prior to so-called ‘modernity.' Within this framework of a broader, socio-cultural definition of globalization this paper inserts the phenomenon of Orientalism, in particular the Orientalism that concerned itself with the knowledge and construction of India and Indian mysticism in the early Colonial era. I argue that the mechanisms through which global knowledge flows from the East into the West circulated can be divided into two forms – those of informal knowledge flows, such as the flow of goods and people and the pressures of enculturation, and formal knowledge constructions, such as the books and academic institution that were products of the Orientalist enterprise. The history of European interest in India presents a shift between the former and the latter form of global knowledge flows, and this shift echoes both the history of British colonialism and the changes in European culture during the 18th and early 19th century. Thus, the argument central to this paper lies in that it was essentially the shifts and changes within and between the mechanisms of global idea flows in the early colonial era from which the modern European conception of Eastern mysticism – and indeed of Europe itself as defined in distinction to this mysticism – haltingly emerged.


LEGALIZED LYNCHING: AN ENDORSEMENT BY AFRICAN-AMERICANS?

Chelsey Tubbs (Dr. Paula McClain, Dr. Georgia Duerst-Lahti) Ralph Bunche Summer Institute, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708; Department of Political Science, Beloit College, Beloit, WI 53511

The death penalty has always been a policy highly scrutinized by the public and politicians throughout American history. With the high prevalence of African Americans sentenced to death row, this policy has become a salient issue not only in the political and judicial areas, but also in the area of race politics as it pertains to the American political system. My research concentrates on the African American community’s feelings towards the death penalty. It explores the death penalty policy, how the American public feels in upholding the policy, how the African American community is affected by the policy, and whether or not the preconceived notion of Blacks opposing the death penalty holds true despite new literature stating a division of support over the issue. I also examine whether the theory of “linked fate” remains a deciding factor in the Black community when the death penalty issue is brought to the forefront. Given the ever-increasing amount of literature stating widespread and systematic racism against African Americans in the criminal justice system, this research helps to bring renewed attention to an already hotly debated topic and also contributes to the field by examining the feelings of African Americans, since there is little literature doing so presently.


AN ASSESSMENT OF THE RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ATTITUDES TOWARD THE ELDERLY, DEATH ANXIETY, AND LOCUS OF CONTROL

Jessica L. Bishop, Bethany K. Roden, Alicia C. Bolton, Rachel V. Wynn (Irene M. Staik, John W. Burling, D. Kristen Gilbert) Psychology Program, Department of Behavioral and Social Science, University of Montevallo, Montevallo, AL 35115-6440

Research shows an overwhelming negative attitude toward the elderly in the United States. This negative attitude is called ageism and results in less-than-optimal reactions toward the elderly. College students are the future caregivers of the elderly and are, themselves, the elderly of tomorrow. We hypothesized that high levels of ageism resulting in negative attitudes in college students may be paired with high levels of external locus of control, in which students feel that they have little control over events in their lives, resulting in the students having a heightened anxiety toward death. Conversely, college students with higher levels of internal locus of control, indicating that they feel in control of many aspects of their lives, are hypothesized to hold more positive attitudes toward the elderly and lowered levels of death anxiety. Scales measuring locus of control, death anxiety, and attitudes toward the elderly were given to 80 college students at a small, southern liberal arts university A correlational analysis of the students' responses to the three scales supported our hypotheses. Future research should involve larger samples of students and might also include the effects of an educational intervention concerning death anxiety, attitudes toward the elderly and locus of control in a pre-post experimental design.


REGULATION OF MLK3 BY THE TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN MERLIN

Robert I. Hieronimus, Dr. Deborah N. Chadee, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606.

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the nervous system which affects 1 in 30,000 individuals. The NF2 gene encodes a 595 amino acid protein called Merlin that is a member of the ezrin, radixin, moesin (ERM) family of proteins. Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 2 exhibit loss of function mutations in the NF2 gene. We previously identified an interaction between Merlin and Mixed Lineage Kinase 3 (MLK3); and observed that Merlin blocked MLK3 kinase activation of co-expressed JNK. The aim of this research was to determine the mechanism by which Merlin inhibits MLK3 kinase activity. Merlin expression was induced in RT4 cells (rat schwannoma cells expressing a tetracycline-inducible NF2 gene) using doxycycline, and measured the levels of phosphorylated MLK3. Immunoblotting was performed with an antibody that specifically detects activated MLK3 phosphorylated on Ser 277/Ser 281 and observed that RT4 cells have an elevated basal level of activated MLK3. Furthermore, induction of Merlin in these cells inhibited MLK3 kinase activation. We postulated that Merlin inhibits activation of MLK3 by blocking its binding to the GTPase Cdc42, an upstream activator of MLK3. Co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous MLK3 and Cdc42 from RT4 cells revealed that induction of Merlin inhibited the interaction between MLK3 and Cdc42. In future studies we will investigate the effect of Merlin on MLK3 signaling in cancers of the breasts, ovaries and colon.


SUBVERTING THE CHIMERA: A SPECULATIVE EXPLORATION OF PATRIARCHAL BINARY OPPOSITIONS AND GENDER PERFORMANCE IN AMERICAN HIGHER EDUCATION.

Alexandra H Godfrey, Honors Program, English Division, Henry Ford Community College, 5101 Evergreen Road, Dearborn. MI 48128

This study, through review and analysis of the work of Jacques Lacan, Helene Cixous, and Judith Butler, explores strategies of gender hierarchy and exclusion. These strategies are then applied to interactions between male professors and female students in academic institutions. How does gender influence these interactions? Does the male professor inadvertently submit to the political female form? How might the female student successfully negotiate (and perhaps subvert) phallocentric hierarchical binaries? This study reveals that the answers to these questions are riddled with complexity and duplicity. Language provides the subject with a medium for expression, and writing, with its presences and absences, gives meaning and identity. Thus, in writing, the female student might find her emancipation; be able to express her “essence" and escape the suffocating confines of patriarchal interpretations of meaning. Following the tradition of l'ecriture feminine, the initial suggestion is that girls should write, write, and write. However, this analysis speculates subsequently that institutionalized norms and expectations concerning how male professors and female students should write to and about each other preclude such free expression by women. Indeed, there are certain cultural and political restrictions, enforced through repetition and prohibition, which prevent girls from writing with all their hearts. Liberation, however, can be found within the boundaries of cultural norms. Female students, using their appreciation of l'ecriture feminine and gender performance, may subvert the limitations of a patriarchal hegemony. This subversion does not require overt rebellion, which is likely to lead to exclusion, but rather a strategy of displacement and redefinition. Gender can be rewritten. The chimera is, after all, an imaginary beast whose nature can be changed.


INFLUENCE OF HARTREE-FOCK EXCHANGE ON THE CALCULATED MOSSBAUER ISOMER SHIFTS AND QUADRUPOLE SPLITTINGS IN FERROCENE DERIVATIVES USING DENSITY FUNCTIONAL THEORY

Ryan G. Hadt and Victor N. Nemykin (Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program) Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, University of Minnesota Duluth, 1049 University Drive, Duluth, MN 55812, USA

Influence of molecular geometry, type of exchange-correlation functional, and contraction scheme of basis set applied at the iron nuclei have been tested in the calculation of 57Fe Mössbauer isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings for a wide range of ligand types as well as oxidation and spin states in inorganic and organometallic systems. It has been found that uncontraction of the s-part of Wachter's full-electron basis set at the iron nuclei does not appreciably improve the calculated isomer shifts. The observed correlations for all tested sets of geometries are close to each other and predominantly depend on the employed exchange-correlation functional with B3LYP functional being slightly better as compared to BPW91. Both hybrid (B3LYP) and pure (BPW91) exchange-correlation functionals are suitable for the calculation of isomer shifts in organometallic compounds. Surprisingly, it has been found that the hybrid B3LYP exchange-correlation functional completely fails in accurate prediction of quadrupole splittings in ferrocenes, while performance of the pure BPW91 functional for the same systems was excellent. This observation has been explained on the basis of relationship between the amount of Hartree-Fock exchange involved in the applied exchange-correlation functional and the calculated HOMO-LUMO energy gap in ferrocenes. Based on this explanation, use of only pure exchange-correlation functionals has been suggested for accurate prediction of Mössbauer spectra parameters in ferrocenes.


SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FEPT MAGNETIC ALLOY NANOPARTICLES

Brianna Jackson Advisors: Drs. M. Shima†, B. Cardelino¥, and N. Ravi Department of Physics and ¥Chemistry, Spelman College, Atlanta, GA 30341 and †Department of Materials Science, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 110 011

The purpose of this research is to understand the structural, electrical, and magnetic properties of the FePt nanoparaticle system. For the synthesis of FePt nanoparticles, a polyol synthesis process was employed. Samples were annealed under H2 atmosphere to control the structure and defects of the particles. The as-prepared FePt nanoparticles are found to be in the face-centered cubic (FCC) phase as revealed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. Vibrating sample magnetometery (VSM) results of the as-prepared FePt nanoparticles indicate a coercivity of nearly 0 Oe at room temperature, suggesting the superparamagnetic nature of the nanoparticle system. Annealing treatment clearly identifies the evolution of the face-centered tetragonal (FCT) phase in addition to the FCC phase. Annealing also enhances the coercivity of these nanoparticles to 2000 – 8560 Oe probably due to the formation of the FCT phase. A single absorption line is observed in the 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of the as-prepared system with an isomer-shift of ~0.2 mm/s. Calculations pertaining to electronic and magnetic properties are currently underway. Details of the preparation procedure, spectroscopic characterization, and computational results will be discussed.


BEYOND BENEVOLENCE: HOW THE GLOBAL ICT PRIVATE SECTOR VIEWS ITS WORK TOWARD INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT?

Adam J. DiClemente, (Dr. Shalini Venturelli), School of International Service, American University, Washington, DC

Approaches to international development have been in a state of flux over the past decades. Challenges to models of economic growth through the restructuring of economic systems and policies have arisen from within and without the international development community. During this time, two significant and correlated trends have emerged: Information and Communications Technologies for Development and Private Sector Development. Increasingly, in these two veins, Private Sector firms are being called upon to ‘engage' in International Development programs. However, high-level private sector involvement in such projects is a relatively novel concept. Without a clear understanding of the Global ICT private sector's view of their role in communications-development initiatives, the results of such programs may be other than the intended. There remains a rift within the international development community about whether the private sector's contribution is best derived from actions taken in a quasi-NGO/donor role, what I construct as the ‘benevolence model,' or through their daily market activities. The following analyses are the results of an interpretative research study designed to answer the question, “How does the Global ICT Private Sector define its role in International Development?" Trends and data were gathered through a series of semi-structured interviews with leading firms in the global ICT marketplace, and through document analysis strategic corporate and marketing materials. Based on this data, I argue that while corporate development campaigns under the ‘benevolence model,' are becoming key parts of corporate work in the developing world, beyond benevolence, the global ICT private sector believes that development is most significantly affected by the use and application of the communications tools which they provide, and through the externalities generated through their natural market oriented actions.


HEALING A FRACTURED NATION: THE SYMBOLIC CONVERGENCE OF "THE SHINING CITY ON THE HILL" IN GEORGE W. BUSH'S FIRST INAUGURAL

Joshua Scacco (Donna Weimer) Communication Department, Juniata College, 1700 Moore Street, Huntingdon, PA 16652

Following the most controversial presidential election in American history, George W. Bush sought to heal a divided polity by focusing its attention on a more perfect future and off the election result and subsequent constitutional crisis. Using Ernest Bormann's fantasy-theme approach to analyze Bush's first inaugural, this paper discovered a setting, actors, actions, a fantasy type, and a rhetorical vision to support Bush's attempt to heal the nation. Establishing the setting as “story," Bush spoke of the American story, “a long story – a story we continue, but whose end we will not see." Using the American citizen as actor, Bush talks of our journeying through this story as the action taken to preserve American ideals. “Our democratic faith is…an ideal we carry but do not own, a trust we bear and pass along." These elements form the dominant fantasy type of the “epic quest," a familiar image that recurs throughout millennia from King Arthur and the search for the Holy Grail to Frodo's journey to save Middle Earth. The epic quest symbolically merges with the American “story" into a comprehensible rhetorical vision, “the Shining City on the Hill." Ultimately, each quest has a conclusion: Kansas for Dorothy and the Shire for the Hobbits. Bush's first inaugural illuminates a conclusion to this epic American story, “the Shining City on the Hill" which is his overarching rhetorical vision. “When we see that wounded traveler on the road to Jericho, we will not pass to the other side." Rhetorically, Bush's language mirrors Ronald Reagan when talking of the shining city as the “promised land" which strategically takes a divided nation's mind off present “bumps in the road" and focuses them on a perfect future. Achieving “the Shining City on the Hill" becomes the calling for each American citizen. This shared vision of a perfect future builds common ground across red and blue America and binds up partisan wounds.


UTILIZING IDLE CPU USAGE IN AN AUTOMATED FASHION FOR RSA NUMBER FACTORIZATION

Holly Esquivel, Harry Ngondo, Trevor May (John Hastings) Department of Computer Science and Information Systems, University of Nebraska at Kearney, 905 West 25th Street, Kearney, NE 68849

Businesses and consumers continually rely on the security of RSA cryptosystems. The RSA algorithm, which was first introduced in the 1970s, has since served as a primary means of key cryptography throughout the world. As computers have increased in speed and capabilities the bit length of RSA cryptosystems has increased to lengths of 512 to 2048 bits. RSA numbers in the past have remained fairly secure because of the difficultly involved in factoring large numbers. In this research, we present an automated decryption technique implemented through screensavers, which finds the factors of large RSA numbers. We have implemented our screensaver program on thirty plus computers in a manner which restricts CPU usage while performing the mathematical calculations in order to promote hardware longevity. Our factoring algorithm has been successfully applied to RSA numbers up to 200 bits. With our algorithm it typically takes six to ten weeks in CPU weeks combined to perform the factorization of a 200 bit number on Intel Pentium 4 - 3.60GHz computers running Windows XP Pro with an average top CPU usage of 48 percent. Within the next year, we plan to expand our research to numbers to 500-2048 bit numbers by implementing new and more advanced factoring algorithms into our screensaver program.


CHURCH OF THE POOR: RELIGIOUS THEMES IN SONGS OF INNOCENCE AND OF EXPERIENCE

Kai Hoffman-Krull English Department Seattle University 901 12th Avenue, P.O. Box 222000 Seattle, WA 98122

In 1794 William Blake published Songs of Innocence and of Experience, a work which expressed, through contrasting points of view, similar themes concerning life and religion. This paper analyzes Blake's religious views in these poems, specifically his understanding of Jesus and his views on institutionalized Christianity. The paper examines two specific poems that focus on Jesus, "The Tyger" and "The Lamb," which articulate both the potentially wrathful and gentle nature of Jesus. An analysis of three other poems is added to this discussion: the two versions of "Holy Thursday" and "The Garden of Love," all three of which develop Blake's views of Christianity. On the basis of these analyses, I argue that Blake was making two separate statements: one on the true nature of Christ and his teachings, and the other on the contemporary practice of Christianity. I propose that the imagery in both "The Tyger" and "The Lamb" is drawn extensively from the Book of Revelation, where the meek lamb is depicted as holding great potential for wrath. By connecting this understanding of Jesus to "The Garden of Love" and the two renditions of "Holy Thursday," I argue that Blake is crafting a warning that institutionalized Christianity has become divorced from God, and that in rejecting the poor, contemporary Christians are simultaneously rejecting Jesus. The paper not only expands upon published interpretations of these poems, but also demonstrates the biblical roots of Blake's views and aids in the understanding of his social commentary.


PLOTTING MODERNITY'S LEGACY: THE PROBLEM OF BLACKNESS PORTRAYED IN FOUR NOVELS BY JAMES BALDWIN AND RICHARD WRIGHT.

Davu Seru (Veena Deo), Department of English, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN 55104

The theory of double consciousness is a useful lens through which to view the literary careers of James Baldwin and Richard Wright—it is the force that drives their need to plot the struggle for black autonomy. Paradoxically, the authors struggle to transcend the imposition of race while also professing a need to maintain racial memory; the latter mostly due to the fact that black identity is inescapable in a "white" world—a world that defines itself in relation to those it perceives as “other." Here I wish to focus on the move that each author makes in characterizing this struggle from his earlier to his later novel, particularly with regard to how double consciousness affects their portrayals of black male protagonists. The move that Baldwin makes from a preoccupation with religion, black communities, and their relationship to the formation of black male identity in his novel Go Tell it on the Mountain to a preoccupation with the theme of difference in Another Country offers evidence of his struggle to depict how racial identity problematizes the autonomy of the individual. Similarly, Wright's transition from his novel Native Son to The Outsider—a transition where the protagonist is, in the first novel, “driven" toward immoral behavior, versus the latter work where he “chooses" immorality—shows a major shift in the author's characterization of the so-called “Negro problem." Ultimately, I argue that both authors are dedicated to a modern project: affirming the sacredness of the individual, and this by insisting on the recognition of black life as part and parcel to the construction of modernity.


THE SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF THE 1348 BLACK DEATH IN ENGLAND

Tiffany T. Dann (Michael Galgano), History Department, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807

The Black Death was a devastating pandemic that ravaged Europe in 1347 and quickly spread by routes of trade on land and sea, eventually entering the British Isles in 1348. The Black Death knew no differentiation between social classes, sex, or location. It spread to most who came in contact with it, reaping deadly results, and greatly altering the social life of the fourteenth century. This paper examines the social effects of the Black Death in England, first establishing the context of pre-plague life there, through an examination of specific cities such as Winchester. Through examination of pre, contemporary, and post plague England, the plague's impact on faith, lifestyle, agriculture, and how society as a whole changed as a result are studied. Comparative analysis and cross examination of different primary sources in the Winchester region are used to draw conclusions about the spread of the plague and its severity. There are an abundant amount of primary sources on the Black Death in England, such as manorial accounts, church registers, pastoral records, and governmental records that will form the foundation of this interpretive analysis.


ELECTRON SCATTERING AND PION PRODUCTION IN RELATION TO NEUTRINO-NUCLEON INTERACTIONS

Elizabeth Scherrer research sponsor - Professor Kevin McFarland Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Rochester 500 Wilson Boulevard Rochester, NY 14627

Neutrino flavor oscillations offer a chance to understand whether neutrinos differ from their anti-particle. Differences, if any, may appear as neutrinos and anti-neutrinos undergo flavor oscillations, specifically when a beam of neutrinos, produced as muon neutrinos initially, will change flavors to electron neutrinos. This electron neutrino is then identified by its interaction with a nucleon because it produces an electron. However, a background from the muon neutrino is possible if the nucleon is excited to a delta baryon resonant state, which then decays back to the nucleon and produces another particle, a neutral pion. Sometimes this neutral pion, which decays into two photons, will be mistakenly detected as an electron. The detection of this “electron" misleads others to believe that the initial particle was an electron neutrino, not a muon neutrino. Using available data on electron-nucleon interactions instead, where the nucleon is still excited into a delta baryon resonant state, we can measure the ratio of pions produced from different nuclei to better understand how the environment of the nucleus effects neutral pion production. This information then can be utilized in future experiments to reduce error from the detector efficiency involving neutrino-nucleon interactions.


AQUEOUS PHOSPHATE REMOVAL USING IRON OXIDE FROM ABANDONED COAL MINE DRAINAGE

Stefan O Ochiana, Laura Echard, Daryle Fish, Chemistry Department, Saint Vincent College, Latrobe, Pa 15650.

This study explored the feasibility of utilizing iron oxide produced from abandoned coal mine drainage from three discharges in western Pennsylvania for phosphate removal in laboratory experiments. The experimental work focused on the effects of varying the pH on the adsorption of phosphate to the surface of iron oxide. The results from this study were compared to similar binding studies to synthetic iron oxide found in the chemical literature. It was observed that the phosphate adsorption showed a decrease in binding with an increase of pH. In general, it was observed that the binding of phosphate to iron oxide was about 15-18 times lower than the freshly precipitated iron oxides. The decrease in binding can be attributed to a decrease in surface are. One future goal of this study is to determine whether iron oxides produced from coal mine drainage can remove phosphates from water and waste water streams.


ST. FRANCIS AS THE "OTHER CHRIST": PROPAGANDA IN THE FRESCOES OF SAN FRANCESCO IN ASSISI

Shannon Gilmore, Dr. Carolyn Watson, Art Department, Furman University, 3300 Poinsett Highway, Greenville, SC 29613

Prior to the Basilica di San Francesco in Assisi, Italy, there is no instance of a church so heavily focused on an individual saint, with the possible exception of those devoted to the Virgin Mary. Through research for my medieval art history class, I examined how the basilica acted as propaganda for promoting the growth of the newly formed Franciscan Order. Ironically, I proposed that though the basilica generally portrays Francis and his theology in an accurate light, the Franciscans' motivation for the building of the basilica and the usage of Francis as an authority figure steers the Order in a direction contrary to Francis' intentions for its future. In the Testament, Francis says: “The brothers must be careful not to accept any churches, poor dwellings, or anything else constructed for them unless these buildings reflect the holy poverty promised by us in the rule." Obviously, the procurement of the impressively decorated basilica by the brothers directly violated this command. Through its frescoes, the basilica emphasizes St. Francis as the alter Christus, or “other Christ," thus validating the significance and holiness of the Order, as its founder is closely associated with Christ. The basilica asserts the power of the Franciscan Order through the elevation of its founder to a Christ-like status. The frescoes depict St. Francis as the other Christ by portraying typological relationship between Christ and St. Francis; by focusing heavily on St. Francis' and Christ's stigmata; and by introducing a more naturalistic style to emphasize Christ's humanity. The promotion of the Order was successful, as in the century after St. Francis' death, the Franciscans were holding high offices in the Church and gaining influence in governmental affairs. Francis would have been displeased because of his disapproval of the brothers gaining high clerical positions, much less influence within the government. By using a monument for their founder, the Franciscans promoted an Order that strayed away from their founder's personal vision.


SATIRIZING THE HOME ECONOMICS AND ARTS AND CRAFTS MOVEMENTS: GILMAN'S

Elizabeth Sankbeil, Dr. Judith Pike, English, Salisbury University, 1101 Camden Ave., Salisbury, MD, 21801

Historically, Gilman's "The Yellow Wallpaper" has been critiqued for its voice concerning nineteenth century patriarchal society (Shumaker, Gilbert, and Gubar). However, more recent critics, such as Paula Treichler, argue that the role of the literal wallpaper within the text actually serves as a reflective symbol of patriarchal control over "women's discourse" (62). In contrast to previous criticism, this paper, entitled “Satirizing the Home Economics and Arts and Crafts Movements: Gilman's 'The Yellow Wallpaper,'" analyzes Gilman's satirical use of wallpaper not as "women's discourse" but as home décor. Through a Power Point presentation, samples of wallpaper designed by William Morris are compared to the wallpaper described within Gilman's text. The similarities between the two elements of wallpaper prove that Gilman is actually rebutting the role of wallpaper in the lives of women during the nineteenth century. Throughout this piece, the argument is made that Gilman used the wallpaper to serve as a feminist device, rather than an element of décor that was extremely popular during this time period. The wallpaper within the text that has been constantly overlooked within literary criticism actually served as a facet for Gilman's feminist ideals throughout her text. Gilman's use of the wallpaper ultimately served as an opportunity to rebut reformers of the Arts and Crafts and Home Economics Movements. Gilman's story rebuts these movements as they commonly issued products and advertisements that strongly urged women to confine themselves to a domestic lifestyle. This paper argues that Gilman's use of satirical tone issues an urgency alluding that if women do not stand for themselves, they too could be driven mad by their wallpaper.


NOTES ON THE FRENCH REVOLUTION:THOMAS JEFFERSON'S FOREIGN PERSPECTIVE

Kimberly Barrett, Mark Schantz, Department of History, Hendrix College, 1600 Washington Avenue, Conway, AR 72032

In August 1784 Thomas Jefferson arrived in Paris as America's foreign minister at Versailles and commissioner to negotiate commercial treaties. He remained in France for five years, departing in September 1789. During his stay, France felt its first revolutionary throes. Because of his position and connections with the forward-thinking nobility like the Marquis de Lafayette, Jefferson had a front row seat at the escalating turmoil that began as political upheaval and turned into mob violence. Jefferson's letters outline two very different revolutions. The first was a revolution of the public mind that began in 1787 with the first meeting of the Assembly of Notables. Jefferson perceived this revolution as a moderate path by which the French could come slowly into the full blessings of liberty, an emancipation for which they were not yet prepared. He did not foresee nor did he immediately embrace the second revolution that began in March 1789 and escalated throughout the summer. Until the storming of the Bastille Jefferson continued to believe that a moderate path could be followed. However, after this event he was quickly convinced that mob violence was an effective tool of the national cause. This second revolution of the public deed was still in full swing when Jefferson left the country. Traditional French Revolutionary historians do not give much significance to Jefferson's analysis of this event. However, Jefferson's capacious writings present the historian with a unique perspective of an outsider who is simultaneously invested in and detached from the nation's goals. His correspondence presents a careful portrait of the early days of the French Revolution as he experienced them before his return to the United States. As Georges Lefebvre discussed what the Revolution meant from the peasant's perspective, this paper explores its significance to an American in Paris.


LA CROSSE METROPOLITAN PLANNING ORGANIZATION : LAND USE CHANGE 2000 - 2005

Katie L. Meyer (Jim Handley) Geography Department University of Wisconsin - La Crosse 1725 State Street La Crosse, WI 54601

This research project built on a 2000 land use inventory completed by the Center for Geographic Information Sciences in 2003 at the University of Wisconsin - La Crosse. All the data complied from the previous study was imported into a Geographic Information System with a uniform spatial coordinate system. Near ortho-rectified aerial photography was taken during the summer of 2005 by the Farm Service Administration of the La Crosse Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). The photography was used to analyze land use change for the La Crosse MPO through the time period of July 2000 and July 2005. The 2000 land use was compared to the most recent photography in order to detect change and the shapefile was updated through digitizing new surface features. Windshield verification was completed through field work to identify features when photographic interpretation was not sufficient. After all updates were completed maps were created and sent out to the municipalities for verification of found changes. A spatial analysis of where the change took place and what type of change took place was completed throughout the fifteen municipalities. A quantitative analysis of each specific type of land use change was performed and the results were used to discover spatial and thematic patterns in land use change for the La Crosse MPO. The results indicated that the most common types of change that occurred were Woodlands, Pasture/Grazing, and Agricultural Activities to Single Family Residential. Another change that occurred often was from Vacant Areas to Service or Pasture/Grazing to Service. Numerous housing developments took place across the La Crosse MPO that included Single Family Residential and 2 – 4 Families Residential housing. Two adjacent municipalities of the La Crosse MPO noted for great amounts of change were the Village of Holmen and City of Onalaska. Key Words: Land Use Change, GIS


SOCIAL ACTIVISM FOR GENDER AND SEXUALITY THROUGH ANTHROPOLOGICAL PARTICIPATORY ACTION RESEARCH

Mimi Ghosh, Dr.Jacqueline Messing, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida Honors College 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, SVC 1088, Tampa, Fl 33620-6912

The social climate of the times is one in which socio-political activism is required by individuals of all ages and from all walks of life. The United States has become the epicenter of controversy over the meaning of gender equality and it's relevance to sexual identity as a means of defining the individual's rights and shaping their socio-political identities as citizens. Through the use of an anthropological approach to understanding the relevance and overall implications of its meaning, it is surmised that a more critical conscientiousness of gender and sexuality will ensue and that it will result in a social and political transformation in the local community. As the transformation may take place at a personal level initially, it is anticipated that such a conscious awareness will lead to further, far-reaching, socio-political activism.


JOHN RAWLS: PRINCIPLES WITHOUT AN ORIGINAL POSITION.

Eric G. Roscoe, (Advisor) Dr. Mark Weaver, Political Science Department, College of Wooster 1189 Beall Ave., Wooster, OH 44691.

John Rawls published A Theory of Justice in an attempt to find a balance between equality and liberty through the use of a social contract. For Rawls the theories of utilitarianism and intui-tionism do not fully answer the questions concerning justice in society. My study focuses on the two principles of justice, the liberty and difference principles, which are the center of Rawls' theory. These principles are achieved through a contract developed in what Rawls calls the original position. I have analyzed some of the major arguments against A Theory of Justice and concluded that they have merit when critiquing the original position, but still fail to provide sufficient reasons to dismiss the principles of justice. My work proposes an alternative argument in support of Rawls' principles. I believe that the inadequacy of the original position is a result of the fact that the principles came first. The original position was then derived as a method for legitimizing the two principles. My conclusion is that while the original position is not strong enough to withstand criticism, the principles can still exist as legitimate moral concepts. One can visualize a government that abides by the original principles, and supports a stable, well-balanced society without ever needing to derive the principles from a social contract.


THE UNITARY EXECUTIVE AND THE JURISPRUDENCE OF CARL SCHMITT: THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS FOR THE "WAR ON TERRORISM"

Author: Ahmad Chehab Research Sponsor: Dr. Brad Roth Department: Political Science Institution: Wayne State University Institutional Address: 42 West Warren, Detroit, Michigan USA 48202

The Global War on Terrorism has occasioned a new challenge to constitutionalism and the rule of law. This challenge comes in the form of both astonishing theoretical justifications for the expansion of presidential authority at the expense of traditionally established legal constraints and unprecedented international and domestic policy formulation. These policy formulations have generated intensive controversy over their merits, legality, and political viability. Among the most prominent include legislation allowing considerable leeway in interrogation techniques by American servicemen abroad, the practice of extraordinary rendition, the recently revealed National Security Agency (NSA) eavesdropping program, the PATRIOT ACT, extensive usage of signing statements, among numerous others. Many of these initiatives seek to effectively liberate the President from governmental review and thereby place him above the reach of the law. Such thinking about the nature of executive power comes under the general framework of the “Unitary Executive Theory" (UET). This theory has been promulgated by the Bush Administration as the proper method for combating terrorism and other imminent security threats facing the United States of America. Tracing the philosophical basis for such reasoning about the relationship of Executive authority to the rule of law unveils a prominent jurist, who, writing during the tumultuous Weimar Era in Germany back in the 1920's sought to justify Nazi authoritarianism at the expense of constitutional procedures. A severe political emergency facing the very security of the nation could not be handled by appeal to legal or political approvals. Rather, Carl Schmitt argues, a sovereign entity, presumably the President, must be vested authority to circumvent the law in order to effectively deal with the threats at hand. This institution of the “state of exception" leaves the executive operating without any constraints from any judicial or legislative body, creating a considerable amount of independence- and potential abuse in the exercise of political power. The political thought expounded by Carl Schmitt strikingly parallels the ideas behind the UET. In the following essay, I seek to critically weave together the jurisprudence of Carl Schmitt with the underlying logic of the Bush Administration policy platform in our post-9/11 world.


PROFILE IMAGE ANALYSIS OF THE HIPPOCAMPUS UNCOVERS A SIGNIFICANT QUANTIFIABLE SHAPE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HEALTHY SUBJECTS AND SUBJECTS SUFFERING FROM DEMENTIA OF THE ALZHEIMER TYPE

Stephen R. Fedder, (Dr. Carey E. Priebe), Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218; Center for Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218

This paper describes a newly developed shape-analysis technique performed on a group of 95 left and right hippocampus pairs from subjects with and without dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). Three-dimensional surfaces were generated for each subject's left and right hippocampus from magnetic resonance images and the group was segregated into two samples: control (n = 57) and dementia of the Alzheimer type (n = 38). Our shape-analysis technique uncovered statistically significant shape abnormalities within both the left and right hippocampuses of the DAT sample when compared with the control sample. It is a well-documented fact that the hippocampus undergoes a significant volume loss during the onset of DAT. However, the results of this study provide evidence for the hypothesis that the hippocampus does not shrink globally at a consistent rate and, consequently, that the disease causes localized irregular morphology in addition to general volume loss.


CREATION OF SOURCEBOOK ON ROMAN SCULPTURE IN THE ROMAN NEAR EAST

Renee A. O'Neill (Yaron Eliav) Department of Near Eastern Studies, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

The purpose of this research is to create a sourcebook that will increase understanding and aid in the study of the cultural history of the Roman Near East. The sourcebook will provide an online database that will allow searches of references to statuary and bathhouses made in the writings of various ancient Greco-Roman texts. This project is unique in its scope, a wide selection of the literature of the ancient Mediterranean world during the height of the Roman Empire, and for its specific method for studying the culture of that world, i.e. through references to statuary and bathhouses. Statuary and bathhouses were chosen as windows through which to examine this world because they are integral cultural representations of everyday experiences and for their prominence in the daily life of many people of all classes in the ancient Mediterranean world. This research is still developing, and the broad generalizations indicated by initial analysis will be narrowed as more references are collected; however, preliminary indications on the importance of bathhouses as social meeting places and statues in religious and secular contexts are intriguing. The authors whose works have been chosen for this study date from the centuries of ancient Rome's prominence and the surrounding eras, approximately from the first century BCE through the fifth century CE, and include Augustine, Libanius, Ovid, Pausanias, Plutarch, and the elder and younger Senecas. This research entails the investigation of the English-translated works of the wide variety of selected authors and works surviving from the period and the compilation of all references to statuary and bathhouses in each work. The references are then data-based online so that, when the project is complete, they may be located by researches through a number of search categories, such as author, work, date, artist, or material composition. Thus will the project facilitate the research and enhance the understanding of the cultural history of the Roman Near East.


ANXIETY LEVELS: DO THEY INFLUENCE THE PERCEPTION OF TIME?

Micah D. Lueck (Bart VanVoorhis, Ph.D.) Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, 1725 State St., La Crosse, WI 54601

Past research has revealed that the perception of time can be influenced by a number of variables, including stress and mood. Viewing the world with an internal clock that is out of sync with the world's actual pace can have debilitating effects on one's level of productivity. If time is viewed to pass more quickly than is truly the case, a person will accomplish different amounts of work than if they view time to pass more slowly. Because all modern societies place a demanding emphasis on time efficiency and maximizing output, there is great incentive in ascertaining ways to determine who will view time accurately and who will not. The proposed study will explore the relationship between anxiety levels (high vs. low) and performance on time estimation tasks. If the hypothesis is supported and people with high levels of anxiety give larger time estimates of fixed durations, it will mean that this population perceives time to pass more slowly. As such, individuals who are easily susceptible to enter into apprehensive states can be expected to accomplish fewer tasks in a given quantity of time as compared with those who are less vulnerable to anxious moods. This phenomenon is expected to be most detectable under tense situations; as such, participants in the present study will be judging the time duration of a stressful event involving public speaking.


USE OF ULTRASOUND TO RISK-STRATIFY PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENT PATIENTS WITH FIRST TRIMESTER VAGINAL BLEEDING

Hee Sun Choi. John Christian Fox, MD. Department of Emergency Medicine University of California, Irvine University of California, Irvine • Irvine, CA 92697

Vaginal bleeding during the first trimester of pregnancy can be a result of spontaneous abortion, gestational trophoplastic disease, implantation bleeding, cervical ectropion, cervicitis and ectopic pregnancy, which must not be misdiagnosed. It is essential to include all diagnoses due to potential life threat and threatened abortion. Pelvic ultrasonography will be the best procedure to evaluate every pregnant patient with vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy due to no evidence of risk to mother or fetus, and immediate test results while providing five potential diagnoses in such situations. For example, pelvic ultraonography can reveal NDIUP (no definitive intrauterine pregnancy), IUP (intrauterine pregnancy), Live IUP (live intrauterine pregnancy), Abnormal IUP (abnormal intrauterine pregnancy), and ectopic pregnancy. Finding NDIUP, IUP and Live IUP indicates potentially viable pregnancies. Finding Abnormal IUP and ectopic pregnancy displays non-viable pregnancies. The goal of this research was to evaluate if and how finding NDIUP, IUP, and live IUP in first trimester vaginal bleeding predict the pregnancy outcome in patients. A total of 124 women were enrolled and of the 70 that met inclusion criteria, 23 (32%) carried to term and delivered live babies. Of the 23 live births, 18 (78%) were noted to have a documented Live IUP at the time of the emergency department visit. The other findings included IUP (13%) and NDIUP (8%). None of the Abnormal IUP resulted in a live birth. Therefore, in women with first trimester vaginal bleeding the likelihood of carrying the pregnancy to term does appear to be related to the findings on ultrasound.


THE BLACK MALE YOUTH ACADEMY

D'Artagnan Scorza - Author Dr. Ernest Morrell - Research Sponsor Graduate School of Education and Information Studies University of California, Los Angeles 1202 Campbell Hall Los Angeles, CA 90095

Among American-African male youth, there are overwhelmingly high imprisonment, recidivism and death rates. Educational institutions continue to serve this negative cycle of social reproduction through consistent deculturalization, lack of financial resources and lack of a culturally relevant pedagogy. In order to reverse this cycle, American-African male youth must be immersed in a humanizing schooling experience that values their cultural heritage and creates opportunities for academic achievement. Using action research, The Black Male Youth Academy will be created as a culturally relevant program that provides humanizing education and encourages academic success which leads to higher learning. Beginning at the secondary level and in coordination with the administrators of Southside High School, the academy will create opportunities for academic development, promote self-motivated learning and serve as a replicable model. Students will engage in communal activities that add value to their environment through neighborhood clean-up and school beautification projects. With a focus on access to higher education, this will provide American-African male youth with the tools they need to return to their neighborhoods and assist with the holistic development of their community as they work to eradicate the current cycle of social reproduction. This is the chief aim of the Black Male Youth Academy.


MATHEMATICS: A TEXTBOOK PROBLEM

Jennifer Gillard (Dr. Kay Somers) Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Moravian College, 1200 Main Street, Bethlehem, PA 18018

Today, the general public's often times negative attitude towards mathematics is evident in a variety of media, including film, television, and newspapers. Mathematics is often subject to open disdain and ridicule by students of all ages, though without it, society as we know it would not be able to function. Mathematics has been said to be the language of science, upon which our culture is built; it's also heavily used in social science fields. The acceptance of these negative societal views, despite the usefulness of mathematics, has been reached by a combination of factors. These factors range from the influence of pre-existing negative views as observed in the media, to the lack of a clear, generally-understood definition of mathematics, to individual educational experiences in mathematics. Of all the factors, one is most notable: Education. The education one receives in mathematics has always been considered important, as is demonstrated by ever-increasingly strict national standards. Education, unlike other social factors, is required in the U.S., and is also well-documented through textbooks. It is commonly accepted that, particularly in mathematics education, the textbook determines what is taught. This research focuses on an evaluation of mathematics textbooks in the U.S. in selected time ranges from 1900 to the present day. In particular, the problem sections of the textbooks are considered and problems are evaluated on a scale of difficulty, in accordance with educational theories. Formatting and efforts to engage the student are also considered. By comparing the aims and intentions of mathematics textbooks over time, it is hoped that the trends thereby seen will provide some insight into the more recent problem of the public's view of mathematics. It is further hoped that such insight will provide ideas for educational improvements that will enhance society's view of mathematics.


INVESTIGATING DDOS AS WHITE HATS: THREATS AND ATTACKING TOOLS

Authoer: Christopher Becker and Matthew Streff Sponser: Chunyan Bai Department: SECCM Institution: Roger Williams University Institutional Address: One Old Ferry Road, Bristol, RI 02809

The ability to conduct a Denial of Service (DoS) attack from a single system has existed since the 1970's. A DoS attack can be as straightforward as consistently pinging a user's system, to more sophisticated methods such as modifying packets. Regardless the method, DoS attacks are schemed with identical intent: force the victim's system to suspend the supplied service. When sent from a single system, DoS attacks are easily averted; however, if sent from multiple systems, in the instance of DDoS attacks, damages may result in downtime, and/or hardware failure. The first major DDoS attack acknowledged by the media occurred in February of 2000 against prospering sites such as Amazon, EBay, and CNN. Spanning hours, many sites were inaccessible, injuring businesses financially and causing visitor's frustration. In October of 2002, seven of the Internet's thirteen root DNS servers were inaccessible on account of constant ping requests during a DDoS attack. Since 2002, attacks have increased considerably as regular battery of gambling sites, game servers, and weblogs have become more prevalent. There is a plethora of attacking tools easily accessible for download over the Internet, such as, Trinoo, stacheldraht, Tribe Flood Network (TFN), mstream, Flitz, Stick, and more. Each tool allows one to perform various DDoS assaults: SYN, FIN, UDP, IDS False Positives, ICMP Pings, Smurf Attacks, and more. As technology advances, even more methods of DDoS attacks become available. DDoS attacks are an escalating security threat encompassing everyone, from the novice user, to worldwide corporations. Unfortunately, until a finite solution is designed, the solitary answer to thwart attacks is informing the technological community of DDoS techniques so they may design particular systems to prevent or recover from such attacks. One cannot achieve a worthwhile solution to any problem, especially DDoS attacks, until first reaching a higher understanding of the underlying procedure.


AN ANALYSIS OF STEGANOGRAPHY TOOLS: WHICH IS THE BEST FOR MY NEEDS?

Matthew J Ekenstedt (Radi Teleb) Department of Mathematics, Statistics, and Computer Science, University of Wisconsin - Stout, Menomonie, WI 54751

As computers become more and more connected, private data is becoming harder to protect. Most turn to cryptography, but what about when the very presence of data needs to be hidden? Steganography is the process of hiding the existence of data or information. This paper will discuss what steganography is and how it relates to cryptography. There are many types of steganography tools and many tools of each type. Several different tools will be discussed in detail. They will be analyzed based on the technique they use, ease of use, and detectability. The implementation of the technique will be discussed, and the feasibility of using the technique on a larger scale will be analyzed. The detection of these techniques will also be discussed. Detection can occur when there is a suspicion of hidden data, such as in a man in the middle attack. In these cases it is likely that detection software will be used. These tools will also be analyzed. Once the presence of data is detected, the questions of whether the data can be read, altered, or destroyed will be addressed. Detection can also occur if the visible data is suspicious enough so that an average user who notices might suspect something. In this case, we will look at the feasibility of detecting, reading, and destroying hidden data without using steganographic detection tools. Finally, we will look at which tools are right for different environments.


STARBUCKS IN SPAIN; RESEARCHING PERCEPTIONS AND PENETRATION THROUGH THE LENS OF DIFFUSION THEORY

April Pekel, Scott Dickmeyer, Department of Communication Studies, University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, 1725 State Street, La Crosse, WI 54601

The phenomenon of globalization has made the concept of advertising in different countries an important issue. While distributing marketing materials beyond a company's home border can help build brand awareness and increase profits, it is important for advertising to demonstrate a respect and understanding of the receiving culture. Therefore, studying the diffusion of innovations through global advertising becomes increasingly important. Starbucks Coffee Company opened up stores in Spain in 2002. The culture of coffee in Spain is a tradition which goes back to the 17th century. Because Spanish coffee houses are a part of Spaniards daily ritual, the acceptance of the American company, Starbucks, on Spanish soil may be questionable. Researchers employing diffusion theory seek to explain when and how a new idea, practice, or newly introduced information and communications medium is adopted or rejected over time in a given society (Rogers, 1986). With a native Spanish speaker, I composed an appropriate questionnaire composed of closed, Likert-scale questions and a few open-ended questions in English and Spanish. The surveys measured the attitudes of a sample population on a scale from 1 to 5. The few open-ended questions incorporated individual attitudes of Spanish and other Europeans towards American organizations and Globalization. Over 100 surveys were taken in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid (because of the many Starbucks locations in these large metropolitan cities) of many locals and tourists on the streets, local cafes, and Starbucks stores. Through careful observation and from the opinion of those that took the surveys, I have accumulated a vast amount of information and proof of strong opposition to American companies from the Spanish, yet favor from tourists in these large cities.


BLACK, WHITE, OR GRAY?: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA AND THE CONFEDERACY 1850-70

Justin S. Perryman (Author) Laura Cruz (Research Sponsor) Dept. of History, Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC 28723

The truth is historians may have been looking too broadly at the American Civil War. This paper argues that Western North Carolina, despite being part of the Confederacy, was pro-Union in the Civil War. The stereotype of all Southern people supporting secession and in turn supporting the Confederacy was broken when looking at western North Carolina. There were many reasons western North Carolina would be inclined to support the union as opposed to Confederacy. A few of these reasons are: North Carolina, as a whole, was already split, western North Carolina's economy, essentially, cut off from the rest of the state, and the issue of slavery. After the secession of South Carolina many meetings were held in North Carolina to determine what they were going to do. Though some places of North Carolina were excited, the rest of the state was not quite as sure about the move. In the end they, essentially, gave into peer pressure of the other Southern states. There is a rich resource in southern history that has been neglected for far too long. This paper uses census data to give a more accurate idea of the people of the time were thinking. This is especially important when looked at on an economic basis. Economically western North Carolina was cut off from North Carolina. For example, in 1860, $9,693,703 was invested into North Carolina's manufacturing. Of the total invested Cherokee county received only $12,800 (.13%) of the total, invested there. At the same time central counties, such as Cumberland, received as much as $832,223 (8.6%). Again the neglect of census data is seen when looking at slavery. Historians have numbers that tell what was happening, and yet rarely are those numbers used. Census data shows just how different western North Carolina was from their state, especially in dealing with slavery. Slaves, for example, contributed only four to five percent of the population in Jackson and Cherokee counties. In North Carolina as a whole the slave population made up thirty-three percent of the population. As primary sources attest, Western North Carolina was so cut off from their own state they believed that they were better off as pro-Union.


A STUDY ON THE SOCIAL REACTION TO CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IN ANTEBELLUM PENNSYLVANIA

Erica M. Rhodes, (Dr. David Hsiung), Department of History, Juniata College 1700 Moore Street, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania 16652

The issue of capital punishment has long been controversial in the United States. In Pennsylvania, the historical range of attitudes towards the issue has shown just how divisive the issue of capital punishment was, both in the state and in the wider United States. The arguments for and against the use of capital punishment manifested themselves most notably in the 1790s, and then were rejuvenated again in the context of antebellum reform between the 1820s and 1840s. Urban areas, such as Philadelphia, tended to be the center of the debate, while rural areas of the state did not seem to be as concerned with the issue. This study will examine the rural location of Huntingdon, Pennsylvania, and its capital cases, in order to explore rural views of capital punishment in the early nineteenth century. By exploring local Huntingdon coverage of capital punishment through editorials and articles regarding two executions in the 1840s, this paper argues that Huntingdon was more in favor of capital punishment than urban areas such as Philadelphia where reform was more prevalent, and was not as involved in the debate over capital punishment due to its peripheral geographic location. Huntingdon's relative distance from the center of the debate appears to have allowed the entertaining, theatrical aspect of executions and the popular fascination with death and morbidity to take precedence over state laws that mandated private executions. The local view of capital punishment as legitimate entertainment engrained these executions in popular memory as exciting demonstrations of justice, as opposed to shameful events of the town's past.


CRITICAL ANALYSIS BASED ON HIERARCHICAL STRUCTURES IN THE HARRY POTTER SERIES

Erin Vollmer, Richard Gappa (sponsor), English Department, University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, 1725 State St., La Crosse, WI 54601

The Harry Potter series by J.K. Rowling is irrefutably the most popular literature for children today. Interestingly, the series has not only gained popularity with children, but also their adult counterparts. As a result of its adult success, Harry Potter has attracted more and more scholars to pursue serious literary analysis, most frequently exploring themes such as death and religion. However, I will focus my research on the intertextual parallels of the numerous hierarchical structures found in the Harry Potter series. By incorporating other scholars' criticisms and theories, I will draw conclusions about Rowling's formation of hierarchical structures and the portrayal of power within each hierarchy, as well as within the entire hegemonic system found in Harry Potter. My next step will be to determine if there is a correlation between the function of the Harry Potter hierarchies and the power structures found in today's society, drawing on secondary criticisms and critical theory. That is, do the Harry Potter hierarchies follow established patterns seen in today's political and social structures? Moreover, what is the importance of J.K. Rowling's inclusion or exclusion of recognizable patterns between the Harry Potter hierarchies and our own?


MAHALIA JACKSON AND THE "PERFECT" THIRD: THE USE OF INTONATION AND TEMPERAMENT AS A TOOL FOR MUSICAL ANALYSIS

Alexander W. Sell (Horace J. Maxile, Jr.), Music Department, The University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804

Mahalia Jackson is regarded as one of the most prominent and influential figures in gospel music. She sang in some of the earliest gospel groups and remained popular up into the late 1960s. Transcribing her work, however, can be problematic. Because of gospel music's connection to the blues, the use of “blue notes" is standard practice. These “blue notes" lie between the major and minor thirds and sevenths that equally tempered instruments, like the piano, may play, thus preventing accurate notation in the conventional western notation system. The solution, short of creating a new system of notation, lies in finding a temperament that accounts for these “blue notes." This, in turn, becomes a tool for the analysis of gospel music as significance can be placed on instances in the music where the performer utilizes this temperament. The purpose of this study, then, is to use three to four transcriptions of Mahalia Jackson's work and analyze those using Fourier Transforms. This will attempt to demonstrate a correlation between the “blue" third and the major third from the just tempered scale. Additional treatments of “blue notes" and the selective use of certain temperaments in Mahalia Jackson's music will also be examined.


SUGAR, MUD AND SUBSTANCE: ANALYZING POLITICAL ADVERTISEMENTS AIRED FOR FEDERAL RACES DURING THE 2006 GENERAL ELECTION IN NEBRASKA

Kyle Petersen, (Dr. Ruth Brown), Department of Communication, University of Nebraska at Kearney, 905 West 25th Street, Kearney, NE 68849

Television advertising plays a dominant role in determining the outcomes of elections. However, most analysis of campaign ads is relegated to studying positive versus negative approaches and their effects on voter turnout. Generally, political advertising research does not include analysis of production techniques or specific emotional and rational advertising appeals, which are critical components of commercial advertising. This research paper analyzes the content of television advertisements aired for federal races in Nebraska during the 2006 General Election. Advertisements are coded based on their issue content, focus, setting, cinematography and other aspects to cover all facets of advertising methods utilized in the political ads. In describing the findings, the research results are presented based on the Congressional races to provide immediate analysis of competitors. Secondly, the findings are categorized based on party affiliation to expose trends followed by the Democratic and Republican Parties during the 2006 election cycle in Nebraska. Then, the results are presented based on the success or failure of the candidate in an attempt to indicate what advertising practices are used more by victors, as well as what losers share in terms of the advertising production and messaging. Research results are also tabulated based on the purpose of the ad, which is essentially whether the ad serves to promote a candidate, attack an opponent or defend against an attack. The approach a candidate may take when assembling a positive ad may be vastly different than the way he or she composes an attack ad, therefore a separate analysis is warranted. The final aspects covered in the results are mean scores for all elements of the ads analyzed, regardless of the candidate, party, outcome or purpose. The author also speculates why candidates produced their advertisements in a certain manner and suggests a general strategy for future Congressional candidates to follow when producing television advertising for rural races.


GENERATING FRACTALS WITH SYMBOLIC COMPUTATION SYSTEMS

Sandra Anita Lacea SUNY Brockport Sandra Cristina Barbosu University of Rochester Mentor: Dr. Mihail Barbosu Department of Mathematics SUNY Brockport 350 New Campus Dr Brockport, NY 14420

Classical geometry concepts are not enough in trying to explain and model certain natural objects, like coastlines, clouds, trees, mountains, or chaotic natural phenomena. In the twentieth century, Benoit Mandelbrot approached these problems with the help of computers and he then founded Fractal Geometry. Fractals are well known for the beauty of their computer-generated images, but these objects are even more intriguing when we study their properties and we explore their applications. From a mathematical viewpoint, the self–similarity structure of fractals leads to the idea of generating fractals through recursive processes. Because of the number of iterations involved, computers are indispensable; the mathematical tools that we chose for this project were two symbolic computation systems, Maple and Mathematica. Their powerful computation and graphic capabilities allowed us to examine and to generate a large number of fractals. Some of the problems that we have studied are the perimeter-area relationship and the irregularity of fractals; the latter was done by computing the fractal dimension. In order to generate fractal images we wrote programs based on recursive equations. We also devoted a part of our work to fractal applications, with special emphasis on fractals and chaos. We considered the chaos game and several examples from Biology, Physics and Economics.


QUANTITATIVE GENETICS OF FLORAL SYMMETRY IN BRASSICA RAPA

Michael Bukoski (Frank M. Frey), Biology Department, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton NY 13346 USA

Many plants produce flowers that are radially or bilaterally symmetric. However, flowers are not perfectly symmetric. They exhibit fluctuating asymmetry: small, randomly directed deviations from perfect symmetry. The cause and significance of this individual-level variation is controversial. If pollinators preferentially visit symmetric flowers, then floral symmetry may be an evolutionary adaptation. In this case, we would expect fluctuating asymmetry to have a genetic basis on which natural selection can act. Alternatively, floral symmetry could be a byproduct of the basic developmental architecture of the plant and confer no fitness advantage. Floral symmetry has been investigated as an index of developmental stability, the ability of an organism to buffer its development against genetic and environmental stresses and thus to produce developmental units (e.g., petals) that closely resemble one another and fit an idealized developmental plan. If so, floral symmetry may be an indicator of plant fitness through a shared link with developmental stability. To investigate the genetic basis and fitness correlates of fluctuating asymmetry in flowers, I conducted a controlled crossing experiment with Brassica rapa (Brassicaceae), a fast-growing plant that produces small, radially symmetric flowers. I created a greenhouse population of approximately 150 full- and half-sib families, for a total of about 600 plants. To quantify floral asymmetry, I digitally photographed three flowers from each plant and analyzed the images using computer imaging software. I also measured leaf fluctuating asymmetry and several fitness traits, including biomass, flower number, and bud number. I found that fitness traits of plants within families were highly correlated, suggesting that those traits have a strong genetic component. However, neither floral symmetry nor leaf asymmetry was significantly correlated within families, and neither type of symmetry was significantly associated with plant fitness. My results suggest that fluctuating asymmetry does not have a strong genetic basis, and that fluctuating asymmetry is not a reliable indicator of whole-plant developmental stability.


RECLAMATION: THE SEARCH FOR IDENTITY IN RUTH OZEKI'S MY YEAR OF MEATS AND JOY HARJO'S HOW WE BECAME HUMAN

Anne-Marie Friedlander (Dr.Benjamen Carson) Department of English Bridgewater State College 131 Summer Street Bridgewater MA 02325

In this presentation I will argue that the work of Joy Harjo in How We Became Human and Ruth Ozeki's My Year of Meats, offer contrasting journeys to self- knowledge. I will further suggest that these often overlooked American voices offer the American college curriculum a more diverse opportunity to explore themes significant to a liberal arts education. In her introduction to How We Became Human Joy Harjo writes: “Every day is a crossroads, what we eat, what we think, and what we do decides the direction, the path, but some crossroads yield greater consequences." As children, our paths are marked by boundaries of familiar landscape. The world is small; values and belief systems forged during these impressionable years are deeply ingrained. With age and independence naivety is lost, and we leave what is familiar to explore the larger world. It is during this time that our devotion to those early values and belief systems may be affirmed or broken. Through Ruth Ozeki's novel, and Joy Harjo's poetry, we witness how knowledge and circumstance change or solidify those systems that remind us of who we are and who we want to become. In Ozeki's novel, the lives of Jane and Akiko converge at a cultural crossroads; the choices they make lead them away from the familiar in search of a greater truth. By contrast, Joy Harjo's search for meaning leads her back to her Native American heritage and all that she once knew. Through these two non-canonical texts we see both a search for identity and more importantly, the reclamation of the soul–traditional themes represented by traditionally under-represented authors. This thesis was developed for my course in Ethnic Literature. My presentation will be a portion of this essay.


DEM A BLEACH OUT DEM SKIN: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF COLOR POLITICS IN URBAN JAMAICAN COMMUNITIES

Derron JR Wallace, Department of Sociology, Wheaton College, Norton, Massachusetts, 02766.

Skin color matters. It persists as a significant stratifying agent, source of discrimination and axis of inequality in African diasporic communities. A skin color hierarchy, or color inequality, created as a result of colorism positions and privileges lightness over darkness of skin tone. It acknowledges whiteness, even in its slightest forms, as a valuable social asset. While skin color stratification is not at all a new phenomenon, the varied strategies employed to acquire, secure and maintain 'light-skin privilege(s)' are indeed different. In this project, I explore the practice, process, purpose and politics of skin bleaching or whitening amongst urban Black youth in Jamaican society. Through semi-structured, open-ended interviews, life histories and focus groups of urban Jamaican youth, I seek to figure out what constitutes successful skin bleaching practices? How is bleaching done? Do youth benefit from skin-lightening or do they still face marginalization and ostracism? Why is a fairer-is-better mentality popular amongst youth, especially those from poor, lower class backgrounds? In a country that is over ninety percent Black, why does colorism have such a firm grip on Jamaican society? Is skin bleaching a result of self-hate, internalized racism or identity confusion? I contend that the reasons for skin bleaching are complex, varied and multilayered, including but not limited to latent white supremacy and racism, American cultural imperialism, colonialism, masculinist patriarchy and class antagonism.


HOUSE VERSUS HOME: HOW DO WE DETERMINE JUST COMPENSATION?

Patrick T. Henry (Dr. Michele DeMary, advisor) Department of Political Science, Susquehanna University, 514 University Ave., Selinsgrove, PA, 17870

In 1984, when the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania began to utilize a forty-two million dollar grant from the U.S. Congress to purchase property in and relocate families from Centralia, Pennsylvania, questions about the amount of compensation received by each family were largely left unasked. The Commonwealth spent these funds in order to acquire the property, relocate the families, and tend to the grounds after the vast majority of families were removed. The relocation program – which was at first voluntary – removed citizens from homes in which they had oftentimes spent the vast majority of their lives, homes that had accrued a vast amount of personal significance. The Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution and Article I, Section 10, of the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania both state that private property shall not be taken for the public use without just compensation. Usually, the formula of fair market value is usually utilized to determine just compensation, and the fair market value formulas have been built through statutes, legal theories, and Supreme Court Doctrines. These doctrines, theories, and formulas, however, must be applied to real situations. The case of Centralia, Pennsylvania, shows that formulaic understandings of just compensation are insufficient to assess the value of property taken by eminent domain.


THE CONFERENCE OF LUCA

Kyle J. Murphy, (Dr. Shannon Byrne-Cueva), Department of Classics, Xavier University, 3800 Victory Parkway, Cincinnati Ohio, 45207

History can be very unclear. Missing information, biases, and conflicting accounts can cloud the issue and can make it very difficult to make any definite conclusions. The conference of Luca is one spot in history where this is especially true. The account of the conference of Luca found in most text books is that in 56 BC Caesar met with his fellow triumvirs Crassus and Pompey in Luca, along with 120 lictors (attendants and magistrates) and 200 senators, and that the triumvirate decided that Pompey and Crassus would run for consul, receive proconsular command in Spain and Syria respectively upon exiting office, and as consuls vote to grant Caesar and extension on his term of office in Gaul. However, understanding what really happened at this conference is of vital importance to understanding all the events leading up to the civil war. The primary sources (Dio, Appian, Plutarch, Suetonius and Cicero) all disagree at one point or another as to what truly happened at Luca in 56 B.C. or indeed whether anything happened at all. However, through careful comparison I will be able to conclude certain facts from the accounts available. To determine these facts, I will explore the events leading up to the conference, who was actually present, the importance of the conference, the motivations of the participants (the triumvirs), and the results. Caesar did meet with Crassus and Pompey at Luca, where they must have decided on a mutually beneficial course of action. This included a joint consulship for Pompey and Crassus with provinces afterward, an extension of Caesar's term in Gaul, silencing Cicero's opposition, and controlling the gang leader Clodius.


THE DETERMINATION OF RELATIVE CONCENTRATIONS OF HYDROGEN ISOTOPES

Laurence A. Lewis (C. S. Whisnant), Dept. of Physics, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807

James Madison University's hydrogen distillery produces hydrogen deuteride (HD) gas with a purity greater than 99.99%. This purified gas is used to make a frozen spin target with polarization relaxation times that approach one year. These targets are ideal for use in polarized gamma ray beams to study the spin-dependent properties of nucleons. To affect the polarization of the target a small, known concentration of ortho-H2 and a minimal amount of D2 must be present. Therefore, it is important to quantify the H2 and D2 concentrations present in the distilled HD gas to determine the amount of H2 which will achieve the longest relaxation times. Low-temperature gas chromatography (GC) is implemented to determine these relative concentrations. The GC utilizes the isotopic variances in column transit time and produces three overlapping asymmetric Gaussian peaks with areas proportional to the hydrogen isotope concentrations. By implementing numerical algorithms using functions modeled on fitting these asymmetric GC peaks, high quality chi-squared fits are obtained which allow for the extraction of the relative concentrations. The method and results of such fits will be discussed.


EMPOWERING ADOLESCENT GIRLS TO FIND THEIR VOICE THROUGH READING AND WRITING

Stephanie Kirstein (Lise Kildegaard), English Department, Luther College, Decorah, IA 52101

How can literary and pedagogical strategies positively affect the historically under-privileged members of society? My research addresses the reading and writing experiences of adolescent girls, because it is the age when girls are typically not afforded the opportunities to voice their thoughts, and they struggle to find individuality amongst the pressures of society, peers, and their home life. My research is focused on how voice is experienced by adolescent girls, and what pedagogical strategies can be used to encourage young girls to identify an individual voice. I draw upon the works of literary theorists, multicultural authors, and education specialists as well as my own experience working with a non-profit educational organization named The Wild Girls in Des Moines, Iowa. My time spent with The Wild Girls included working with seven middle school girls for a two-week workshop during their summer vacation. The workshop was focused on reading a novel, writing journal entries and discussing the central ideas and meanings of the novel. In the final project of the workshop, the girls created an authentic short drama piece as a way to place the central concepts of the novel into their own neighborhoods and translate the main ideas of the novel into their own voices. My experience with The Wild Girls demonstrates that adolescent girls can gain a sense of empowerment through the use of literary tools. Thus my research holds two components; I look at the literary and psychological theories about voice, and I then place those theories into practical pedagogical strategies.


MOVING DANCE, LEARNING BODIES

Blake A. Nellis (Jane Hawley, Amanda Hamp), Department of Theatre/Dance, Luther College, Decorah, IA 52101; North Winneshiek Schools, Decorah, Iowa 52101

As children, we reveled in our bodies, creating games with plenty of physical activities to express ideas through movement. When did we lose this curiosity for play? How can we rediscover the pleasures of physical awareness? It is crucial to begin educating young children about the way they live in their bodies and promote a way of movement that embraces creativity, uniqueness, strength, balance and honesty. For the past nine months I have been working with kindergarten and first grade classes at North Winneshiek Elementary School as well as a group of community children from Decorah, Iowa. Every week we practice exercises in breathing, alignment, anatomy, efficiency, trust and fun! I have three rules for the children: (1) Have Fun, (2) Be Safe, take care of your body and the people around you, and (3) When I clap my hands twice, freeze. These guidelines have provided a classroom environment that increases the students' excitement and focus at the same time. Noticing the connections they have made between their minds and bodies has also assisted my personal practice as a dancer and a teacher. In her book Smart Moves, Dr. Carla Hannaford states, “But we have missed a most fundamental and mysterious aspect of the mind: learning, thought, creativity and intelligence are not processes of the brain alone, but of the whole body. Sensations, movement, emotions and brain integrative functions are grounded in the body." It is vital for our young children to learn about self through movement. Practicing dance connects people through non-verbal expressions like weight sharing, balance, and breathing. Through these guided exercises, we move through space with greater ease and awareness. It is most evident in the 8-10 year-old boys who have embraced the idea of “dancing" and have become less aggressive, less competitive and less self-conscious. I am eager to apply this awareness to the classroom, stage, office, studio, athletic field, practice room, living room and public playground.


ROLE OF BETA-CATENIN IN ADRENOCORTICAL DEVELOPMENT AND CARCINOGENESIS

Kerri A. Serecky, Alex C. Kim (Gary D. Hammer) Department of Internal Medicine – Division of Metabolism, Endocrinology, and Diabetes, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109

Wnt signaling plays many important roles in mammalian development. In the adrenal cortex, perturbations in the pathway are associated with abnormal development and tumorigenesis. Stabilization of Beta-Catenin has been reported in tumors of the adrenal cortex while loss-of-function mutation in APC has been observed in sporadic and familial adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC). In the adrenal cortex, expression of Beta-Catenin is restricted to the subcapsular region. While these presumed undifferentiated progenitors migrate centripetally to populate the three zones of the adrenal cortex, the molecular mechanism underlying zonal differentiation during development is poorly understood. To gain further insights into the role of Beta-Catenin in adrenocortical development and tumorigenesis, we performed in vivo and in vitro studies. We utilized a conditional knockout approach to evaluate the role of Beta-Catenin in regulation of subcapsular cell fate. Mice harboring homozygous floxed-Beta-Catenin or floxed-APC alleles were crossed to SF-1-Cre transgenic mice. While the initial analysis revealed Cre-mediated recombinations in the adrenal gland, the adrenal glands from mice containing homozygous deletion of Beta-Catenin surprisingly exhibit a histologically normal adrenal cortex until 30 weeks, at which time the adrenals are smaller with a markedly thin cortex lacking any normal zonation with presence of large pleotrophic cells. We hypothesize that these cells arise as a result of depletion of adrenal progenitors. In contrast, the conditional APC knockouts reveal an expansion of aberrant SF-1 (+) adrenocortical cells that express Dax-1 (a marker of undifferentiated subcapsular cells). In conjunction with APC knockout, we designed and performed RNAi mediated knockdown of Beta-Catenin in Y1 ACC cells, which express constitutively active nuclear Beta-Catenin, to determine whether stabilization plays a role in tumor initiation and/or maintenance. Current efforts with these models aim to determine the role of Wnt signaling in the control of adrenocortical progenitor cell fate and how the dysregulation of this cascade contributes to ACC.


PRIMETIME SHIFTS TO 9-5: A LOOK AT NEWS MULTIMEDIA ON THE WEB

Mike Wolenski (Brad Weaver- Research Advisor) Communications Studies, Theater and Art Department, Westminster College, Market Street, New Wilmington, PA 16066

Radio and television stations once boasted “the immediacy of broadcasting." This immediacy is now outdated by the internet which has virtually no time or space limitations. The internet has also empowered traditional print media to make a major shift and usurp the once exclusive domain of immediacy that broadcasting offered. Newspapers now break news as fast or faster than broadcast news outlets do on the air. The old broadcasting model of “primetime" is also shifting as newspaper editors can now boast about their own primetime with their online editions drawing in large audiences from 9-5 on weekdays. The access to computers by many people at work has also revolutionized the way consumers get their news, but it has yet to revolutionize the way news is reported. This research presentation examines through first hand interviews of television and newspaper professionals how the newspaper is positioning itself in one community to usurp the power of local broadcasting. This project looks at why some television stations have not yet embraced innovations such as up to the minute reports or extended versions of stories. As small town newspapers add audio and video to online editions, editors say they want to fill the niche often overlooked by local television and radio outlets. This investigation reveals the New Castle News wants to become the local television and radio stations for their community. This project explores how newspapers attempt to position the established old media of a small town as the new leader in multimedia and compete in a new marketplace.


THE EFFECTS OF CLOSING ARGUMENTS ON SENTENCING RECOMMENDATIONS

Suzana A. Cook, Deparment of Psychology, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849

In our justice system, criminal cases end with closing arguments from the lawyers for the prosecution and defense. Several recently published books describe a wide variety of supposedly effective closing arguments in terms of rhetoric, tactics, and language (e.g., The Devil's Advocates: Greatest Closing Arguments in Criminal Law). Despite a wealth of anecdotal information, there is little empirical research that examines which of the many types of closing statements employed is likely to be the most effective. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the closing statement in a criminal case affects the sentence. This study specifically compared seven different closing statements to determine which is more likely to result in a lighter sentencing recommendation. Participants consisted of 125 high school students. Each student was provided a case in which a 19-year-old male had been arrested for assault and battery as a first time offender. After reviewing the case, each participant then read one of seven different closing statements from the client's attorney. Those in the control did not have a closing statement. The closing arguments were those commonly used in court cases including the defendant's similarity to the juror, statement of remorse, willingness to provide restitution to the injured party, efforts to change, minimization of the criminal act, external reasons (i.e. childhood abuse) causing the criminal act, or the defendant's willingness to accept responsibility for the act. After reading the closing statement, participants recommended punishment for the defendant using a nine-point scale ranging from a small fine = 1 to life imprisonment = 9. Results indicated that the most powerful closing statement was restitution to the injured party. Willingness to accept responsibility for the act, effort to change and defendant's similarity to the juror also resulted in lighter sentences than in the control group. Minimization of the criminal act, remorse or external reasons for causing the criminal act did not reduce sentencing recommendations.


TRANSFER STUDENTS IN TRANSITION

Jimmie Eddington, (Carmen Aponte PhD.), Social Work, SUNY Brockport 350 New Campus Drive, Brockport, NY 14420

Students' transitioning from one college environment to another has only been vaguely studied. Most transfer students underestimate the difficulties encountered during their transitional process, resulting in ‘transfer shock'. This study addresses the aforementioned concerns by exploring transfer students at SUNY Brockport and their experiences with ‘transfer shock'. For this study, students agreeing or disagreeing with the following statement measured transfer shock: The College provides sufficient help for a smooth transition to a four-year college. A non-random sample of 253 students responded to a 23-item survey. Surprisingly, 49 percent (n=124) were transfer students. Other characteristics defined the sample as predominantly female (63 percent), Caucasian (80 percent), young adults (M = 23 years; 18-52 range), full-time students (93 percent), employed part-time (52 percent), not employed (35 percent), and living off campus (57 percent). Only 20 percent of the sample had any affiliations with supportive services (i.e. McNair, C-STEP, SSSP, & EOP). Eighty percent of respondents agreed that the college provided a smooth transition. However, 27 percent of transfer students (TS) disagreed (in shock). A closer look at those transfer students that were in shock (TS-S) in comparison to natives students in shock (NS-S) and the general sample in shock (GS-S), revealed that TS-S had more females (33 percent), more ethnic minorities (29 percent), a higher age mean (M = 25.3 percent), a greater unemployment rate (35.4 percent), and affiliated more with supportive services. Unexpectedly, more TS-S lived on campus (29 percent) compared to NS-S (12 percent) and GS-S (17 percent). Transfer students, a diverse group, do reach out to supportive services. It is not clear however, if these services are designed with TS in mind. These programs should benefit from their captured audience and listen to their stories through focus group sessions. Support services deliverers must acknowledge their key position and voice TS concerns to college administrators. In fact, support services should be recognized as the ‘institutional buffers' to our TS in shock.


WEATHERING THE STORM: AN EXAMINATION OF COPING TECHNIQUES AND PSYCHOLOGICAL FUNCTIONING IN BATTERED WOMEN

Arnitta Holliman (Dr. John H. Grych and E. Guzman) Department of Psychology, Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881

In the United States, a woman is abused by an intimate partner every 9 seconds (Robertiello, 2006). Intimate partner violence is not a new phenomenon and has become a significant community problem. Despite the alarming number of women who have experienced domestic violence, many of them have discovered techniques to cope with the violence and the strength to forge ahead. This study defines resilience or coping as the ability to endure, mitigate, and recover from crises and traumatic life experiences. The purpose of this investigation is to further the understanding of coping strategies and psychological functioning in women who have experienced intimate partner violence in order to aid in prevention and intervention programming. Through quantitative methods this study examines the women's current level of functioning, the relationship between the frequency and severity of violence they experienced, and their psychological functioning. This investigation also examines the differences in coping, functioning, and level of violence experienced between African-American, Hispanic, and White women. Implications of this study include continued research and culturally specific programming utilizing positive coping styles and an increased network size that will reduce the risk of violence and increase psychological functioning during and after prolonged exposure to violence.


ATTITUDES TOWARD ARRANGED MARRIAGE AMONG SECOND-GENERATION INDIAN-AMERICANS

Julia A. Mathew, (Janet P. Grigsby), Department of Sociology, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308-3107

Arranged marriage has been practiced in India and other South Asian countries for centuries. Although it has evolved, this practice retains much of its traditional character in those countries today. As large waves of South Asian immigrants began to migrate to North America and the rest of the Western world, they brought with them their values, customs, and norms. The children of these immigrants have now approached marital age. For this second generation, the issue of arranged marriage has become another point of conflict between the Western ideals to which they have been socialized and the Indian values and traditions instilled in them through their families. Previous studies have shown that a majority of these individuals deal with arranged marriage in a negotiating manner. Both romantic love and familial duty are important. This study examines in more detail the social forces that influence attitudes toward arranged marriage in the context of Indian culture, focusing on individuals' connection to an Indian subculture or close-knit community, their relationship with parents/extended family, and their religious beliefs. Using a snowball sampling technique, 15 second-generation Indian-Americans aged 18-25 were interviewed. Participants were raised in a variety of US regions and were representative of the three major religious traditions found among Indian-Americans: Christianity, Hinduism and Islam. Content analysis suggests that growing up in a close-knit Indian community is the leading determinant of marriage attitudes. Close, open relationships with parents and extended family reduce support for arranged marriage. Religion is most influential for Indian-American Muslims. These results were interpreted in light of current sociological debates about the nature of immigrant assimilation in the United States.


THE ECONOMIC INFLUENCE ON PROGRESSIVE LEGISLATION: AN EXAMPLE OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION

Allison C. Mathews (Dr. Ralph Gomes) Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Howard University, 2400 6th St., NW, Washington, D.C. 20059

The struggle to gain equal opportunity under the law has been a long and hard battle fought by all oppressed people around the world. Particularly, in the United States, people of color have had to overcome racist, classist, and sexist discrimination and governmental policies. As a result, the history of class and status discrimination in the United States traces back to slavery and directly affects the life chances and opportunities for equality in employment, education, health care, and civil rights for people of color and other oppressed people. Despite this bleak history of discrimination, there have been seemingly progressive movements and legislation passed and implemented to address the inequalities between Whites and people of color. Regardless, there has been a pattern of decline and counterattack to progressive policies throughout American history. This cycle of progressive and counter-progressive movements closely relates to the economic expansions and declines of U.S. history, especially from 1945 to the present. Using Marx's theory of historical materialism, I will use the example of Affirmative Action programs and Equal Employment Opportunity legislation to show how characteristics from periods of economic expansion enable the passing and implementation of progressive legislation while characteristics from periods of economic decline negatively affect program enforcement and lead to repeals of liberal laws.


LINKING WRITING AND INFORMATION LITERACY: A COLLABORATION WHOSE TIME HAS COME

Stephanie Anderson, Lana Khoury, Krystle Willing (Dorothy Glew and Joyce Hinnefeld), Department of English/Writing Center and Reeves Library, Moravian College. 1200 Main Street, Bethlehem, PA 18018.

The title of this project and presentation echoes Geoffrey Nunberg's identification of information literacy as “a phrase whose time has come" in the Feb. 13, 2005 issue of the New York Times. Our project, a collaboration between the Moravian College Writing Center and the institution's research library, Reeves Library, is designed in response to the growing need for an alliance between libraries and writing centers in the collegiate setting. During the 2006-2007 academic year, we three student tutors in the Moravian College Writing Center (identified as authors above) have undergone specialized training in the tutoring of information literacy skills and have offered, in addition to our regular tutoring in the Writing Center, one-on-one tutoring for students on issues related to academic research in Reeves Library. We have gathered data on students made use of the services we have offered this semester, in both the Writing Center and Reeves Library. We have also conducted research into the theoretical underpinnings of collaborations between writing centers and research libraries in higher education, drawing on such works as James K. Elmborg and Sheril Hook's Centers for Learning: Writing Centers and Libraries in Collaboration (American Library Association, 2005). In our work with fellow students, we have attempted to address gaps in students' information literacy skills. But equally, or even more, importantly, we have attempted to clarify the close and recursive relationship between the processes of writing and conducting research. This is a relationship that many on our campus—students, faculty, and library research staff alike—will benefit from understanding more deeply. Through analyzing the data we have gathered, along with reflecting on our experiences in working with students and the findings of other researchers in the area of writing center and library collaborations, we hope to propose a working model for continuing, and expanding, this collaboration at Moravian. Our project will conclude with (a) an academic paper summarizing our research and our hands-on tutoring experiences and (b) a set of guidelines for continuing this program at Moravian and for implementing comparable programs at other institutions. We will summarize both documents in our presentation.


WERDEN DIE DEUTSCHEN VERSCHWINDEN? OR ARE THE GERMANS GOING TO DISAPPEAR?

Caitlin Cleary Drs. Robin Clouser and Peter Luborsky Ursinus College 601 E. Main St. Collegeville, PA 19426

The replacement birth rate for any population has been calculated at 2.1 children per woman. This is the birth rate required for a nation or group of people to be able to sustain its current population. Germany's birth rate is 1.3 children per woman. The decrease in the birthrate has been occurring for decades, but has gone unnoticed by the government. After the legacy of the family and birth policies of the National Socialists under Hitler, discussion of population policy was taboo in Germany. Recently, the government realized the effect the low birth rate could have on Germany's generous social welfare programs, especially the pension system. This problem is comparable to the current problem the United States is facing, but is much more serious for Germany because of the generosity of the country's pension program. My research focuses on these and other causes and effects of having a birth rate that is below the replacement rate. My research includes recent government responses to the problem including financial incentives to have children and an increase in the retirement age and discusses the reasons why an increase in immigration is not a viable answer to Germany's problem. There is a possibility that any of the government responses to the problem may already be too late and will not have a significant effect in enough time to stabilize the population and the problems that are caused by not having enough children. This study points to a larger shift in demographics throughout the world as the birth rates in most industrialized countries are also starting to fall to near or below the replacement level.


HIPPOCAMPUS SHAPE-SPACE ANALYSIS OF CLINICALLY DEPRESSED, HIGH RISK, AND CONTROL POPULATIONS

Nikhil Ram Mohan (Carey E. Priebe, Youngser Park, Kelly Botteron, Michael I. Miller), Center of Imaging Science, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218; Department of Psychiatry, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychological disorders in the United States. In the past few decades, research has been dedicated to finding the physiological origins of depression. There has been significant clinical evidence showing that deficiencies in certain neurotransmitters, such as Serotonin and Norepinephrine, as well as structural changes in the brain result in depressive episodes. Recently, studies have successfully correlated changes in hippocampus shape with psychotic disorders such as Schizophrenia and Alzheimer's Disease. In this paper we use a novel statistical technique to find a relationship between hippocampus shape and depression among three distinct populations of twins: the Control pairs (CTRL-CTRL) where neither twin is depressed, the High-Risk Pairs (HR-MDD) where one twin is depressed and the other is at risk of being depressed, and the Depressed pairs (MDD-MDD) where both twins are depressed. High-resolution MRI scans were registered and averaged for 57 female twin pairs: 29 CTRL-CTRL pairs, 22 HR-MDD pairs and 6 MDD-MDD pairs. By analyzing interpoint comparisons, using kernel probability density estimates and Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney p-values, we obtain significant results describing the relationship in "hippocampus shape-space" of the twin populations. In particular, our analysis demonstrates that the high risk population is closer in shape-space to the control population than to the clinically depressed population, suggesting alternative reasons for the high concordance rate prevalent among high-risk populations.


STORING UP TREASURES: A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF MATERIALISM, RELIGIOUS ACTIVITY, AND ONTOLOGY

Landon Preston, (Darin White) McAfee School of Business, Union University, Jackson TN 38305

In recent years, studies have shown that materialism can be directly related to a disruption or social disadvantage in an individual's life (poverty, divorce, etc.). As a result, materialism is often viewed from a psychological and sociological perspective as a coping mechanism used to deal with social abnormalities within one's life. In contrast, studies have also proven that individuals with high levels of religious activity and religious satisfaction tend be less involved in social disturbances and find a sense of being in religion. These two facts lead the researchers to ask the following question: If materialism is often viewed as a coping mechanism, what role can and does religion play as a coping mechanism to satisfy an individual's needs and how does this affect a consumer's purchasing decisions? The results of this study proved that there is a statistically significant correlation between materialism and religious importance, religious activity, and an individual's belief in God or a Higher Power. The study was conducted electronically via email using an online instrument which contained forty-eight questions with 224 possible answer choices. Upon completion of the study, 407 surveys were gathered from a random sample of college students in twenty-six colleges and universities across the United States. Further analysis categorized results into religious classifications and measured the materialistic tendencies and religious activity of each cluster, made state by state comparisons, and also contained additional data based on demographics.


AN ANOMALOUS REACTION OF SILICON OXIDE AND ALUMINUM VIA BALL MILLING

M. Marx and A. Bakhshai, Dean's Office, Physics Department, Goucher College, 1021 Dulaney Valley Road, Baltimore, MD 21204

Previous studies have shown that the ball milling technique, which mechanically heats and releases energy, often causes a displacement reaction between various metals and metal oxides. Sometimes ball milling causes a self-propagating heat synthesis reaction (SHS) to occur. This study was undertaken to see whether the ball milling technique could provide a method to extract pure silicon from silicon oxide. Since silicon oxide and aluminum are readily available materials, the ball milling process would be an easy and cost efficient way to produce silicon. The parameters tested in this study included varying the amount of aluminum, total powder mass, number of balls (kinetic energy), and milling atmosphere. Parameters also tested were additions of acetone and alcohol. X-ray diffraction was used to determine what elements and compounds were present before and after ignition. This study discovered that when silicon oxide and aluminum were milled SHS does not occur despite the reaction being highly exothermic. It does not appear possible to slow down the localized reactions to the point where SHS can occur.


DEVELOPMENT OF FEMININE IDENTITY IN LILIANA HEKER'S EL FIN DE LA HISTORIA

Stephanie Pridgeon (Lola Colomina) Hispanic Studies, College of Charleston, 66 George Street Charleston, SC 29424

Female writers have shown how their identities have been influenced by the political situations of the Dirty War, Argentina's authoritarian period which lasted from 1976 until 1983, and that these identities are generally constructed by men. These identities are a manifestation of men's actions; women's identities were based mainly in being the recipients of men's actions. Conscious of this definition, female writers during this epoch began to reject it and to construct new ones through their writings. Liliana Heker's novel El fin de la historia, published in 1996, presents three main female protagonists: Leonora, who is taken as a political prisoner and tortured and ultimately falls in love with her torturer; her childhood friend Diana, who is trying to write a story about Leonora's life; and la Bechofen, who critiques Diana in writing her novel. My presentation will focus on the development of feminine identity as seen in the characters of this novel. Various roles are portrayed by the protagonists of the novel; Leonora experiences actions and continuously evolves throughout the story, Diana is a more static character who reflects upon and tries to influence Leonora's existence, and la Bechofen tries to help Diana (as well as the reader) to see Leonora's perspective. The identity of Leonora is manipulated both within the story and by the story itself. Within the story that Diana is writing, the military is trying to remove her old identity so that she conforms with a woman's role that is more appropriate within a patriarchal society (which she eventually does). On another level, the character Leonora is manipulated because Diana is trying to make the character match the perception of her that she carries. La Bechofen is manipulating Diana in that she is influencing this perception that Diana has and trying to make her see Leonora from a different perspective. Throughout the novel, there is a struggle between the protagonists to tell their stories and to own their histories. In this sense, the novel conveys the struggle to own one's identity.


RELIGIOUS HATE CRIME IN AMERICA

Caitlin V. Cihak (Brad Tripp) Department of Sociology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733

Since the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, there has been a renewed focus on minority religions in America, particularly Islam, which has dramatically increased the number of religious hate crimes reported in the United States. The object of this paper is to analyze recent trends in religious hate crimes in the United States and to examine the effects that the September 11th attacks had on this data. Among the most notable changes, hate crimes against Muslims increased from only 28 in 2000 to 481 in 2001, a 1,600% raise. Durkheim's theory of anomie can help explain why some reacted in such a violent way towards Muslims. The United States had never experienced such a dramatic act of terrorism before September 11th. As such, many Americans had a feeling of normlessness; school was cancelled, flights were grounded indefinitely, and military presence was increased. Durkheim theorized that these periods of anomie and social disruption results in higher rates of criminal activity, which could be why some Americans engaged in hate crime, acting out against those who they perceived to have caused the disruption. Additionally, though the total incidents of religious hate crime have remained fairly constant throughout this period, the distribution of religious hate crimes has changed. Analysis has also been undertaken regarding the types of religious hate crime offenders, location of incidents, and geographic distribution. It is interesting to note that while Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are all monotheistic, scripturally-based religions, their members are targets of hate crime more frequently than atheists or agnostics. It would appear that religious biased individuals would prefer a person not to believe at all than to believe in the “wrong" religion.


THE DETERMINANTS OF FIRST YEAR GPA IN LAW SCHOOL

John Fordyce, Dr. Lisa Jepsen, Economics Department, University of Northern Iowa, Cedar Falls, IA 50613

The law school admissions process is competitive with many more applicants to law school than spots available. A law school applicant is evaluated on multiple factors, including the applicant's undergraduate GPA, Law School Admissions Test (LSAT) score, undergraduate institution, and undergraduate major. In addition, law students' first year grades affect the students' post-graduation job prospects significantly. Although some studies consider the factors that predict the LSAT score, there are few if any studies analyzing the variables affecting first year grades. Considering the importance of the applicant data and the first year GPA, the lack of studies is peculiar. We analyze the relationship between law students' first year GPA and the students' undergraduate GPA, LSAT score, undergraduate major, undergraduate institution, age, race, and gender. We use regression analysis in order to ascertain the primary determinants of students' first year GPA in law school. In other words, we isolate the effects of each variable on first year GPA while holding all other variables constant. We give much focus to the relationship between students' undergraduate majors and students' first year GPA in law school. No specific undergraduate major is required for admission to law school. As a result, law school classes are quite heterogeneous with regards to undergraduate majors. If certain undergraduate majors provide law students with better thinking skills relative to their peers, then the students will have an advantage over their classmates. If the students from the certain majors have an advantage over their classmates, the demand for those majors should grow. A growing demand is important for undergraduate departments, considering many departments' funds are determined in part by student enrollment. Therefore, our findings are important to the students and faculty of undergraduate institutions.


THE EVOLUTION OF CHINESE IMMIGRANTS IN THE US LABOR MARKET

Tian Zhang Department of Economics, Management and Accounting Marietta College, 215 Fifth St. Marietta, OH 45750

This paper examines the evolution of Chinese immigrants in the US labor market using data drawn from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Samples (IPUMS) of the US Decennial Census throughout the second half of the 20th century. As we notice, the number of Chinese-born persons living in the United States has experienced a significant increase in recent decades, specifically between 1960 and 2000. This paper examines the developments and changes in specific occupational skills and economic performance of Chinese immigrants, and compares these developments and changes to those of American native workers and other immigrants arriving in the United States during the same period of time. The paper also explains the reasons for the noticeable portion of the wage gap between Chinese immigrants and American native workers, as well as between Chinese immigrants and other immigrant groups. I found that, on average, Chinese immigrants have more education than other immigrants and American native workers, and the distinction in human capital explains a large portion of the wage difference in recent decades. As more and more Chinese immigrants have high-level skills, their wages are even relatively higher than that of American native workers at the end of the 20th century. I conclude that a very large portion of the wage gap between Chinese immigrants and other immigrant groups as well as between Chinese immigrants and American native workers is primarily due to the difference in socioeconomic characteristics, particularly educational attainment.


THE BIRACIAL EXPERIENCE IN AMERICA - A MEMOIR

Beverly I. Kit(Arthur Scott) Department of Humanities, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, CA 94901

For the first time in its 210-year history, the 2000 census gave Americans the option of checking off more than one race. According to the 2000 census, from the overall population of 281.4 million Americans, 6.8 million (just over 2 percent) identified as being more than one race. From this 6.8 million, 2.8 (42 percent) were under 18. Indeed, the multiracial population is an ever-growing segment of the American populace. However, it has taken over 200 years for people of mixed race to be recognized by the census, all of which points to how overlooked they are as a population. Yet, multiracial individuals are not just overlooked numerically but culturally, psychologically, and sociologically as well. I hope to change this in my paper by focusing upon the biracial experience in America. Specifically, I highlight what the experience entails and what it symbolizes about American society in general by using my own personal experience as a biracial individual and incorporating research on this particular topic by historians, anthropologists, psychologists, etc. This paper also explores the dynamics of race in America and how multiracial people illustrate the absurdity of our present notions concerning it. Awareness of this topic can help change individuals' views concerning race, identity, and culture and it is such awareness that I hope to bring to the highly-ignored subject of the biracial experience in America.


CHLORINE AND BROMINE INTERCHANGE IN CHEMICALLY ACTIVATED CH2BRCD2CL AND CH2BRCH2CL

Laura Friederich (Bert Holmes), Chemistry Department, The University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and Halons (including CH3Br and CF3Br) are prevalent air pollutants, which have contributed to both global warming and the hole in the ozone layer. CFCs and Halons have been largely banned from production and replaced with hydrochlorofluorocarbons, HCFCs, a similar but more reactive molecule. However, methyl bromide (CH3Br), a soil fumigant, is still used in the US. Despite their widespread use, the reaction pathway of HCFCs in the atmosphere is still not fully understood. In 2001, the Holmes Research group discovered a novel interchange mechanism of halogens on adjacent carbons of energized HCFCs. Since then, research has been conducted into the various parameters of this interchange, such as its rate and for which halogens it occurs. In the first system of its type to involve bromine, chemically activated CH2BrCD2Cl was produced and the interchange of Br and Cl was detected. The CH2BrCD2Cl was generated from photolysis of CH2BrI and CD2ClI in the presence of SF6 as a bath gas and mercury (I) iodide to scavenge atomic iodine. Some of the CH2BrCD2Cl then interchanged to form CH2ClCD2Br, and some of it stabilized. Both 1,2-HX and 1,2-DX elimination products (X = Cl or Br) from the original molecule and from the interchanged molecule resulted, and the amount of elimination products from each were compared. Products from HX elimination were produced at a rate 1.5 times that of DX elimination products, as expected due to kinetic isotope effects. This indicates the interchange of Cl and Br is much faster than the rate for loss of DX or HX. Electronic structure calculations are consistent with the experimental results and indicate that the activation barrier for the interchange involving bromine and chlorine in CH2BrCD2Cl is very low, on the order of 30-40 kcal/ mol. Finally, a reaction of non-deuterated CH2ClI and CH2BrI was run in a similar manner to the deuterated system, with varying excesses of CH2BrI and CH2ClI. Decomposition products were compared to stabilization products, and a rate constant for loss of HCl and HBr was found.


INFLUENCE OF ISLAM ON SOCIETAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: A TEST OF THE EFFICACY OF THE ECONOMIC FREEDOM THEORY

Elizabeth O’Malley (Abdul Karim Bangura), School of International Service, American University, Washington, DC 20016

There are numerous misconceptions concerning Islam and its role in development. These include the assumptions that Islamic nations are confined to the Middle East and, furthermore, these nations are less developed as a result of their Islamic majority. This paper tests both of these assumptions with qualitative research focusing on the social application of the teachings of the Qur’an as well as an overview of Islamic social structure for three specific nations: Egypt, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia. Quantitatively, this paper addresses the economic development of Islamic nations, taking into consideration the same three nations, chosen for their degree of economic development and percent Muslim population. Qualitatively, the study focuses on the economic policies developed from the Qur’an. The main theory assessed is the economic freedom theory in relation to the existing development in Egypt, Indonesia and Saudi Arabia. This paper hypothesizes that Islamic nations experience economic success due to the social and economic policy adopted as a result of the government in power in relation to resources. Overall, emphasis is placed on the individual application of Islam to economic policy through societal forces as the driving factor of development. The majority of data collected were from journals, books, and the Internet by using the document analysis technique. These were supplemented by interviews with experts on the topic.


WORKING HARD FOR THE MONEY?:A META-REGRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE EFFICIENCY WAGE HYPOTHESIS

Eric Krassoi Peach, Dr. Tom Stanley, Department of Economics and Business, Hendrix College- 1600 Washington Ave, Conway, AR 72032

For many years, economists have struggled to explain labor market phenomena that are inconsistent with neoclassical economic theory. When prices shift down, it is expected that workers' wages will shift downward to reach labor market equilibrium. However, experience tells us this is often not the case. This inconsistency has confounded economists since Keynes's “General Theory" (1936) and is one that has had very few satisfactory answers. While many explanations have been given for these phenomena, none of them fully account for the failure of the labor market to reach equilibrium. Recently, the efficiency wage hypothesis has been proposed as an alternative explanation. This hypothesis argues that a worker's wage is connected to their productivity through the amount of effort they choose to exert. Because of this effect, firms would choose not to lower wages during economic downturns since lower wages would result in a productivity loss. Although a number of empirical studies have been conducted to test this hypothesis, many of these tests have produced conflicting results using different empirical methods. This makes it difficult to know with clarity the efficacy of the efficiency wage model. To better understand the efficiency wage effect, we will conduct a meta-regression analysis over the relevant empirical studies on the topic. Meta-regression takes all the empirical studies conducted on a given economic hypothesis and aggregates the results to find the overall effect. Meta-regression identifies variables that distinguish one paper's methods from another's in order to make an “apples to apples" comparison between studies. These “moderating variables" can also be analyzed to determine how much of an effect any particular empirical method has on a study's results. Since July of this year, we have collected over 100 relevant studies and are currently in the process of coding them for the final analysis. Once this process is complete, the meta-regression will give, if successful, a robust test of the efficiency wage hypothesis.


GENE DETECTION IN STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS

Rebecca K. Bickford, Mary E. Westphal, Jennifer Brady, Sanjay Shukla, and William. R. Schwan(National Institutes of Health) Marshfield Clinic and University of Wisconsin La Crosse, Department of Microbiology, University of Wisconsin La Crosse, 1725 State St, La Crosse, WI 54601

Staphylococcus aureus is a ubiquitous bacterium that exists in up to 66% of humans, mainly residing in the nose, ear, and skin; but it can also be an opportunistic pathogen responsible for up to 50,000 deaths per year. Strains from this species have been divided into two main categories: methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The MRSA strains can be further subdivided into community-acquired (CA) and hospital-acquired. The CA-MRSA strains strike healthy individuals who have not been recently hospitalized. In this study, we tested for the presence of nine virulence factor genes (hla, hlb, hld, hlgB, sdrC-E, fnbA, fnbB) in two MSSA populations compared to a CA-MRSA population using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based technology. Three cohorts were examined: a group of 77 CA-MRSA strains, one population of 75 commensal MSSA strains, and one group of 75 early clinical MSSA strains. We found that 100% of all MSSA and CA-MRSA strains possessed the hla, hld, and hlgB genes. One hundred percent of the CA-MRSA strains were also positive for the hlb gene, but only 93.3-96% of MSSA strains had this gene. The results also showed 100% of the CA-MRSA strains were positive for the sdrC, sdrD, and sdrE genes. However, the MSSA cohorts had sdrC-sdrE detected in just 90.7-96% of these populations. On the other hand, the MSSA groups had higher rates for the fnbB gene compared to the CA-MRSA population, but lower frequencies of the fnbA gene. Differences in the hlb and adherence genes may play a role in the spread of CA-MRSA isolates through the general human population.


CHARACTERIZAION OF THE FINE STRUCTURE OF POLYSTYRENE-POLYPROPYLENE BLENDS

Keegan Hines, Kenneth Van Ness, Physics and Engineering, Washington & Lee University, Lexington, Va 24450

Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) was used in concert with Scanning Electron Microscopy to determine and analyze the micro-structure of polymer blends. The micro-structure of any polymer is riddled with minute holes or voids. Micro-void size and frequency indicates how densely packed polymeric molecules are. PALS utilizes annihilation lifetimes to calculate average void radius. A drop in radius size and frequency indicates a more dense packing matrix. For the blend in question, Polystyrene-Polypropylene, several different compositions were created and tested. By varying the percent weight of each polymer within the blend tested, one finds that at certain threshold compositions some rather peculiar results appear. Void radii will vary almost linearly with composition except for specific compositions where one finds a distinct drop in radius size. Similarly, analysis of SEM micrographs indicates that miscibility also varies with composition. Generally, relative mixing is rather low and SEM images show that for most compositions, the two polymers simply co-exist around one another. However, at specific compositions, the two polymers begin to blend together and become co-continuous. Interestingly, higher degrees of mixing as determined by SEM occur at the same compositions in which a drop in void radius and frequency is observed. A direct relationship between packing density and polymeric mixing can be seen. Exploration into this relationship provides information about the fine structure of polymer blends.


FEMININITY AS A CONTINUUM: FROM BATTERED VICTIM, TO SELF-DEFENSE AGGRESSOR, TO LESBIAN, AND TO BARBARIAN

Kathryn L. Scheffel, Dr. Dean Rojek, Department of Sociology, University of Georgia, 309 Baldwin Hall, Athens, Georgia, 30602-1611

It has been estimated that 1 in 10 persons arrested for murder is a woman, 1 in 50 death sentences imposed at the trial level is for a woman, 1 in 70 death row inmates is a woman, and 1 in 97 persons executed in the current era is a woman (Streib 2006). Due to this disproportionate representation, it is believed that there is a discriminating factor that greatly influences female murder trials more than the details of their crime. A contention has been made that a woman's degree of femininity is the ultimate deciding factor in determining the type of charges brought against her and, most often, the verdict of her criminal trial. This paper will examine the implications of the degrees of femininity which are exemplified by the distinct types of women currently found within the criminal justice system; women that claim Battered Woman's Syndrome as a self-defense plea, women that defend themselves against their abusers, lesbians involved in capital cases, and women whose offenses aid in their categorization as being apart of The Evil Woman Theory. Inherently these offenders share the same gender, but how their gender is portrayed during their trial is disparate of one another. The issue of femininity is not only a case of discrimination against homosexual women, but also evidence of gender discrimination occurring within the criminal justice system. Understanding the factors that influence a female offender's trial aids in arguing that the process for determining which offender receives a death penalty sentence is arbitrary and capricious.


ACID OF THE MASSES: THE RELIGION OF LSD IN THE 1960S

Caleb Rushing Laura Cruz, Department of History Western Carolina University Cullowhee, NC 28723

For far too long the Hippies of the American Counter Culture have been seen as dirty, drug-using sensualists. Using contemporary literature from the 1960s, this paper will challenge the long held hippie stereotypes and will prove that their beliefs formed the basis of an alternative religion. Religion, in this case, is defined as a belief in a divine presence with moral codes and practices that result from these convictions. The moral codes of the hippies included pacifism and sharing amongst members and their religious practices included the consumption of psychedelic drugs. They treated LSD as a sacrament because they believed when used in the proper setting it could be a powerful tool for mind expansion, taking the user to higher levels of consciousness. In the LSD ritual, the first time user is placed in a calm, serene environment to keep distractions from the outside world from sending them into a panic. They are then guided by a member of the hippie community who is an experienced LSD user, this way the first timer will not be overwhelmed by the drug. One of the most influential hippie gurus, Timothy Leary, once said, LSD allows an “experience of awe and revelation that is often described as religious and…. [which has] as its goal, the systematic expansion of consciousness and the discovery of energies within, which men call divine." Raising the status of the hippies amongst American society is this papers ultimate goal by proving that they had positive values embedded into them through their participation in the LSD religion.


YACA: YET ANOTHER CLUSTERING ALGORITHM

Jason Hemann, Trinity University Paul Myers, Trinity University Fatma Mili, Oakland University

In the past decade, wireless sensor networks have emerged as a new computing platform which promises to provide high quality data while remaining low cost, long lived, and maintenance free. These benefits come at the cost of limited processing and storage capability, limited transmission range, and most prohibitive, very limited energy. A variety of approaches have been proposed for organizing the nodes of a sensor network in a set of clusters in order to minimize the cost of operation of the network and lengthen its life. Each of the methods introduced makes claims under specific conditions. As a result, it remains difficult to chose among the competing methods or even properly compare their results. In this paper, we compile a survey of the main approaches, establish a minimal set of assumptions, and simulate the approaches under these assumptions for comparison purposes. We describe our experience installing and running the simulation software TOSSIM, designed to simulate these networks, and discuss the results obtained. We also propose a new algorithm, called Yet Another Clustering Algorithm (YACA), which makes more modest assumptions and assess its performance through simulation.


ELLISON'S BLIND SPOT: WOMEN'S SEXUALITY IN THE INVISIBLE MAN

Kelly M. Prosen (Dr. Christina Shouse-Tourino) Department of English, College of Saint Benedict, 37 S. College Ave. St. Joseph, MN 56374

The Invisible Man by Ralph Ellison has become a classic of American modernist literature. The novel is a complex, riveting critique of race relations in the United States. Ellison exposes racism at both an individual and an institutional level. His nameless protagonist discovers his total lack of agency through a series of complicated exchanges with both black and white men; furthermore, Ellison consistently gives his narrator the opportunity for extensive self-reflection. Yet, despite his scathing critique of oppression, Ellison handles the female characters in his novel with astonishing carelessness. It is true that Ellison exposes the repressiveness of the patriarchal world that the narrator lives in through a number of anonymous women: the naked blonde woman on display at the Battle Royale; the poor, black, pregnant victim of incest; the rich, white woman who uses the narrator for sex; and the woman who begs the narrator to rape her. However, his novel ultimately serves as a vehicle for furthering dangerous male fantasies. Most critics of Ellison's novel ignore gender. Those few feminist who deal with the role of women in the novel dismiss the disturbing quality of their presence (see Tate, Standford, Smethurst, Sylvander.) Following Kate Millet, in her groundbreaking Sexual Politics (1977) I intend to critically investigate the novel's sexual content in order to make visible the invisible women in his novel. Incorporating previous critical works as well as a close reading of the text I argue that Ellison manages to grasp one systematic oppression, but he participates in another.


AFRICA'S ONGOING DEBT CRISIS

Erika Valdez McNair Scholars Program H.E.B School of Business and Administration University of the Incarnate Word 4301 Broadway CPO 18 San Antonio, Texas 78209

Abstract Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have for many decades experienced the impact of a massive degree of debt. This study will examine the many variables that are said to contribute to the ongoing debt crisis. Variables such as HIV/AIDS, poverty, corruption, population and literacy rate are some of the contributors to the debt crisis the continent is experiencing. This study will include a quantitative analysis that will evaluate and analyze the scale of contribution that the above cited variables have on the debt crisis, which seems to be consuming these Sub-Saharan African nations. The empirical analysis will include simple linear econometric models which will intend to answer the dynamics among the variables and the debt crisis in over thirty-five selected Sub-Saharan nations. This study will analyze the impact that structural economic reform programs have on the Sub-Saharan area. In conclusion, the analysis will show the relationship that exists among the selected variables and its impact on the debt crisis. The goal of this study does not intend to criticize institutions such as, the World Bank or the International Monetary Fund, but to point out the factors that contribute to the debt and to give policies and recommendations reflecting on the results of the econometric models.


AN OPTICALLY EXCITED METASTABLE KRYPTON ATOMIC BEAM FOR RADIOACTIVE BACKGROUND MEASUREMENTS

Michael P. Mastroianni (Chad Orzel), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308

We report the construction of an optically excited metastable krypton atomic beam source. Ground-state Kr atoms are excited to the 5s[3/2]1 state by a 123 nm photon from a krypton resonance line lamp, then to the 5p[5/2]2 state by an 819 nm photon from a diode laser. From the 5p[5/2]2 state, they spontaneously decay into the 5s[3/2]2 (3P2) metastable state with 77% probability. We characterize the source using both resonant fluorescence at 811 nm and a surface ionization detector. The source will be used to load a Kr* magneto-optical trap for a system designed to laser cool, trap, and detect single atoms. We will use this system to measure extremely low Kr contamination in samples of other rare gases using the technique of Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA). These are critically important measurements for the evaluation of radioactive backgrounds in proposed astrophysical particle detectors using liquid rare gases as a scintillation medium. We will report on both the characterization of the source, and progress in the construction of the ATTA system.


WERE THE COLONIALS AMERICANS?: HISTORY CURRICULUM AND NATIONAL IDENTITY CONSTRUCTION FOR IMMIGRANT CHILDREN IN SOUTHEAST LOS ANGELES

Tamara J. Jackson, UCLA (Marjorie Harness Goodwin) Department of Anthropology, University of California Los Angeles, 341 Haines Hall - Box 951553, 375 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1553

My research addresses the influence of United States History curriculum on national identity construction for students from recently immigrated families. Traditionally, children were thought to acquire social knowledge through agents of socialization (such as the school) inactively, receiving a set of shared cultural understandings which they must internalize in order to be classified as insiders rather than being on the periphery. However, the recent academic trend toward understanding children's life-worlds as dynamic and pliable, rather than as a set of adult understandings to be learned, has changed the way in which we understand youth identity construction. This shift towards recognizing children's social agency calls for a more student-centered approach to examining how youth construct their national identity. Hence, my research relies on capturing fifth-grade Mexican-American students' experience of identity construction through both explicit and implicit curriculum, looking closely at the co-creation of historical truths in the classroom through the use of 'alternative frameworks' to participate in the 'classroom conversation'. I analyze audio-recordings, written responses to prompts about classroom activities, and semi-structured interviews with both the students and teacher, comparing what messages were intended for given lessons and what knowledge was actually created by the children through classroom interaction. I argue that history curriculum can present opportunities for children to create 'project identities', selfs that can be understood as having a more fluid nationality and sense of belonging--a chance for schools to practice a more empowering social science pedagogy.


INTIMACY AND FACE-TO-FACE VERSUS COMPUTER INTERACTION

Emily R. Snow (Michael P. Murtagh, Ph.D.) Department of Psychology, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, MA 02325

This study examined differences in intimacy (operationally defined as the degree of emotional intensity) between face-to-face interactions, computer interactions with emoticons, and computer interactions without emoticons. Subjects conversed with a confederate for 25 minutes either face-to-face, over AOL instant messenger while the confederate spoke in plain text only, or over AOL instant messenger while the confederate spoke in plain text with emoticons; in both instant messenger conditions, the subject did not see the confederate. It was hypothesized that computer interactions would be more intimate than face-to-face interactions, as non-verbal information increases clarity in communication, so an absence of this information would result in the recipient engaging in more inference and projection to try to understand and interpret the information. Findings were mixed, with some support for the main hypothesis. Specifically, subjects in the face-to-face interactions felt their feelings could be more easily changed than those who interacted online without emoticons. However, no significant differences were found between interaction types for several other ratings. In addition, as hypothesized, the perceived attractiveness of the confederate tended to correlate with the subjects' enjoyment of the interaction, and subjects' desire to spend more time with their partner. Finally, the hypothesis that younger subjects would be more comfortable with communicating with others online than older subjects was not supported, as virtually all subjects in this study were quite comfortable in communicating online. The findings, implications, limitations, and directions of future research are discussed including the current issues of online counseling and online predators.


KRIK KRAK, SEND THE HAITIANS BACK! A STUDY OF RACISM IN THE HAITIAN/DOMINICAN BORDERLANDS

Victoria Leonard, (Michelle Chilcoat), Department of Modern Languages and Literatures, Union College, Schenectady, NY, 12308

Life in the borderlands between Haiti and the Dominican Republic is marked by a history of struggle between former French colony of Saint Domingue (Haiti), and former Spanish colony of Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic). Today racial tensions remain high. This racism is rooted in Western colonial notions of good and evil associated with white and black respectively. The Dominican Republic, seen as highly advanced compared to Haiti by the Western World, has been criticized for denying African roots while embracing a colonial past to retain this reputation. I analyze the complexity of this racism by considering its expression in past and contemporary literature. For two centuries, Haiti has been viewed throughout the world as a barbaric nation incapable of building democracy despite (or because of) becoming the first independent slave nation in 1804. Dominican dictator Trujillo capitalized on this caricaturized representation of Haiti, and fueled racial tensions in the 1930s, ordering the extermination of thousands of Haitians and “black" Dominicans in 1937 for advancement of “la raza dominicana." In this paper, I consider the “antihaitianismo" circulating in literature of late 19th- and early 20th-century authors like José Gabriel García and Francisco Henríquez y Carvajal who dismiss Haitian culture as barbaric while elevating Dominican traits. I then examine the strained relationship between the two countries as witnessed in contemporary literature. Haitian author Edwidge Danticat, for example, writes about the racism Haitians face/d on a daily basis in Breath, Eyes, Memory; Krik? Krak!; The Farming of the Bones; and The Dew Breaker. Dominican-American author Julia Alvarez focuses on race in In the Time of the Butterflies; Before We Were Free; and The Feast of the Goat. Compared to past works, these authors engage a more complex view of the formation and impact of racialized identities. I suggest they can be considered as (if not more) useful than current historical and sociological studies for understanding the nature of this on-going racism.


THE SOCIAL STIGMA OF HIV/AIDS IN KENYA AND UGANDA: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Rebecca Stephens (Dr. Laurie DeRose) Department of Sociology, University of Maryland College Park, College Park, MD 20740

Despite a great deal of research on many different aspects of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, little has focused on social stigma and its social determinants. Social stigma can limit an individual's access to jobs, resources, education, and relationships with other people. Arguably, stigma is an important component of the HIV/AIDS epidemic: a high level of stigma could inhibit efforts to stop the disease's spread due to individuals' reluctance to be tested or treated in order to avoid being shunned or rejected. In order to gauge the level of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and understand the social factors leading to stigmatization, we performed bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regressions using Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Kenya in 2003 and Uganda in 2000/01. The surveys featured four questions designed to measure stigma, including “would you be willing to care for a relative with HIV/AIDS," “should a teacher who is HIV-positive be allowed to continue teaching," “should children ages 12-14 be taught about using condoms as a way to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS," and “should an individual who is HIV-positive be allowed to keep their status private." Based on our analysis, we found several variables to have significant relationships with the stigma-related outcome variables, including which country the respondent lived in, the respondent's gender, the respondent's level of education, the respondent's amount of exposure to the media, whether the respondent knew someone with HIV/AIDS, and the respondent's religion. We also examined the respondents' residence classifications, ages, and marital statuses but found weaker relationships between these variables and stigma.


WHY SHOULD I GET INVOLVED? SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND STUDENT INVOLVEMENT ON THE UNK CAMPUS

Martin Demoret Faculty Sponsors: Dr. Claude Louishomme and Dr. Peter Longo Department of Political Science University of Nebraska at Kearney

The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between students' sense of belonging to the UNK campus community and their engagement in campus activities. Participants completed a questionnaire inquiring about their participation in a variety of categorized campus activities, their perceptions of the strength of the UNK campus community, their sense of belonging to the campus community, and their levels of trust in friends, fellow students, faculty, and administrators. It was hypothesized that students with a high sense of belonging to the campus community would demonstrate more frequent and categorically diverse types of engagement than students perceiving a low or moderate sense of belonging. Previous research demonstrates a strong relationship between trust and sense belonging, thus it was also hypothesized that high trust students would demonstrate higher levels of engagement than low or moderate trust students.


PREFERENTIAL BINDING OF P130CAS SPLICE VARIENTS LEADS TO REGULATION ON CELL MOTILITY/SURVIVAL

Madhu Jagannathan, Theodora Tsirka, (Dr. Stephan Feller) Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford OX3 9DS, United Kingdom

Crk-associated substrate of 130 kDa (p130Cas; human form also known as BCAR1) is a large docking protein that is hyperphosphorylated on tyrosines in cells transformed by the v-crk or v-src oncogenes. p130Cas contains an amino-terminal src-homology 3 (SH3) domain which is important in binding focal adhesion kinase (FAK), tyrosine phosphatases such as PTP-PEST and a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, C3G. These binding events regulate signaling cascades controlling cell motility and survival. p130Cas has also been implicated in human cancer progression. Understanding the mechanisms that regulate the formation of these protein complexes may suggest drug targets that regulate cell transformation and metastasis, both important aspects in the development of cancer. Several p130Cas isoforms have been found. Three of these (1a, 1b, and 1c) differ in their N-termini, i.e. their SH3 domains. Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) was utilized to measure the binding affinity of p130Cas SH3 1a and 1c to FAK- and C3G-derived peptides under reducing and non-reducing conditions. Native conditions inside cells dictate that proteins are mostly in a reduced state, but exceptions have been reported. Under oxidizing conditions, resulting from a localized burst of reactive oxygen radicals (e.g. by Phox proteins), disulfide bonding between two cystines of p130Cas 1c could lead to formation of a unique loop structure that may alter its binding efficiency to FAK and C3G. It was found that p130Cas 1a binds the FAK epitope more efficiently than C3G under both conditions. p130Cas 1c appears to efficiently bind to FAK or C3G motives under non-reducing conditions, suggesting that the Cys - Cys loop might increase the binding of p130Cas 1c to its substrates. Further work under reducing conditions is ongoing. We hypothesize that oxidation of p130Cas 1c in vivo might result in increased binding to FAK and/or C3G, possibly representing an important regulatory control for cell motility and/or survival.


EXISTENTIALISM VS. ISLAM

Holly E. Richards

This paper examines the philosophy of Existentialism versus the religion of Islam and seeks to find evidence that will expose their commonalities. The common belief among Existentialists is one that emphasizes the individual experience and the consequences of an individual's acts throughout his/her unexplainable existence. However, Islam is among the three Abrahamic faiths, in which there is one God (Allah) and a strict tenet that requires Muslims to do their best to serve their fellow human beings. It is hypothesized that the connections of Existentialism and Islam may be derived from what they are not and what they do not support. Thus, these connections shall be further analyzed in order to understand what they mean today. Through qualitative research, the relationship between Existentialism and Islam is assessed in terms of their historical significances in the modern era. Data were collected by using archival techniques and observational techniques. Information was taken from primary and secondary sources pertaining to the history and philosophy of both Existentialism and Islam. The conclusions seem to suggest that the undeniable connections between Existentialism and Islam cannot be ignored in today's black vs. white world.


CORROSION PREVENTION STRATEGIES FOR MAGNESIUM

Farvah Fatima (Patrick Blanchard) Manufacturing and Processes Department, Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, MI 48121; Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

Magnesium is one of the most widely utilized metals in the automotive industry. Its characteristic smooth texture and lightweight makes it an ideal component for the manufacture of car doors. However, magnesium was discovered to be very susceptible to corrosion and thus many corrosion-prevention methodologies were developed. One of these methods was coating the magnesium with primary and secondary coats. Chrome VI was discovered to be the most efficient primary coat. Unfortunately, Chrome VI was also found to have adverse health effects. Many regulations were passed to reduce its use, such as the European End of Life Directive. Alternatives were thus sought to Chrome VI, and Ford followed the lead and initiated many projects to achieve this goal. The objective of this project was to establish a correlation between the physical characteristics of the alternative coatings (thickness/ uniformity) and corrosion resistance performance, measured in Arizona Proving Ground Equivalent (APGE) cycles. The hypothesis that was made consisted of two parts: 1. The corrosion performance should be directly proportional to coating thickness (especially the second coating). 2. The samples coated with an E-coat rather than a Powder Coat should be more effective albeit they are thinner, as they are more uniform. The test results showed that the hypothesis was both verified and refuted. Georg-Fisher VI Chrome, the reference sample for the primary coatings, performed well regardless of the inconsistent secondary Powder coat. The anodized primary coatings, also yielded good results, however, the chrome-free primary conversion coatings did not. For secondary coatings, the hypothesis was clearly proven. The two widely used secondary coatings tested were the Powder coat and E-coat. The E-coat performed much better given its uniform distribution on the magnesium coupon. The Powder coat, however, had a very inconsistent distribution and so performed poorly. The final recommendation of the project for a Chrome-free primary coating was the anodized coating and an E-coat for the secondary coating.


THE NAKED YOUNG MAN OF MARK 14

Benjamin Anderson, Fred Neidner, Theology, Valparaiso University

The pericope in the Gospel of Mark containing the naked young man(Mark 14:51-52) is one of the most confusing passages in the Gospel. There has been much scholarship on this topic and scholars tend to take either one of two sides. Either they assume Mark was a poor author, and therefore this pericope is a meaningless addition of historical fact, or they assume high ability for Mark's writing and claim the pericope is symbolic. In this essay I argue that Mark includes a real historical event and places it in his writing in such a way as to be a symbol for dying and rising with Christ.


EXPLORING THE QUANTUM BEHAVIOR OF LIGHT EXPERIMENTALLY VIA SPONTANEOUS PARAMETRIC DOWN-CONVERSION

Tom Mazur (Professor Seyffie Maleki) Physics Department Union College 807 Union St. Schenectady, NY 12308

Last summer, we investigated the classical theory of optical coherence via experimentally measuring the degree of second-order coherence [1]. This experiment transitioned into our current project in which we consider a variety of experiments that demonstrate the quantum behavior of light. In particular, we attempt to illustrate the phenomenon of entanglement, show the existence of the photon via determining the degree of second-order coherence when treating light quantum mechanically, demonstrate single-photon and two-photon interference, test a form of Bell's inequality, and primitively teleport the state of a particle [2]. All of these experiments rely heavily on spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in which a single photon of one frequency splits into a pair of photons upon traversing a nonlinear crystal. To date we have created SPDC photons using a UV laser and a BBO crystal. We hope that by the time of this conference we will have enough data to demonstrate some of the experiments that we mention above. 1. F.T. Arrechi, A. Berne, and A. Sona, Measurement of the Time Evolution of a Radiation Field by Joint Photocount Distributions, Phys. Rev. Lett.17, 260-263 (1966). 2. D. Dehlinger and M. W. Mitchell, "Entangled photon apparatus for the undergraduate laboratory," Am. J. Phys. 70, 898-902 (2002).


VISUALIZING QUANTUM DOTS IN A VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT

David Ebert – Professor (Advisor) Ross Maciejewski –Graduate Student (Mentor) Purdue University - 1076 Freehafer Hall West Lafayette, IN 47907-1076 Purdue University Rendering and Percecptialization Lab

VolQD is a unique volume-rendering software that is used to visualize quantum dots. Quantum dot visualization is essential because quantum dots are nano-scale particles that possess many characteristics and properties of atoms and are used as a tool to study atoms. Its drawback, however, is that the user interface is limited and not very efficient. We propose a configuration that significantly enhances the quality and efficiency of the user interface. To accomplish this task, we integrate VolQD with the InterSense IS-900 Motion Tracking System. This tracker system works like an interactive, three-dimensional mouse, with buttons that are programmed to perform explicit tasks. This exceedingly improves the functionality of the VolQD software. In the future we plan to further develop a user interface by implementing stereo graphics which allow users to visualize quantum dots in 3D. [135 Words]


FAMILY FACTORS AS PREDICTORS OF THE DISCREPANCY BETWEEN YOUTH AND PARENT REPORTS OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

Kevin Karl (Gilbert Parra) Department of Psychology, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152

Research consistently indicates that there is a notable discrepancy between youth and parent reports of youth psychopathology (e.g., Achenbach, McConaughy, & Howell, 1987; De Los Reyes & Kazdin, 2005). Relatively few empirical investigations, however, have examined factors that contribute to this difference. Analyses for the present study are designed to identify correlates of the discrepancy between youth and parent reports. Given the large body of research documenting the association between family-related factors and youth psychopathology, measures of parental psychopathology and overall family functioning will be investigated in the present study. Data for the study were taken from the LeBonheur Health Services Foundation (now the Urban Child Institute) funded Prevention Project, which was facilitated by Youth Villages and the University of Memphis. Measures used included the Child Behavior Check List, Youth Self-Report, the Family Assessment General Scale III, the Family Adaptation and Cohesion Examination Scale III, and the Brief Symptoms Inventory. Using these measures, correlations can be made between variables, and a linear regression can help predict the discrepancy, so more accurate assessments of youth psychopathology can be made in the future.


HOW TO READ A RIPRAP

Eric D. Helms // Dr. Aarnes // Department of English // Furman University, 3300 Poinsett Hwy 29613

Gary Snyder's collection Riprap reveals the young poet in limbo, wandering through the northwest and far into the Pacific in search of both purpose and poetic voice. One finds the speaker along Washington's outlooks, Yosemite's high trails, San Francisco's harbor, into Kyoto's temples, and drifting in the hull of the Sappa Creek. Although the poems of Riprap do not promote the bioregionalism that Snyder will later champion, he uses these assorted jobs and environs as ways to develop a poetic. The assorted environs of Riprap gave Snyder the experiences he needed in order to develop his own voice, to surpass his feelings of being trapped in “damned memories, / Whole wasted theories, failures and worse success" (“Nooksack Valley…"17-20). While Riprap does not suggest Snyder has found a philosophy—he remains caught between the ordered life of Shingon Temple and the comical life aboard the Sappa Creek—he has found a way to write poems. In the poem “Riprap" Snyder argues that the careful placement of stones to create sure-footed trails is analogous to the craft of poetry. Furthermore, it is interesting that Snyder ends the collection with the poem “Riprap" as if to remind the reader how to read the entire collection. A reader of Riprap should pay close attention anytime the speaker mentions stones. Snyder suggests that stones found in nature are tools that allow man to build upon the natural past, an idea that is interesting put against Pounds and Eliot's notion of stones—fragments of ruined monuments—which represent the downfall of civilization.


NEW ETHNIC MILITIAS AND DEMOCRACY IN NIGERIA

Rashida Sinnamon-Johnson, Dr. Moradewun Adejunmobi, African and African American Studies, University of California, Davis, One Shields Ave. Davis CA. 95616

On Monday, February 20, 2006, BBC World News reported that five foreign oil workers were abducted while laying a Shell pipeline in the western Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The group responsible for taking these hostages was The Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND), a militant group in the Niger Delta region that aims to secure greater control of oil wealth and has severely cut Nigerian oil exports. Since the mid to late 1990s, Nigeria has been faced with the emergence of several ethnic militias that have become increasingly violent in nature and have threatened Nigeria's political stability and world energy supplies. The phenomenon of politically and ethnically organized militias in deeply divided and ethnically diverse countries such as Nigeria is reflective of deficient political systems in many of the world's post-colonial third world countries. My research seeks to identify how the current Nigerian political system can be revamped to preempt ethnic militias and stop the emergence of more movements. By reviewing the history of Nigeria's recurrent political crises, analyzing current scholarship on ethnic conflict and the response of the Nigerian government to ethnic conflict, I compiled a list of solutions to the current political system. I hypothesized that solutions must include a decentralization of resources and power among other solutions. My preliminary conclusions show that a combination of solutions such as the convening of a national conference to discuss the present structure of federalism, ethnic conflict management, and a reassessment of revenue and power allocation are crucial.


THE EFFECT OF OTK18 UPREGULATION IN U937 CELLS ON NEURONAL SURVIVAL

Christine E. Gilling (Dr. Kim Carlson) Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849

OTK18 is a transcriptional suppressor expressed in all tissues of the body under homeostatic conditions. Expression of OTK18 is up-regulated during severe human immunodeficiency virus type-one (HIV-1) infection of monocytic cells both in vivo and in vitro. The hypothesis is that up-regulation of OTK18 will increase neuronal survival compared to controls. The human monocytic cell line, U937, was differentiated into macrophages or left as undifferentiated monocytes, and transfected with OTK18 (pEGFP-OTK18) or empty control vector (pEGFP-N3). The supernatants (SN) from the transfected U937 cells were used to culture the rat neuronal cell line, PC12. A live/dead assay was run to determine the effect of culturing on cell survival and the results showed significant differences between conditions with pEGFP-OTK18 when compared to the control without PMA. An enzyme linked immunosorbant assay for neurotrophin three showed increased expression when PC12 cells were plated with U937 SN transfected with pEGFP-OTK18 but no tumor necrosis factor-alpha was being expressed. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed a higher fold change in OTK18 when compared to the control. The overall goal of this research is to provide insight as to the effect of OTK18 upregulation during its use as human gene therapy for HIV-1.


PRENATAL TREATMENT IN MOUSE MODEL OF SANFILIPPO SYNDROME TYPE B BY HUMAN UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD CELL TRANSPLANTATION

J. Daily, P.R. Sanberg, A.E. Willing, C. D. Sanberg and S. Garbuzova-Davis. Center of Excellence for Aging and Brain Repair and Department of Neurosurgery, University of South Florida, College of Medicine, Tampa, FL 33612, USA.

Sanfilippo syndrome type B (MPS IIIB), characterized by a deficiency of enzyme α-N-acetylglucosaminodase (Naglu), can be diagnosed as early as 15-16 weeks of gestation. Prenatal enzyme delivery could be most effective by correcting the enzyme deficiency at early stages of embryonic development. Previous studies showed transmigration of maternal cells into the fetus during pregnancy in humans and mice. A recent study (Garbuzova-Davis et al., 2005) showed that mononuclear human umbilical cord blood (MNC hUCB) cells transplanted into a heterozygous MPS IIIB mouse on her fifth day of pregnancy transmigrated to embryos (E12.5 gd) and corrected the enzyme deficiency. The aim of the current study was to determine whether MNC hUCB cells, transplanted on the fifth day of pregnancy, survived postnatally in newborn mice. Tissues from newborn mice sacrificed on the day of birth were used for immunohistochemical analysis of transplanted cell migration using anti-human nuclei (HuNu) antibody to identify human cells. Double staining for HuNu and stem cell factor receptor (CD117) were also performed. Results showed that MNC hUCB cells were found in the brain, liver, kidney, spleen, lungs, and heart. Double positive MNC hUCB cells for HuNu and CD117 were observed mainly in the liver. Results demonstrate the migration of MNC hUCB cells into the fetus and their postnatal survival. The possible Naglu sufficiency of the newborn pups is under investigation, and future studies will determine whether the transplanted cells reproduce without ill effects in the Naglu-sufficient offspring.


PRELIMINARY CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIOCINS PRODUCED BY CARNOBACTERIA OBTAINED FROM ANTARCTIC LAKES

James A. Parejko (Bonnie Jo Bratina) Microbiology Department, University of Wisconsin- La Crosse, La Crosse, WI 54601

Bacteriocins are small proteins secreted by some bacteria that inhibit the growth of species closely related to the producer. Interest in bacteriocins has recently arisen in the food industry for use as a “biopreservative". Nisin, a bacteriocin produced by Lactoccocus lactis that inhibits the growth of many food spoilage bacteria, is currently the only patented bacteriocin for use in food. A group of lactic acid bacteria known as carnobacteria have been shown to produce bacteriocins. We are testing for the production of bacteriocins in carnobacteria obtained from Antarctic lakes, a unique habitat for carnobacteria. It is hoped that Antarctic carnobacteria will produce undiscovered bacteriocins. Twenty-two Antarctic carnobacteria isolates were tested against fourteen target bacteria. The target bacteria included common food spoilage and food-borne pathogens. The majority of carnobacteria isolates showed a degree of inhibition against at least one target bacterium when grown alongside the target bacterium. Nine carnobacteria isolates showed an inhibitory range of seven or more target bacteria. Bacteriocin titers were determined using culture supernatant against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Listeria monocytogenes. Many culture supernatants showed minimal inhibition of the target bacterium; however several isolates showed titers 64-fold higher than other isolates. In the near future, we are planning to optimize the production of the bacteriocins through altering the conditions at which the carnobacteria are grown. We also intend to further characterize the stability and specificity of the bacteriocins.


VISIBLE DOES NOT EQUAL RADICAL: THE ATTEMPTS OF LENI RIEFENSTAHL

Kia King, Professor Luca Calminati, Film and Media Studies Department; Colgate University 13 Oak Drive Hamilton, NY 13346

Leni Riefenstahl spent much of her life defending her involvement as a filmmaker for the Nazi party. In her memoir it becomes clear that she thought of herself as belonging to a separate category from Adolf Hitler, and a truly objective filmmaker. Her work is professional and according to her interviews, has nothing to do with personal beliefs. However, as one delves into Riefenstahl's life following her work with the Nazis, one begins to find a trend quite contrary to her professional stance on her film work. From her filming of African American Jesse Owens at the Olympics in Berlin in the film Olympia (1938) to her vast collection of African photography of the Nubu people of Sudan, Riefenstahl shifts from professional neutrality to personal preference of the Black body. Triumph of the Will, (1935) while known for its enticing propaganda technique, is only the surface of Riefenstahl's work. The question that needs to be asked is how a woman so involved with the Nazi party shifted to an admiration, or as some would argue, obsession, with the black body. Did Riefenstahl really escape the propaganda of Nazism? If so, is Riefenstahl unconsciously propagating the same tenets of White supremacy in her graphic images of Black people and masking this as admiration for the Black body? The use of images in Africa (1982), Jesse Owens in the film Olympia, and German body parts in Triumph of the Will encourage the White supremacist perception of black achievement and legitimacy through physical stature. bell hooks defines this ideology as the “politics of pleasure and danger." Leni Riefenstahl's imagery of blackness as defined by physicality encourages essentialism and limits the perception of black culture to an antithesis of white culture: blacks are physically superior but lack intellectual and cultural progression.


AN ANALYSIS OF THE AESTHETIC DIALOGUE OF JAMES JOYCE AND EVELYN WAUGH, AS WELL AS A BUDDHIST CRITIQUE OF BOTH POSITIONS

Nick Kimbro, Paul Trolander, Department of English, Rhetoric, and Writing, Berry College, Mt. Berry, Georgia 30169

In his critical biography of Evelyn Waugh, Douglas Patey briefly identifies the autobiographical tale of Brideshead Revisited as an inversion of the modern aesthetic embodied in James Joyce's Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. Though scholars such as Patey would like to read the ultimate conversion of Captain Charles Ryder in Brideshead as a flat contradiction to Joyce's aesthetic, the painfully conflicted nature of this scene, as well as Julia Mottram's tragic rejection of Ryder's love, suggest at the very least a conflicted resolution. Rather than mistake the character of Charles Ryder as a simple contradiction to that of Stephan Dedalus in Portrait, my contention is that the former represents a balancing extreme in relation to the aesthetic position expressed through Dedalus. Waugh recognizes the price of the moral and artistic freedom found in Joyce's aesthetic as being a subjection to the tragedies that necessarily accompany a circumstantial judgment of good. By elevating the plane of judgment from secular circumstance to that of abstraction (the representation of moral and cosmic truth) the subject gains an Aristotelian perspective by which to aesthetically judge the role of tragedy in everyday life. The question, however, which is ignored by Waugh, and unsuccessfully attempted by Joyce, is how may one completely appreciate the present, while at the same time transcending the vulnerability that circumstantial good imposes? The Buddhist solution is in the practice of meditation, through which one becomes acquainted with categorical nature of the mind and learns to see through mentally constructed distinctions such as beauty and ugliness, pleasure and pain, good and evil. This, along with the fresh and uninformed perspective that the contemplative population takes with them into each moment offers both the liberation which Joyce longs for from the representational mode of thinking, as well as upholds and reconciles Waugh's criticism in simultaneously allowing for temporal satisfaction and the acknowledgement of its impermanence.


ACADEMIC DISHONESTY AMONG COLLEGE STUDENTS

Shannon M. Thompson (Dr. Theresa Wadkins) Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849

A meta-analysis conducted by Whitley (1998) on academic dishonesty revealed that an average of 70.4 percent of students have admitted to cheating in some form during their college careers. This is not a recent phenomenon; academic dishonesty has been plaguing colleges and universities for generations (Dawkins, 2004). The present study investigated the effects of academic motivation, academic integrity, attitude toward cheating, and self-efficacy on cheating behaviors of college students. Participants completed a puzzle-solving task, which consisted of a series of tracing puzzles participants were instructed to solve without lifting their pencils from the page or tracing over the same line more than once. Some of the puzzles, however, were not solvable unless a participant cheated. In order to create a situation in which cheating could be to the participants' advantage, three different levels of motivation were used. One group was offered a 20 dollar reward for the highest score, the second group's scores were made public, and the third group, which served as the control, was told that only the experimenter would know their scores. There was not a significant difference in the cheating behaviors of the three groups. A significant negative correlation was found between participants' self-reports of cheating behaviors and how dishonest they rated those behaviors. Participants who cheated on the puzzle task had significantly higher self-efficacy scores than those who did not cheat. Implications for these findings are discussed.


THE ARYL HYRODCARBON RECEPTOR AND DIOXIN EXPOSURE INFLUENCE HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT MICE.

Author : Joseph Point Du Jour, B.S. in Neuroscience, Class of 2007 Mentor: Lisa Opanashuk, PhD Department of Environmental Medicine University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry 600 Elmwood Ave, Rochester, NY 14619

Dioxin (2,3,7,8 –tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; TCDD) is a ubiquitous and persistent environmental contaminant that mediates toxicity through interaction with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand activated bHLH/PAS transcription factor known to regulate the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and growth regulatory molecules. TCDD exposure has been shown to produce neurobehavioral ailments that are associated with cognitive and physiological systems, which raises public health concerns. This study tested the hypothesis that AhR is important for regulating neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus, where neurogenesis actively takes place in the dentate gyrus region throughout ontogeny. Additionally, it was hypothesized that TCDD exposure interferes with this process. To address the first hypothesis, newly born neural cells were quantified in the hippocampus of adult AhR null mice. Adult male wildtype and AhR knockout mice were injected with BrdU to label proliferating cells. BrdU immunoreactive cells were quantified 24 hours following the injection. Results showed that there were approximately 36% fewer BrdU-positive cells in AhR homozygous knockout mice compared to wildtype controls. These finding suggest that AhR serves to positively regulate the process of neurogenesis. Because males and females have been shown differential responses to TCDD exposure in certain paradigms, this project also evaluated whether TCDD exposure is associated with a sexually dimorphic effect on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. Adult male and female mice were exposed to a single oral dose of vehicle (olive oil), 500 ng/kg, or 1000 ng/kg TCDD, followed by four BrdU (50 mg/kg) injections on the following day. BrdU-positive cells were significantly reduced by approximately 30% in both male and female animals. These data show that TCDD decreases neurogenesis in the hippocampus, and that this effect may be mediated through interaction by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. The observations that TCDD suppresses cell production in the hippocampus leads to the speculation that dioxin-exposure may impede the adaptive response to brain injuries, such as in ischemic stroke and epilepsy.


THE ENVIRONMENT'S IMPACT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH: HOW TO ACHIEVE A SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Thuy Lan Nguyen Economicsc and Business Department Lafayette College Easton, PA 18042

This research aims to find the effects of the environment on economic growth through an empirical study of 40 countries with data taken from the 2004 World Development Indicators and Maddison (1995). As the environment can affect growth in both exogenous channels like climate, geographical location and natural resource abundance and endogenous channels like the clean water, and air quality, this research hopes to find a robust relationship between the endogenous factors of the environment to growth in order to set a sound environmental and growth policies to achieve the highest possible growth path without deteriorating the environmental quality. In particular, I set an econometric equation built on neoclassical growth theories to test if there is a robust relationship between the level of growth and environmental quality. The dependent variable is GDP per capita in logarithmic form. The independent variables include various environmental factors that influence growth including natural resources, air and water qualities, and climate. I also take into account the Environmental Kuznet Curve theory, in which the quality of the environment is, in turn, affected by the level of income. The paper is divided into three main parts. In the first part, I summarize key findings in previous researches on both growth's effect on the environment and the environment's effect on growth. Then I introduce the underlying economic theories that help to build my model. In the second part, I present the data set to estimate a two stage least square regression. I conclude with a summary of the topic and my finding to come up with policy implication and further research recommendation.


HONEYBEE FORAGER RESPONSE TO DIFFERENCES IN FLOWER HANDLING TIMES AND REWARDS

Dr. Harrington Wells, Tomica D. Blocker, L. Pham, B. Harader-Pate, S. Chekotah, R.T. Reidenbaugh, A. Cro. (Dr. John Barthell) Dept. of Biology, University of Central Oklahoma, Oklahoma City Oklahoma, 73003. Langston University, Langston Oklahoma.

It has previously been found that honeybees are able to solve single-dimension problems. Through testing, we know that honeybee foragers are able to determine whether the energy cost in a flower is maximizing or profitable. For our study we traveled to Bursa Turkey, at Uludag University, to use their on-campus honeybees. Objective: To determine whether forager honeybees are able to solve complex, two-dimensional problems. More specifically, if they are able to energy maximize by following the profit per cost of energy. Materials and Methods: Four honeybee hives, where no specific amount of bees were handled per day. An artificial flower patch: low set brown table. On this lay 36 artificial flowers at a time (72 total.) Our artificial flowers were made from square pieces of plexi-glass, each with plastic pedestals, 36 contained pins, melted into the top; 36 flowers contained deep and shallow wells. Testor's paint was used for labeling. A Petri dish of clove scented sucrose was used to attract the honeybees to the table until the bees were trained to it. We alternated the energy cost for each flower, by color, and then the profit for each flower, by color. Then we combined them for our two-dimensional test. We observed where each forager visited. The two separate types of artificial flowers were used to insure that our results were correct. Results: Although able to solve single-dimension problems, bees are unable to solve more complex, two-dimensional problems. Conclusions: Foraging honeybees use separate criterion to determine the flowers they visit: by color; by profit; or by cost of energy used. This knowledge may help in agricultural productivity; specifically with hybridization and intercropping. Also, to gain knowledge on the decision processes of insects and how simple nervous systems solve complex problems. Supported by the National Science Foundation-REU Program


FORENSIC TRACE ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF GLASS VIA PIXE

Derek Padilla, Christopher Hall (P.A. DeYoung, and G.F. Peaslee) Department of Physics, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182; Department of Physics, Hope College, Holland, MI 49423

Using the Hope College Ion Beam Analysis Laboratory (HIBAL), protons with an energy of 2.3 MeV are accelerated towards the prepared samples in an evacuated target chamber. Resultant x-rays are detected at 45 degrees with a Si(Li) detector. The x-ray spectra are analyzed with the GUPIXWIN peak-fitting software which outputs relative concentrations of trace elements. With these relative concentrations, ratios between trace elements are used for the comparative aspect of the statistics. This use of ratios eliminates much systematic error that arises when trying to acquire absolute concentrations. Specific ratios between samples are compared using Z-score testing which gives a scale of the difference between the two samples for that particular elemental ratio. When comparing two hits on the same sample, there still remains a difference in the trace elemental concentrations of that same sample due to statistical errors. This difference is used as a control in our evaluations of unknown sample concentrations. To obtain reliable statistics, multiple spectra are always obtained on each sample.


ROLE OF CHEMICAL VARIATION IN PROTECTION AGAINST HERBIVORY IN MIRABILIS JALAPA

Andrea E Berardi (Frank Frey) Department of Biology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346

Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae), otherwise known as the Four O'Clock flower or the Marvel of Peru, is native to the tropical regions of the Americas but is popularly cultivated in the gardens of North America and Europe. Several lines of gardening and anecdotal evidence suggest that M. jalapa is poisonous to many animal species (including humans). Additionally, there are some data that suggest color, or pigmentation, and defensive chemistry may be genetically associated in these plants. We suspect that the compounds responsible for the chemical defense are actually the betalain pigments. These pigments are visible not only in the flowers, but also in the leaves and stems. This indicates a high concentration of the pigments throughout the plant. It is therefore possible that the purpose of betalains in M. jalapa are both for color and for herbivore defense. In this study, I quantified betalain content in the leaves of greenhouse-grown plants and then used a bioassay with Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica) to ask whether there was an association between pigment concentration and herbivore damage. To quantify betalain content, I ground leaf samples in an extraction buffer designed to extract the two types of betalains in these plants (betacyanin and betaxanthin), and photometrically determined the betalain content in each plant. In the bioassay, one leaf from each plant was placed in a Petri dish with a beetle over a 24-hour period after which percent leaf area removal and beetle weight change were recorded. Each plant was replicated thrice with different beetles. The results of this experiment showed that betalain content varied among plants, and also showed a strong positive correlation between betacyanins and betaxanthins. Interestingly, as betaxanthin concentration increased in leaves, the amount removed by herbivores decreased. These results suggest that the more betaxanthins a plant produces the better chemically defended it is against herbivore attack.


GONZALO DE BERCEO AND MEDIEVAL SPANISH MARIANISM IN THE MIRACLES OF OUR LADY (MILAGROS DE NUESTRA SEÑORA)

Michael D. Simpson (Dr. Greg Briscoe) Foreign Language Department Utah Valley State College 800 W University Parkway Orem, UT 84058

The High Middle Ages were a period of fundamental change in Christian Spain. During the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Reconquest of the Iberian Peninsula produced a period of intense activity, resulting in the recovery of vast, formerly Muslim-occupied territories. However, with the focus of the Reconquest shifting south the powerful northern churches and monasteries saw their influence over Christian nobility weaken considerably. It was during this time of social uncertainty that Bernard of Clairvaux's writings about the central importance of the Virgin Mary to Christian salvation reached Iberia. St. Bernard's teachings were readily adopted by the Spanish church, which viewed the new marianist doctrine as a way to enhance its diminishing power. A central figure in this effort was Gonzalo de Berceo, cleric of the important monastery of San Millán de Cogolla in High Rioja. Berceo was one of the most prolific and talented medieval Spanish writers, producing numerous hymns, hagiographies, doctrinal works, and, of course, marianist documents. The most important of Berceo's marianist works is the Miracles of Our Lady (Milagros de Nuestra Señora). The Miracles, vernacular Spanish translations of Latinate accounts of Mary's miraculous interventions, were altered in accordance with Berceo's desire to disseminate the Marian theology of St. Bernard among the Castillian-speaking population of Christian Spain. Written as a conscious effort to explain and reinforce the significance of the Virgin in the spiritual life of medieval Spain, Berceo's Miracles legitimized the cult of Mary that had grown during that period and strengthened the influence of the church in both ecclesiastical and secular realms.


BACTERIAL MULTI-CELLULAR BEHAVIOR AND DRUG RESISTANCE: CORRELATION BETWEEN AUTOINDUCER-2 AND DRUG RESISTANCE IN ESCHERICHIA COLI

Judy, W. Ng, (Dacheng Ren) Department of Biomedical and Chemical Engineering, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244

Bacterial drug resistance is a serious problem which occurs in different classes of bacteria against different types of antibiotics. Bacteria protect themselves by forming biofilms, or clusters of individual bacteria. Within a biofilm, the densely packed bacteria produce signaling molecules to communicate with one another. The cell-cell communication allows the bacteria to combine their power and cause infection while strengthening themselves against harsh environmental factors such as antibiotics. I investigated the relationship between the signal molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and drug resistance. In the study, different concentrations of the antibiotics chloramphenicol and ampicillin were employed to compare the drug susceptibility between Escherichia coli BW25113 and its luxS mutant. LuxS is known to be the gene that is most directly related to autoinducer-2 (AI-2) production. The E. coli luxS mutant had a higher survival rate than E. coli BW25113 under all concentrations of chloramphenicol. The two strains exhibited a similar pattern of decline in survival rate as the concentration of ampicillin increased. This is probably the first study of the relationship between AI-2 and bacterial drug resistance. The results of this study imply a relationship between AI-2 and drug resistance. However, the influence is drug-mechanism specific. Department of Biological Sciences, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12309


FORECASTING BOX OFFICE SUCCESS WITH NEURAL NETWORKS

Author: Michael Henry Research Sponser: OK-LSAMP and National Science Foundation Department: Management Information Systems Institution: Oklahoma State University Institutional Address: Hall of Fame, Stillwater, OK 74078

In “The Motion Picture Mega-Industry", analyst Litman and Ahn describe Hollywood as “the land of hunch and guess". For many years, studios have been trying to predict the box-office success of movies before their theatrical release. However, due to the difficulty of predicting product demand, a definite solution to this task has not been defined. Dr. Sharda and Dr. Delen of Oklahoma State University have been investigating the use of neural networks to take on this challenging problem. They converted the forecasting problem into a classification problem and used neural networks to place box-office receipts between nine categories, ranging from a ‘flop' to a ‘blockbuster'. From 1998 to 2002, they trained a neural network model that could predict the movie class within one category about 75% of the time. With the support of the National Science Foundation and OK-LSAMP, I was able to continue this research in the summer of 2006. My goal was to improve the accuracy level of the neural network model by updating and re-testing the data from 1998 to 2002, testing new movie data from 2003 to 2005, and creating a new model by evaluating all eight years of data combined. My results are presented in two ways: average of predicting movie success exactly and the average of predicting to within one class of the actual result. The newly trained neural network model could predict the movie class within one category about 80% of the time.


THE HEAT OF THE MOMENT AND THE SUBDUED CONTENTMENT OF THE AFTERMATH: LOVE AND PASSION IN "RED BLOSSOMS" AND "EROS"

Ayra S. Laciste (Sarah Maclay), Department of English, Loyola Marymount University, 1 LMU Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90045

A seemingly impossible phenomenon to delineate in words, romantic love is nevertheless a topic of choice among contemporary poets. What is the nature of romantic love? How does it provide pleasure and what needs does it satisfy? Two poets, Nin Andrews and Louise Glück, attempt to answer these questions by investigating the nature of romantic love in “Red Blossoms" and “Eros," respectively. While employing completely different styles and techniques, both poets effectively shed light on two entirely different dimensions of love. In her prose poem “Red Blossoms," Andrews highlights the physical dimension of love, portraying in an intense and highly sensual manner a bee's penetration of a flower as metaphorically representative of passion and sexual desire. In “Eros," Glück focuses instead on the emotional dimension of love, quietly drawing on the stability and calm produced by emotional liberation to capture the speaker's inner contentment. This comparative literary analysis assesses both Andrews' treatment of the physicality of love and Glück's exploration of the intangible sentiment of love and the satisfaction that accompanies fulfilled romantic desires. Through an examination of their portrayals of romantic love with regards to their chosen forms, images, and techniques, this analysis demonstrates the poets' success at communicating completely different perspectives on the same topic as well as their effectiveness at eliciting certain desired responses from the reader which enhance each poem's overall effect.


THE INDOCTRINATION OF THEODICY IN THE CATHOLIC CHURCH'S POSITION REGARDING CAPITAL PUNISHMENT

Kyle Bozentko (Earl Schwartz) Department of Religion, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN, 1536 Hewitt Avenue 55104

There is an established theological position which regards theodicy (defense of God's omnipotence and benevolence in response to the existence of evil) as an unnecessary and irrelevant motif within theology. However, after researching church texts which focus on evil and the use of the death penalty, I intend to demonstrate the active influence of theodicy on the development of church doctrine. Theodicy plays an active role in the development of the Roman Catholic Church's position regarding capital punishment and will subsequently play a role in the formation of individual Catholics' opinions on capital punishment. This incorporation helps to solidify theodicy as a meaningful field of theological inquiry. I hope to show how an abstract, theological concept moves from the realm of intra-personal conceptualization and becomes an integral part of personal experience which has profound implications in social and cultural settings. Focusing on Augustinian free-will theodicy, Leibniz's “Best of All Possible Worlds" and Calvinist Determinism, this project traces these theological responses to evil as they become incorporated into the position of the Catholic Church's position on capital punishment. Methodologically, the work consists of four primary components: first, to identify the crucial theological foundations of these theodicies; second, to offer a critique of theodicy itself; third, to identify the Roman Catholic Church's position on the death penalty, and fourth, to isolate explicit and implicit instances where elements of these theodicies have become incorporated into the respective church positions. Thereby, I will illustrate the ongoing significance of theodicy as a meaningful form of theological inquiry.


ANALYSIS OF LEFT VENTRICULAR MYOCARDIAL STRUCTURE USING DIFFUSION TENSOR MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING

Emma T. Pineda Fortin, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556; Daniel B. Ennis, Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305

There is increasing evidence supporting the heterogeneity of heart structure. An analysis of the left ventricle through the use of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTMRI) data provided further support for this hypothesis. DTMRI data from five normal canine hearts was analyzed by decomposing the tensor data using a set of spherical tensor invariants as a basis. Tensor shape indicates the general structure of the tissue through which the water molecules diffuse. Tensor invariants permitted the representation of the data through scalar metrics. The norm of the 3x3 diffusion tensor indicates the magnitude of isotropic diffusion through the tissue. The fractional anisotropy (FA) measures what part of the tensor represented anisotropic diffusion through the tissue, and thus structural organization. The third basis is the mode of the tensor, which reveals the type of anisotrop (planar, orthotropic or linear). These three invariants were used to identify the tissue structure in 51 different sectors of the left ventricle in each of the five hearts. Segmentation involved the isolation of 17 anatomical sectors each divided into epicardial, mid-myocardial and endocardial layers. The mean of the data was averaged for all hearts at each sector and was visually displayed using bullseye plots. Examination of these plots lead to evident transmural, as well as base to apex heterogeneity. The norm data shows that the endocardium has higher diffusivity than the mid- or epicardial layers. FA data also displayed cross layer differences, showing higher values in the epicardial layer. The apex displays the lowest values of mode, and therefore appears the most sheet-like. Structural differences are therefore confirmed by analytical means, yet histology should be undergone to verify these results.


CHEMISTRY OF MO(DIIMINE)(CO)4 COMPLEXES AND DIISOCYANIDES: EVIDENCE OF BINUCLEAR COMPLEX FORMATION AND EFFECTS ON MLCT SOLVATOCHROMISM

Bradley Miller (Christopher Exstrom)Department of Chemistry, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849-1150

To date, no reported organometallic clathrate, or “molecular-grid", sensor materials respond visibly to changes in solution or vapor environment. As a first step toward preparing an extended solid-state material based a known metal-to-ligand-charge-transfer (MCLT) chromophore, 1,4-diisocyanobenzene (dib) was reacted with Mo(dtbbpy)(CO)4 (dttbpy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine) in a 1:2 mole ratio to produce the novel, binuclear complex [Mo(dtbbpy)(CO)3]2(dib). IR spectroscopy confirms the the coordination of one isocyanide functional group and the displacement of one CO ligand per Mo center. 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy show evidence of both monocoordinating and bridging dib ligands in CDCl3 solution. The pure [Mo(dtbbpy)(CO)3]2(dib) complex could not be isolated, but it was observed that diisocyanide coordination drastically reduced the degree of MLCT solvatochromism – much like that reported for Mo(diimine)(PR3)(CO)3 complexes. This has led to a parallel study of the effects of the p-acceptor and donor ligands on the degree of MLCT solvatochromism in Mo(diimine)(L)(CO)3 complexes (L = PR3, RNC, halogen anion). These results will be discussed.


INCOMPLETENESS AND MATHEMATICAL REALITY

Matthew J. Glass (Dr. Stephen H. Kellert), Department of Philosophy, Hamline University, 1536 Hewitt Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55104

This research investigates a connection between mathematics and philosophy, specifically examining the metaphysical implications of Gödel's incompleteness theorems. I claim that the debate about the existence of mathematical entities arises from contrasting views concerning what is considered valuable in mathematics. In 1920, the mathematician David Hilbert proposed a program calling for the creation of a foundation for mathematical systems, which would be free from contradiction (consistent) and provide logical proof for every true statement (complete). Gödel's incompleteness theorems prove that any attempt to create such a foundation would fail because one can always create a mathematical statement that is true, but unable to be proven. These theorems have become a part of the debate about the existence of mathematical entities. Gödel believed that the incompleteness theorems supported the idea that mathematical entities exist independently of the mind, endorsing the view of mathematical Platonism. In opposition to this view, Brouwer and the Intuitionists claimed that mathematical entities exist only as mental constructions. I reframe the debate surrounding mathematical reality in terms of cognitive values of mathematics. Although the connection between cognitive values and mathematical existence has not been widely explored, it provides valuable insight into a fundamental difference between the ontological standpoints of Brouwer and Gödel. I argue that the Platonists value simplicity and success over completeness and consistency, and the Intuitionists value completeness and consistency over simplicity and success. Since the incompleteness theorems make either completeness or consistency of sufficiently powerful systems impossible, the Intuitionists' values are challenged, but the Platonist values remain relatively unscathed. If the primary mathematical values of a certain view become untenable, then the view itself should either be changed or abandoned. Therefore, the incompleteness theorems provide a good reason to favor Platonism over Intuitionism.


FRANK NORRIS: THE VISUAL ART

Mark R. Andrews (Dr. Gabriel Weisberg, Professor of Art History); Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720; Department of Art History, University of Minnesota – Twin Cities, 338 Heller Hall, 271 19th Ave South, Minneapolis, MN, 55455.

It is known and acknowledged that the American author Frank Norris (1870-1902) established himself as the forerunner of American literary Naturalism with his groundbreaking and controversial novels McTeague, Vandover and the Brute, and The Octopus. In his prolific – though short - career, Norris also contributed many writings to various magazines and newspapers, for which he often provided his own illustrations. Having attended art school both in San Francisco at the California School of Design and in Paris at the Académie Julian, Norris's earliest artistic influences came in the form of visual art. Due to the fact that Norris so often used visual elements in his writing, and because several scholars have recognized that his training as an Academic painter significantly influenced his later visual art and writing, a direct cross-examination of Norris's visual and literary art is critical to understanding Norris's creative methods. With hopes of furthering an examination of this kind, biographical and bibliographical research was conducted at both the University of Minnesota – Twin Cities and the University of California at Berkeley to compile a catalogue of Frank Norris's surviving visual art. All but one image – an unfinished oil painting of a horse's head – was acquired through this research. The vast majority of the sixty-three images gathered are pen and ink drawings, many of which were found within a magazine titled The Overland Monthly, and still more were within in the pages of the San Francisco Chronicle, for which Norris covered the Boer War in South Africa. The earliest of Norris's art, which consisted of rough pencil sketches and preliminary drawings, was found in the holdings of the University of California at Berkeley's Bancroft Library. The images greatly inform Norris's work, shedding light on the creative forces that shaped his writing and evolved throughout his career.


LESSONS FROM SPAIN'S HEALTHCARE SYSTEM: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PUBLIC UNIVERSAL HEALTH COVERAGE

Jessica L. Rubino (Dr. Steven Gardner) Department of Modern Languages, Illinois College, Jacksonville, IL 62650; Universidad de Alicante, San Vincente del Raspeig, Alicante, Spain 03690

Providing everyone access to high quality healthcare is a challenge that many countries face, and very few manage to do successfully. Spain has attempted to extend healthcare to everyone, with a free, "no documents required", public healthcare approach. Although Spain has much to teach other countries about making accessible healthcare a priority, their public program has considerable disadvantages that need to be examined. A shortage of doctors, frequent province-to-province immigration, and a waiting list for all important healthcare procedures all serve as setbacks to an idealistic universal system. The focus of this project is to analyze the negative as well as the positive aspects of Spain's public healthcare system, with a view to providing lessons for improving health care in Spain and in other countries. Through interviews conducted in Alicante, Valencia, Madrid and Barcelona, Spain, this research aims to understand the advantages and disadvantages of a universal healthcare system, as well as examine the perception of such healthcare from patients, administrators and doctors involved.


EXTRACTING STRUCTURAL INFORMATION AND VELOCITY DATA OF ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOLS USING LASER REMOTE SENSING TECHNIQUES.

Jan M. Andersen, Tom D. Wilkerson, Utah State University Deptartment of Physics, Space Dynamics Laboratory 1695 North Research Park Way, North Logan, UT 84341

LIDAR is a remote sensing technique that uses lasers in a manner similar to Radar to make measurements of distance, particle density, and various atmospheric properties. Rapid elevation scans using a LIDAR pointing in the upwind direction at a fixed azimuth reveal distinct patterns in the spatial structure of aerosols in the low-altitude boundary layer. Typically, these aerosol clouds are borne aloft from air pollution sources and areas of loose soil such as gravel roads and plowed fields. (Modeling such aerosol transport is especially important in agricultural operations such as tilling, harvesting, and animal feeding, where pollution and air quality control can become problematic.) When scanned, aerosol patterns are kinematically distorted due to the combination of finite scan time, scan direction, and cloud motion. A computer simulation of this distortion is demonstrated. It is shown that true motion patterns can be interpreted by means of a joint analysis of successive "up" and "down" scans. Analysis of two fast, successive elevation scans yields information about the motion of the cloud features and the fluid flow of the air itself - and thus about the turbulent motion within the atmospheric boundary layer. In spite of scan limitations, the temporal and spatial dependence of air flow can be determined by careful analysis of these repeated pairs of rapid scans. Behavior and structure of the aerosols can be constructed. Also, using this technique, wind speed can be measured remotely, without the necessity of setting up meteorological equipment at the exact site of the desired measurement. Data taken during two different LIDAR campaigns in 2005 and 2006, at Ames, Iowa and Sacramento, California respectively were analyzed. Examples are given of measurements of the mean horizontal wind, the shape of prominent vertical plumes of wind-borne aerosols, and inferences about vertical aerosol transport.


IDENTITY FORMATION 101: A CREATIVE IDENTITY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR KENYAN ORPHANS

Megan J. Trotter (Johanna Shapiro, Ph.D. and Shawn Rosenberg, Ph.D.) Department of Family Medicine and Department of Social Sciences, Political Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, 92612; Shelter Children Rehabilitation Center, Ngong, Kenya

The developmental psychologist Eric Erikson claimed that self-definition was the main obstacle in the progression from adolescence to adulthood. He argued that without a strong and healthy sense of identity, individuals are more likely to have poor decision-making abilities and thus are at greater risk for drug abuse, delinquency, and other negative consequences. Yet little is known about identity formation and its attendant problems in non-Western cultures. The purpose of this research was to explore possible disruptions in identity formation and test an intervention program in African children adjusting to the loss of their parents due to AIDS, domestic violence, and other traumatic events. Eight subjects, ages 9-12, 6 males and 2 females, all residing in a rural orphanage in Kenya, were interviewed before and after the intervention program. These results were compared against 8 other orphans in the same age group from an orphanage in an adjacent town. The subjects and the control group were interviewed on four aspects of identity: gender, tribe, orphan status, and race. Next, both groups were asked to draw pictures of themselves and comment on these drawings initially and then after the pictures were altered to be fatter, taller, the opposite gender, with parents, and a different race. Over a period of 2 months, the subject group participated in activities to help them to express their individual identity. These activities included drawing their biggest fear, painting where they would go if they could go anywhere in the world, writing about their hopes for the future, and sculpting what they would be like if they were a superhero. Based on descriptive and qualitative data analysis, we expect to find a significant difference between pre- and post- interviews both within and between groups. Also we expect to develop greater insight into the identity formation process of orphans within this tribal society. Finally, this research could shed light on the issue of identity formation in general and possibly offer ideas for improvement of current identity intervention programs.


TOWARD A GENEOLOGY OF THE CONCEPT OF RACE: ON THE REALITY OF RACIAL CATEGORIES

Brian Rochel (Samuel Imbo) Department of Philosophy, Hamline University, St Paul, MN 55104

This project traces the history of the modern concept of “race" in order to determine whether such a concept is “real." Since there is no single objective qualification for the “reality" of a “racial" category, and since there are many different perspectives surrounding the question today, this project seeks to use the very qualifications that early “race" theorists themselves used in order to determine what was originally meant by “race." I illustrate how all early qualifications of “race" fail to denote a distinct categorical instance. I focus on the writings of von Linné, Hume, Kant, Blumenbach, and others who crafted the term, as well as on contemporary arguments against racial categories. The evolution of “race" can be understood though three distinct but overlapping theories. 1) Race is derived from the evolution of religious “heathenism." 2) Race was created colonial landowners in the US as a method for to cause unrest and fighting among the lower classes. 3) Race was created as a criterion to segregate with the human “race" as modern science and the field of anthropology began to take shape. This project is the first part of a larger philosophic inquiry into the history of how the “race" concept unfolded into its myriad contemporary significations. The significance of this project is its clear observation into three different contexts in which “race" evolved, and the conclusion that in each case the concept lacks objectively validity.


THE ROLE OF REPUTATION IN ONLINE AUCTIONS FOR SMALL-TICKET GOODS: AN EBAY CASE STUDY.

Anthony S. Quill, (Dr. Fahima Aziz) Department of Management and Economics, Hamline University, St. Paul, MN 55104

In transactions that entail large amounts of information asymmetry, sellers must use some sort of signaling strategy to differentiate their products and or services. This paper examines the effectiveness of the most prominent of these strategies used on the auction website Ebay.com: the seller's feedback score. Many studies (Jin and Kato 2002, Livingston 2002, Ba and Pavlou 2002, Livingston 2002) have shown the significance of reputation in markets for collectible goods and or high-ticket goods, but few have examined whether a higher reputation is profitable in small-ticket and or more homogenous markets. Although in these markets information asymmetry is considerably less, its presence is still significant. Looking at the online market for used and new DVDs, this study will examine whether building a strong reputation is necessarily a worthwhile strategy for sellers of small-ticket and homogenous goods. The findings of this study could prove useful in forecasting the future for Ebay.com, for if reputation does not alleviate the information asymmetry in small-ticket items, the market for these items could deteriorate.


ETHNIC CONFLICT IN DEMOCRACIES: APPLYING THEORIES OF PROTEST AND VIOLENCE TO ETHNOPOLITICS

Colin M. Brown Advisor: Bonnie M. Meguid University of Rochester Department of Political Science Harkness Hall 333 Rochester, NY 14627

What causes ethnic groups to protest or rebel? In this paper I examine a number of existing theories relating to the causes of protest and rebellion in democracies and determine their ability to be applied to ethnic based protest and rebellion. I find that the existing theories can be loosely grouped into structural and socioeconomic theories. By examining 29 ethnic minorities in 12 Western industrial democracies over the years 1985-2000 through regression analysis, I find that socioeconomic variables do not have significant predictive power when applied to ethnic-based protest and violence. However, hypotheses about protest and rebellion derived from structural explanations, such as freer political competition and groups' relative access to political power, continue to be substantiated for ethnic groups. Existing structural theories can be said to have explanatory power, but I determine that a new set of theories must be developed to determine the motivations for ethnic protest and violence. By further examining two outlying cases, Turks in Germany and Roma in Europe, in depth, I also conclude that protest and violence among a few particular groups may not be explicable through larger theories of political conflict but may require studying their specific historical and social conditions.


MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, AND THE REORGANIZATION OF YOUNG CHILEANS' SOCIAL IMAGINAIRE

Kestrel L. Jenkins (Verne A. Dusenbery), Global Studies Program, Hamline University, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55104.

The processes and events leading up to--and the actual implementation of--legalized divorce in Chile provide a useful illustration of the complexity of cultural transformation. While young Chileans have adopted modern ideals of feminism and individual rights, as reflected in the new state policies on divorce, their actions still suggest the influence of longstanding culturally ingrained understandings of marriage. Since young Chileans have adapted to living with the use of annulments and the avoidance of marriage to accommodate the expressed ideals of the Catholic Church, transformations in their mentalities, reflected through expressed views about divorce and marriage, have not yet translated into practice. Previous studies have deconstructed divorce through statistical evidence, disregarding its relation to individuals' views of reality. This research explores what it means for individuals when their state allows divorce and their religion condemns it, and the impact of contested meanings of marriage – the legal contract vs. the religious sacrament – on the utilization of divorce as an option among young Chileans. Since my research seeks an understanding of what marriage and divorce mean to young Chileans in the context of historical events and influences, the approach is both qualitative – to realize the perspectives of young Chileans about marriage and divorce – and quantitative – to uncover the incidence of marriage, annulments, and divorce before and after the new divorce law. Throughout six months in Valdivia, Chile, I held three student focus groups and completed several interviews, while continually immersing myself in participant observation with young Chileans. The incorporation of prior scholarly research, governmental statistics, legal and ecclesiastical documents, and media coverage also provide relevant contextual material for this research. Young Chileans' views of the world have been transformed, but involve multiple and sometimes conflicting meanings, providing clarification of Arjun Appadurai's explanations of the social imaginaire and how the process of globalization is transforming men and women's perceptions of their world, helping them imagine new ways of being and acting in society.


ADVOCATING FOR HIV/AIDS IN INDIA: SUCCESSES AND CHALLENGES

Maria C. Brun, Pareena G. Lawrence (Pareena G. Lawrence). Department of Management and Economics, University of Minnesota, Morris, Morris MN 56267.

India has the second largest population living with HIV/AIDS in the world. It is predicted that the current estimate of 5.1 million HIV positive people will grow to 20-25 million by 2010 and HIV/AIDS related deaths could slow economic growth by .86 percent up to 1.5 percent per annum. This paper examines the progress that is being made in fighting this epidemic by analyzing the efforts, experiences, and challenges faced by two Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) that are located in two different parts of the country. We find that although the regions differ in culture and clientele, both NGOs face similar problems in combating the HIV/AIDS epidemic due to prevailing cultural norms, including those that prescribe gender roles within Indian society. Furthermore, we find that groups that are not traditionally seen as high risk to contract the disease, such as monogamous housewives who cannot demand safe sex practices from their husbands due to prevailing cultural norms, and female day laborers due to gender discrimination in the labor market and socioeconomic inequality in society, should in fact be considered high risk. In addition, some high risk groups are largely ignored within Indian society, such as the homosexual community, further inflaming the epidemic. Overall, cultural taboos related to sexual education in the public sector leaves everyone at a higher risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. Issues related to NGO accountability and donor funding also present new challenges.


COSMOLOGICAL POWER: THE ESTABLISHMENT, LEGITIMIZATION, AND MAINTENANCE OF DIVINE KINGSHIP

Kristin V. Landau (Anthony Aveni) Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346

This presentation carefully analyzes the Classic Maya (A.D. 250-900) use of astronomy and basic astronomical principles at the archaeological site of Copan, in Honduras, Central America. Specifically I address (1) how and in what ways astronomically significant buildings and standing monuments were commissioned, (2) reasons for, and (3) possible results of their erection. By “astronomically significant," I refer to the tendency of Maya rulers to align structures with each other and astronomical phenomena, such as the setting sun on the longest day of the year (i.e. summer solstice), as well as the celestially symbolic inscriptions carved on the monuments themselves. After two-and-a-half years of research regarding the ancient Maya and their astronomy and extensive fieldwork at Copan, this work, composing my senior Honors Thesis, represents the culmination and synthesis of both primary and secondary literature as well as archaeological investigation. Through a study of change over time, I argue that Rulers 12 (A.D. 628-695) and 13 (A.D. 695-738) acted as divine kings during the more than 100-year span over which they governed. They successfully established, legitimized, and maintained authority as evidenced through the astronomically significant structures they erected. However, I also examine what the patterns of astronomical construction and the monuments themselves may reveal about changes in social and political structure and growth during this dynamic period in Copan's history. For example, Ruler 13 periodically references his deceased divine ancestor on the structures he erected in the ceremonial center of the city. Might the inception of such a connection point to the disguised frailty of a ruler whose reign ended with capture and beheading? I consider this and other examples of defining events in the life and times of these two Copan kings and their polity through their use and manipulation of astronomy in architecture to assert and defend power.


IMPROVING SITE PERCOLATION THRESHOLD APPROXIMATIONS USING THE SECOND MOMENT OF THE DEGREE OF THE LATTICE

Cindy Lui, Dr. Wierman, Applied Math and Statistics, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles St. Baltimore, MD. 21218

Percolation is a random graph model for fluid spreading through a medium. The percolation model is motivated by real-world applications such as the oil flow in porous sandstone, communication networks, and thermal phase transitions. The medium is represented by an infinite periodic graph. In the site percolation model, each vertex of the graph is retained independently with probability p. The percolation threshold is the critical probability above which there would be an infinite connected component of retained vertices, and below which there would be no infinite component. There are several approximation formulas for predicting the percolation thresholds of periodic graphs that use the average degree of the graph. We have used the second moment of the degree, as well as the average degree, to approximate the threshold, and improved the accuracy of the prediction.


IN-SITU SOIL REMEDIATION USING GEOTHERMAL ENGERGY

Lee Vanzler, Lindsey Brough, Trevor Ortolano, Simira Fowler, Ilvira Mardanova, Katherine Buetner Society of Environmental Engineers and Scientists, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042

Rarely are remediation technologies considered from a sustainable perspective, with the economic ambitions of developers and the time value of money calling for a quick process, rather than the most environmental conscious, provident solution. In-situ soil remediation technologies, while often preferred for heavily contaminated sites, present risk of contaminant mobilization during conventional injection and extraction treatment practices and don't embrace the sustainability mantra. This paper evaluates the sustainable practice of using a chemically enhanced steam from below zones of contamination in order to mitigate the transport of compounds further into the subsurface, with emphasis on dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and the simultaneous production of a low cost, reliable energy source. Laboratory experiment allowed for the visual and analytical understanding of contaminant transport under application of low-pressure steam through a saturated sand bed. Comparison of downward and upward steam injection is made, with the resultant decrease in compound mobility under the proposed method found significant. Enriching the steam with surfactants and biomaterial have showed an increase in DNAPL solubility, thereby contributing to the remedial process. To help offset costs of the proposed in-situ technology and introduce a sustainable source of energy, the economic benefit of using geothermal wells as a steam conduit is addressed, as they may remain in place for post-development power and electricity generation on site.


SOUTH AFRICA OR NIGERIA?: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS CASE STUDY OF THE FUTURE OF IRAQI DEMOCRACY

Corinne M. Staggs (M. Neil Browne), Department of Political Science, College of Arts and Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403

Before the 1980s, transitioning to democracy was a fairly rare event. Now, with the United States, the United Nations, and the European Union eager to spread democracy, it seems as soon as a state breaks down, delegates are sent in to write a democratic constitution for the new government. Unfortunately, these new democracies often become unstable and revert to authoritarian regimes. Despite their best efforts, political scientists still have trouble predicting whether a state will backslide from democracy to an authoritarian regime. Barkan, Densham, and Ruston (2006) have suggested that their spatial decision support system model will allow a state to choose the most stable electoral system. Bernhard, Nordstrom and Reenock (2001) suggest that the primary indicator of success is economic performance. To add to the previous methods, I suggest that by engaging in comparative analysis between states looking at institutions, electoral systems, and the primary sources of instability we can make better predictions of a democracy's success or failure. To demonstrate, I use the transitional state of Iraq as a case study. I examine the Iraqi Constitution, looking specifically at the executive and legislative institutions, including electoral systems, and draw analogies both to states with similar transitional circumstances, looking at the structure and success of their institutions, and also to states with similar institutions to Iraq's to evaluate their success. I then look at the ethnic and religious cleavages in Iraq, the most likely source of a breakdown in this transitional state, and compare the measures Iraq has taken to combat this source of instability to measures that other states with similar cleavages have taken and their success. I take these comparisons and evaluate Iraq's potential stability as a democracy and the likelihood it will transition back to an authoritarian regime.


POLLEN-PISTIL INTERACTIONS MAY MAINTAIN FLORAL-COLOR VARIATION IN MIRABILIS JALAPA

Jessica H. Wells, (Frank M. Frey), Department of Biololgy, Colgate University, 13 Oak Drive, Hamilton, New York 13346

The underlying mechanism that maintains floral-color variation has remained elusive for many years. Some studies have suggested that pollinators may be responsible for maintaining multiple morphs in a population, whereas other studies have indicated that relationships between survivorship traits and color could also maintain variation. At Colgate University, I performed a series of crosses to determine whether interactions between pollen tubes and styles play a significant role in the maintenance of floral-color variation in Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae). Individual seeds obtained from a prior crossing experiment were planted in 1L pots in Colgate University's greenhouse. Upon flowering, I observed eight different floral-color morphs and designed an experiment to assess all possible color combinations of pollen donors and recipients. Prior to pollination, the flowers were emasculated to prevent self-fertilization and floral color was quantified using a portable reflectance spectrophotometer. Treatments were assigned nightly, and flowers were hand pollinated using a pair of tweezers. One hour after pollination, styles were collected and were soaked in an ethanol solution overnight. By rinsing the styles, softening them with sodium hydroxide, and staining them with an aniline blue and potassium phosphate solution, I was able to examine each style under a UV light and visualize pollen tubes. Pollen tube growth was calculated by measuring the length of tubes from germinated pollen grains from the surface of each stigma to the tip of the longest pollen tube. Statistical analyses showed that the floral color of the recipient did not have a significant effect on pollen tube performance across color morphs. However, the floral color of the donor significantly affected pollen performance and there was some evidence that particular color combinations of donors and recipients yielded better pollen tube growth rates than others. Taken together, these results suggest that pollen-pistil interactions may play a significant role in maintaining floral-color variation.


DO COLLEGE STUDENTS HAVE WHAT IT TAKES TO MAINTAIN A ROMANTIC RELATIONSHIP?

Theo B. Braden (Dr. Debra L. Oswald and E. Guzman) Department of Psychology, Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881

In the surveying of a 78 college students, the demonstrations of the maintenance behaviors that occur in different phases of college romantic relationships were observed. Maintenance behaviors are the behaviors that are executed to keep a relationship in existence, in a specific state, in a satisfactory condition, and in repair (Dindia & Canary, 1993). It was discovered in numerous studies that there are several essential maintenance behaviors. Advice refers to an individual's expression of opinions to the partner. Assurances refer to guarantees provided to the partner. Positivity is an effort to keep interaction upbeat and enjoyable. Sharing tasks involves the performance of instrumental activities. Social networks refer to the use of common friends and affiliations for the purpose of relationship maintenance (Ragsdale, p.353 1996). However, the utilization of these behaviors in different phases of college relationships has not been discovered. My study predicted that students utilize more strategic behaviors than routine behaviors in casual relationships. Both routine and strategic behaviors could equally occur in an exclusive relationship. The utilization of these behaviors in single individuals has yet to be determined.


A MAGNETO-OPTICAL TRAP FOR AN INDIVIDUAL ATOM MICROCHIP

Vivek Singh (Joshua Grossman), Department of Physics, Adelphi University, 1 South Avenue, Garden City, NY 11530

Developments over the past two decades or so have made possible research into applications of laser cooling and trapping of atoms. While there are optical, magnetic, and magneto-optical traps for single atoms, such traps are large and are cumbersome if one needs to carry out complex experiments. A new development is that of microscopic magnetic traps that can be used as the atom trapping analogs of the electronic integrated circuit. Such traps are constructed by embedding wires on the surface of a substrate. These traps drastically reduce the size of the experimental apparatus and enable complex manipulation of atoms. However, to date, individual atoms have not been loaded into microscopic magnetic traps on a substrate. Our main goal is to trap single atoms within a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) and then transfer them to microscopic magnetic traps on a microchip. Beyond that, we will trap two atoms individually in adjacent microscopic magnetic traps and study their interaction. The first generation chip design involves crossed copper wires placed behind a thin mirror. The second generation chip will feature wires embedded on the surface itself and then given a reflective coating. Once atoms are trapped on the chip, we can manipulate their internal and external (position, momentum, etc.) states. The internal states will form qubits and the dipole-dipole interaction between them can facilitate logic gates to perform computational tasks. Such technology can be used for quantum communications and quantum computers in the future. I will present results from the four-beam mirror-MOT. Following that, I will discuss designs and calculations for the magnetic trap, along with the long-term outlook for quantum logic applications.


LITERACY COACHING: HOW VALUABLE IS IT?

Kierra Jackson (Dr. Virginia Chappell and E. Guzman) Department of English, Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881

In the past five years, federal and local funding for primary and secondary education has included many programming efforts in the field of literacy. One of the most popular programs introduces an educational practice, known as literacy coaching, to the classroom. Literacy coaching is a publicly funded effort that equips teachers with the knowledge and resources needed to increase critical thinking and literacy skills in public schools. Literacy coaches assume a distinct role in education. They identifying the needs of a school and its staff and then assume the responsibility of coaching teachers to instruct literacy more effectively to their students. According to trends in recent documents on literacy coaching, the influence of coaches is on the rise. Since the implementation of the No Child Left Behind Act 2001, organizations have been looking for ways to treat the problem of low literacy rates in America's schools. Literacy programs have begun to be implemented to improve low literacy rates among adolescents. With more literacy coaches in schools, the presence and influence of literacy coaches will undoubtedly be instrumental in the progress of the American educational system. In addition to analyzing the problematic gaps that exist in literacy coaching, it is essential to develop ways to fulfill literacy goals. This is an effort to examine the complexities associated with literacy coaching and to suggest ways in which those complexities can be reduced to maximize literacy coaching's potential.


MEDICAL MARIJUANA: MYTH OR REALITY

Ms. Hanadys Ale Mr.Osman Perez Dr. Lidia Koss Biology Department Florida International University 11200 S.W. 8th Street Miami, Florida 33199

Marijuana has been used to treat medical conditions since ancient times. It is known that in China as early as 2700 B.C the legendary Emperor Shen-Nung used to prescribe cannabis for beriberi, constipation, gout, malaria, and rheumatism More recently, in the United States, Marijuana extracts were one of the top three most prescribed medicines each year from 1842 until the 1890s. In 1937 it became illegal and its use as a medicine was restricted. In the last decades there has been a great controversy in this country around marijuana and the possibility of its use to treat medical conditions again. Currently, the amount of physicians suggesting the use of Marijuana as a treatment for their patients' medical condition, and patients claiming that they have been able to cope with their health problem better or even that they have been saved by the medical use of marijuana is overwhelming. Our presentation is based on a careful examination and analysis of different case studies and physicians case reports on patients that are making these claims, and also scientific research data that have been published in the passed years about the effects of the use of marijuana in the human body. Many valuable information has been gathered and it is presented in this investigation in order to be able to answer the main question that gave birth to our presentation: Medical Marijuana: Myth or Reality.


THE EFFECTS OF VALPROIC ACID ON AML GENE EXPRESSION IN XENOPUS LAEVIS

Lorra L. Hyland1, Rishita Shah2, and Peter Klein2 Barry University1 School of Natural Heath and Science, Miami Shores, Florida 33161 and University of Pennsylvania2 Department of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104

Valproic acid (VPA) is commonly prescribed to patients who are diagnosed with manic depression or epilepsy. Women who use VPA in the first trimester of pregnancy have an increased chance of giving birth to children with birth defects such as spina bifida, cleft palate, and heart defects. When VPA is administered to Xenopus laevis embryos during the neurula stage of development, the tadpoles produced showed pericardial edema and cardiac malformations. VPA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor known to affect gene expression and the teratogenic effects of VPA are likely due to VPA-induced alterations in gene expression during critical stages of development. The present study confirmed the effects of VPA on developing Xenopus and found that the tadpoles also exhibited a severe reduction in circulating erythrocytes. The relative absence of red blood cells may indicate that VPA is directly interfering with the proper expression of a critical hematopoietic gene, such as XAML, the Xenopus homolog of AML1/Runx1. In mice, the transcription factor AML1 has been shown to play a pivotal role in regulating hematopoeitic gene expression during hematopoeitic self-renewal and differentiation. In humans, AML1 is a proto-oncogene that can lead to leukemia after chromosomal translocation. Two different techniques were used to examine whether VPA treatment altered the levels of XAML1 mRNA in Xenopus embryos. RT-PCR analysis was used to quantitatively measure the levels of XAML1 mRNA in the whole embryo, while whole mount in situ hybridization looked for changes in XAML1 mRNA tissue distribution. XAML1 expression was found to decrease upon VPA treatment, providing a likely explanation for the observed reduction of circulating erythrocytes. Supported by SUIP, University of Pennsylvania and NIH MARC, GM 08021, Barry University.


DISTRIBUTION OF VARIOUS INSECT SPECIES IN DIFFERENT HABITATS ON PSARA ISLAND, GREECE

Hoang Nhu Hua, Sumreen Jalal. George Sideris, Ph.D (Faculty Mentor) The Biology Department of Long Island University. Long Island University - Brooklyn Campus. 1 University Plaza. Brooklyn, N.Y 11201.

A remote Aegean island named Psara, proved to be a treasure trove of biological diversity. It is only recently that the natural history of this island is being investigated and this work has focused, for the first time, on what is proving to be a large and unique assemblage of insects. As part of our undergraduate research, we traveled last summer to Psara to do an entomological survey of the island. Our project focuses on identifying and determining the distribution of insects in different habitats on the island. The collecting techniques involved intercepting them with hand nets, pond nets, or porters as they flew, swam or crawled. We also used a UV light trap, and glue traps to attract and capture the insects. A total of well over 300 insects were collected from different habitats such as garique, abandoned agricultural fields, seasonal stream sites and rotting sheep carcasses. Our collection includes specimens from the orders; Lepidoptera (butterflies/moths) Coleoptera (beetles), Odonata (dragonflies), Orthoptera (grasshoppers), Hemiptera (bugs), Hymenoptera (bees/wasps), Diptera (flies), Mantodea (mantids) and others. We are in the process of completing specimen identification and making comparisons with insect populations on other Aegean islands. Our presentation will cover 1) the problems encountered with collecting and preserving specimens in the field; 2) the methodological difficulties encountered in identifying and classifying the specimens; and 3) a discussion of Psara's unique habitats and why understanding the island's insects is fundamental to understanding its ecology. As islands have played a major role in developing biological concepts, such as Darwin and the Galapagos, it is hoped that our findings will help elucidate some aspects of island biology.


THE CHANGING LANDSCAPE OF RURAL AMERICA: THE IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION

Mr. Jerod T. Petersen Dr. Maha Younes Student Summer Research Program (at UNK) Department of Social Work University of Nebraska at Kearney 905 W 25th Street Kearney, NE 68849

This qualitative case study explored immigration's impact on the business landscape of one Midwestern rural community. Twenty-three business leaders representing commerce, education, healthcare, social services, city management, law enforcement, churches, media, and food services responded to 27 open-ended questions exploring four broad categories. The first category addressed the general profiles of the businesses, community, customer base, immigrants, and languages used to serve clients. The second assessed areas impacted by immigration in the community and the degree and typology of impact. The third probed attitudes towards immigrants, impact on business policies and practices, community and business concerns, immigration outlook, and recommendations for business. The final category provided participants an opportunity to offer insight and recommendations that policymakers, business leaders, and other rural communities need to carefully consider immigration issues. The outcome of the study reveals the quandary of rural businesses as they stretch their resources to accommodate the immigrants who seem to breathe life back into their community. This is a forced relationship, two-way dependency, and for some a necessary evil as both businesses and immigrants struggle to adjust to a new way of living. For businesses, this means changing their customer service orientation, addressing communication challenges, and altering hiring practices. Rural areas are advised to prepare for immigration, research its potential impact on the community, learn from other communities, and embrace change. Policymakers are urged to appreciate the distinctive impact of immigration on rural areas, the necessity for federal and state assistance, and to carefully consider immigration policy reforms. Finally, business leaders invite immigrants to become actively involved in the community, learn the language, and to observe local and cultural customs.


STEM CELL RESEARCH AND ETHICS

Osman Perez, Hanadys Ale (Dr. Irma Alonso, Prof. Lidia Kos), Honors College and Biology Department, Florida International University, University Park Campus 11200 S.W. 8th Street Miami, Florida 33199

Every time we turn a new page in history we leave behind remarkable tales of success along the path of human development. Indeed, from the invention of the wheel to the desire of study himself, men have always struggle to improve their situation. Still, any time a new quest is conquered, moral issues and stand points are drawn to measure its real extent and the benefits obtained from it. This measuring of benefits and risks involved in every new invention secures that our imagination does not overtake our rights and give us freedom to change what we think is wrong. Stem cell research is one of those quests scientists constantly pursue considering the immense benefit they will bring to our health. However, in this medical issue there is one question that must be answered, where can the line of life and dead be drawn? Stem Cell Research and Ethics is an investigative research conceived using the latest technical approaches involving the ethical controversies on stem cell research. In order to do so, various ethical standpoints regarding embryological development and the proper moral status fetuses should receive are described to leave open-ended thoughts for the general public to adopt or reject. Besides the ethical considerations, Stem Cell Research and Ethics show a historical overview of the many episodes embryonic and stem cell research have gone through from its beginnings in the ninety-seventies to the new discoveries and approaches we are now facing. In addition, Stem Cell Research and Ethics present tow new experimental procedures, developed by two prominent genetists, that could ultimately lead us to avoid the moral barriers stem cell research is subject to nowadays and their relation with mother and future medicine.


PROBABILISTIC STRESS RUPTURE LIFE ANALYSIS OF TURBINE BLADES USING MONTE CARLO SIMULATION

Sameer, A. Khan (Siemens Power Generation Inc.) Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, FL 32816

The on-going effort to improve the efficiency of gas-powered turbines has facilitated incremental increases in the temperature and stress imposed on turbine components, such as blades, vanes, etc. The incipient failure of blades subjected to mechanical loads of 60 MPa to 950 MPa and temperatures up to 600ºC or higher lead to failure manifesting in irreparable damage to the entire engine system. One of the primary failure modes of turbine blades is creep, which is caused due to the high temperature at the turbine inlet combined with the centrifugal stresses. This investigation will employ a probabilistic design approach to better assess the probability of failure due to creep rupture rather than accepting an unknown level of risk associated with the creep stress rupture criteria used for the deterministic analysis. More specifically, in this proposed research, Monte Carlo simulation method will be used to perform probabilistic analysis in order to predict the life and probability of failure of internally cooled turbine blades due to creep rupture. Probabilistic analysis of the simulation results from this thesis will provide a probability distribution of the creep rupture lives and their sensitivity to the input variables for manufacturing, operational, thermal load and material property variations. It will predict the distribution of blade creep lives for a population of engines as well as determine the most sensitive input variables. This study will be very significant in determining and evaluating the effects of parameters that control the component life and finally assist in improving performance, reducing cost, extending life of the component, and making the design robust.


AEROBIC METHANE PRODUCTION BY PLANT LITTER AND FRUIT PECTIN

Jamie Rodriguez, Dr. Jonathan Frye, Department of Natural Sciences, McPherson College, 1600 E. Euclid, McPherson, Kansas, 67460

Anthropogenic activities, especially the cultivation of rice paddies, have accelerated the amount of methane released into the air over the last 50 years. Methane is an important greenhouse gas because of its long atmospheric half-life and strong absorption of infrared radiation. It was previously thought that methanogenesis was a strictly anaerobic, bacterial process. In January 2006, however, Frank Keppler and his colleagues at the Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg Germany, published evidence of aerobic methanogenesis by ash (Fraxinus excelsior), beech (Fagus sylvatica), sweet vernal grass (Anthoxanthum odoratum), maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). It is not known if all plants are capable of aerobic methanogenesis. Using methods similar to Frank Keppler and his colleagues, I plan to study methane emissions from big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardii) and also red delicious apple (Malus domestica). Big bluestem is native to central Kansas and was the dominant plant species of the tall-grass prairies of the mid-Western U.S. Also, I will study methane emissions from red delicious apple because the mechanism for aerobic methanogenesis is thought to involve pectin. My research objective is to see whether methane is indeed produced from a mechanism within plant mass under aerobic conditions and to calculate the rate of its emission. If my results with big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardii) and red delicious apple (Malus domestica) confirm Keppler and his colleagues' evidence, it will support their estimate that aerobic methanogenesis could contribute 62-236 Tg yr-1 of methane. This would make plants one of the biggest sources of methane emissions into the atmosphere. These findings will likely put more emphasis on the importance of the Kyoto Protocol and the global need to reduce greenhouse gases.


RELATIVISTIC PROJECTILE MOTION VERSUS ORDINARY PROJECTILE MOTION: AN INTERESTING COMPARISON ABOUT RANGE, TIME OF FLIGHT, THEIR RELATIVE ERRORS, AND ACCELERATION

Michael Hunt and Biman Das Department of Physics, State University of New York, Potsdam, New York 13676

An analysis of a relativistic projectile motion in a constant vertical force field using simple relativistic dynamics has shown several interesting features. The path of a relativistic projectile is not a parabola and the range of a relativistic projectile is a maximum at an angle of projection about fifty-six degrees for speeds very close to the speed of light, whereas the range is a maximum at an angle of forty-five degrees at non relativistic speeds [1] when the trajectory is parabolic. In this ongoing project of research we have investigated the relative errors in the range and the time of flight as well as acceleration of the relativistic projectile as a function of angle of projection. The results are interesting showing that the relative error in the range is a minimum at an angle of about fifty-six degrees at highly relativistic speeds. But the result of the relative error at non relativistic speeds agrees with the result for an ordinary projectile where the relative error was found to have a minimum for an angle of forty-five degrees [2]. The relative error in the time of flight is found to have a minimum near vertical projection conditions both for ordinary and relativistic projectiles. The results for acceleration for a relativistic projectile shows also interesting features including, acceleration in the x-direction (although there is no force in the x-direction), and that acceleration in the y-direction ceases (although force is present in the y-direction) so that the speed of the projectile does not exceed the speed of light. The details of the computations and important results will be presented. 1. J. McCaslin (advisor B. Das), Proceedings of NCUR, 2006. 2. M. I. Molina, The Physics Teacher, 38, 90 (2000).


TESTING THE MODEL PARAMETERS OF TRANSISTORS USING THE BJT AND CMOS DEVICES

DeAngelo C. Trotter (Dr. Shrinivas G. Joshi and E. Guzman) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Marquette University, P.O. Box 1881, Milwaukee, WI 53201-1881

The purpose of this research is to use the Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET or MOS) from the CD4007 integrated circuit (IC) chip, and use their characteristics plots to find their model parameters, where the MOS will be the better device to build an amplifier. The amplifiers main purpose is to increase the signal power in a device. For the BJT, its usage range from signal amplification to the design of digital logic and memory circuits (Sedra and Smith, 2004). The BJT must operate in the active region in order for the device to be built as an amplifier. The CMOS IC chip has 3 PMOS and 3 NMOS transistors built inside the chip. In order for this device to be built as amplifiers, the MOS transistors must operate in the saturation region. With the versatility of the CMOS device, the CMOS will be the best device to build an amplifier. The CMOS do not produce as much heat as the BJT (Riezenman, 1991), and also the CMOS device has a small power consumption then BJT. The performance of a device depends only on its application. Manufacturers want to know how the BJT and CMOS will be used to build an amplifier, and which device once built will amplify the best. From these results, manufacturing companies will save money on devices.


SLEEP-AWAY CAMP AND ITS EMERGENT VALUES

Alyssa B. Wisoff, Rebecca Kissane, Anthropology & Sociology and American Studies, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042

A rich history of organized camping has existed in America since the late 1800s. Historical accounts suggest that sleep-away camps have remained rather consistent in their purpose and values over time. This study aims to detail camp culture, its values, and its effects upon current and former members of sleep-away camps. This study will not only provide a comprehensive understanding of camp culture but may also offer insights as to why these camps are so popular among Americans. I will draw data from multiple sources. Over the summer of 2006, I conducted field research at a sleep-away camp. As a participant observer who was working at the camp, I was able to observe the activities of the camp as well as the traditions that persist, the interactions between the campers, and the involvement of camp alumnae. Additionally, I am currently conducting in-depth qualitative interviews with women who have attended or who are still attending sleep-away camps to discover their impressions of sleep-away camp and its influence on their lives. Lastly, this study will draw on previous literature, popular culture representations of sleep-away camps (e.g., movies), and camp promotional materials. Through detailed analysis of these various data sources, I aim to provide a comprehensive account of camp culture and its effects on society.


MOLECULAR COMPARISON OF CYANOBACTERIA PRESENT IN THE GREEN LAYER OF TWO TROPICAL HYPERSALINE MICROBIAL MATS AT THE CABO ROJO SALTERNS OF PUERTO RICO

Francisco J. Sánchez-Rivera, Roger H. Valle-Molinares, Lilliam Casillas-Martínez and Carlos Ríos-Velázquez. Biology Department. University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, PO Box 9000, Mayagüez PR 00681-9000.

Microbial mats are stratified microbial communities developed in a great variety of environments. They are vertically distributed according to environmental factors like light intensity and redox gradients. Recent astrobiological research has been focused on these microbial communities as a tool for exploring the possibility of life on other planets and for other novel applications. One of the most abundant microorganisms present in the green layer of these microecosystems are Cyanobacteria. These microorganisms are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes capable of both CO2 and N2 fixation, thus, they are key species in both carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles. On the other hand, these prokaryotes have innovative biotechnological applications, such as large scale H2 production and bioremediation. The main focus of this research is to identify and compare Cyanobacteria present in two types of microbial mats in the Cabo Rojo Salterns of Puerto Rico, one being more developed than the other, and both from different locations. The green layer of the microbial mats was separated, and total DNA extracted. Amplicons were obtained by means of the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using Cyanobacterial specific primers Cya106F and Cya781R. These amplicons were cloned and transformed onto a bacterial host, obtaining a total of 120 clones/mat. A total of 24 clones were analyzed molecularly by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). The data suggest differences in the diversity and complexity of Cyanobacteria in both sites. Five clones of each mat were sequenced, and in silico analysis confirmed the RFLP patterns. In future studies, Cyanobacterial composition of each of these mats will be evaluated under different environmental conditions and cultivable microorganisms will be screened for potential biotechnological applications.


HOW STUDENT AND TEACHER EXPECTATIONS AND BIAS AFFECTS PARTICIPATION IN THE ENGLISH CLASSROOM.

Sergio Arteaga, Mary Christianakis Ph.D., Education, Occidental College, 1600 Campus Road Los Angeles, CA 90041

My research focuses on how peer and teacher expectations and bias affects the participation phenomena in the English classroom and who is affected most by this both in terms of social groups and gender groups. Student participation can be used as a measuring stick to determine engagement and interest. My research intends to show that these expectations and bias affects the participation of students in the English classroom. I hope that with the research I have done that it may open future teacher's eyes to the gender bias that we tend to ignore in the classroom. Through the past semester I have observed the aforementioned affects the participation of students in the classroom. Gender in the classroom is something that tends to be ignored as mentioned before. Yet, favoritism, expectations and bias based on gender can affect student's performance as my research has shown. In brief, the boys are allowed to misbehave more often than the girls and the girls often rely on "playing dumb" to be accepted in their social groups. "Playing dumb" is when students pretend not to know the answer or answer incorrectly in order to not seem better than the others in the classroom. My presentation will talk about this phenomena and others such as, aggression as a right for boys, social groups and its affect of in class performance, sexualization and performance, teacher classroom management, etc. Furthermore, it will provide recommendations to help improve this phenomena.


THE INTERNAL MIGRATION POLICY OF THE EUROPEAN UNION: AN ESCAPE FROM THE PAST?

Matthew Gyory, Katalin Fabian, Department of Government & Law, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042

As a principal agent of European integration, the European Union (EU) promises to pursue the free movement of people, capital, goods, and services. The EU's explicit commitment to free movement of people contradicts the de facto existence of limited movement for laborers among its member states, especially the Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries who recently joined. Free movement in this context does not apply to tourists, who are able to freely move among EU members, but rather for those CEE citizens who are seeking work. The free movement of people has raised fears of increasing unemployment and the arrival of large migrant populations among the earlier members of the EU when the 2004 enlargement finalized the eastern expansion. The major policy directing free movement between EU members, and restricting the movement of CEE citizens, is the Schengen Agreement. It is part of the EU's acquis communautaire, which is a set of laws that candidate countries must comply with in order to join the EU. All CEE countries have agreed to implement the Schengen provisions, partially before and completely within five years of their accession. However, at least until the completion of the Schengen acquis, and potentially afterward, CEE citizens do not have full access to the labor markets of the fifteen older EU members, except for the United Kingdom and Ireland. In addition, the UK and Ireland have decided to join the other EU members in restricting the free movement of laborers from Romania and Bulgaria, who will join the Union in 2007. This emerging pattern of persistent control of free movement between old and new EU members is at odds with the EU's history and its stated values. The Schengen Agreement, while in principle seeks to create open internal borders, has been a tool to create a new Fortress even among EU members. This research explores the problems of free movement in the EU, asks what has led to this difficult situation and searches for possible solutions that may release the apparent tensions between the EU's policies and its values.


MULTICULTURAL SHAKESPEARE: TEACHING SHAKESPEARE IN MINNESOTA'S POST-9/11 SECONDARY CLASSROOM.

Katie Young Holmes (Marcela Kostihová), Department of English, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN 55104

Harold Bloom, a prominent Shakespeare scholar, has labeled Shakespeare the ‘inventor of the human.' Without Shakespeare, Bloom asserts, we would not possess the same modes of action or reaction, feeling or reason that Shakespeare invented and to which we now prescribe. This perception of Shakespeare has various implications when introduced into a secondary classroom, primarily because Shakespeare's ‘humans' do not reflect the majority of the classroom population. This shift in representation is visible in the state of Minnesota, where an influx of African, Hmong, Chicano/Latino, and Muslim students has necessitated a different approach to learning. Multicultural education, according to Banks and Banks, requires total school reform, from curriculum to community activities, to echo the reality of the pluralistic world in which we live. In the English classroom, multiculturalism is promoted by an inclusion of texts written by and about historically marginalized persons, yet the ‘classics' are still nearly universally taught. In order to analyze the influence of Shakespeare's texts, a survey was disseminated to Minnesota's secondary teachers inquiring about their uses of The Merchant of Venice, Othello, and The Tempest. Teachers appear uncomfortable teaching these plays and even more uncomfortable discussing them. Based on an analysis of the Renaissance development of the racial ‘Other,' the tensions surrounding race and religion in Shakespeare's culture have been compared to those currently faced by students in Minnesota's post-9/11 secondary classroom. The purpose of this research is to posit a multicultural Shakespeare, recognizing the role of racism and ethnocentrism, both in Shakespeare's plays and in the secondary classroom, and approaching Shakespeare from identity positions other than Eurocentrism.


MATRIX MULTIPLICATION USING QUANTUM-DOT CELLULAR AUTOMATA

Joshua Wood (Dr. Douglas Tougaw), Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383

This project presents a groundbreaking development in the application of nanotechnology to perform useful computer operations. Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a leading research topic in the exciting and emerging field of nanoelectronics. QCA promises to overcome the obstacles that will slow and then halt the ongoing improvements in the speed and size of conventional microelectronics over the next decade. Whereas conventional devices are impaired by the quantum mechanical effects that dominate at nanometer scales, QCA devices use those quantum effects to perform their calculations, thus thriving at the nanoscale. QCA calculations occur more than 10,000 times faster than current computing speeds, QCA devices are more than 1000 times smaller than conventional devices, and they use less than 0.1% of the power of a conventional device. The greatest challenge in harnessing this computational power is to develop new structures that can take advantage of its unique strengths. While studying conventional microelectronic circuits tell us what is possible, it takes a great deal of work and creativity to transfer these ideas to the new architecture. This project demonstrates the use of QCA devices to implement matrix multiplication, one of the most important arithmetic operations in linear algebra. Matrix multiplication has countless applications in all fields of physics, chemistry, and engineering, and it is the foundation upon which all of modern computer animation is built. The device developed by the author calculates the product of two matrices in approximately 1.5 femtoseconds (10-12 seconds), many times faster than conventional systems. This device can in turn be used to implement one of the fundamental systems critical to conventional digital computation – the programmable array of logic (PAL).


SPECIFIC IMMIGRATION FLOWS: THE CASE OF PUEBLAN MIGRANTS IN NEW YORK CITY

Travis Scott High, 2006 Summer Fellows Program, Ursinus College, P.O. Box 8000, Collegeville, PA 19426

Mexican immigration flows to the United States are not simply a national level phenomenon. The dynamics of Mexican immigration are much more complex and involve both global and local dynamics. On the one hand, immigration flows are shaped by two mutually interactive phenomena of globalization: 1. Improved communication and transport; and 2. the imbalanced nature of the global economy. These phenomena generate the supply of migrant workers, who desperately seek jobs which will allow them to send remittances back home, and fuel the demand for low skilled workers in the U.S. On the other hand, because immigration typically follows certain routes, one must think locally (and simultaneously internationally) before on a national level making assessments or policy decisions. Therefore, the aim of my Summer Fellows research is to investigate local trends within the whole of Mexican immigration to the U.S., focusing on Pueblan migration flows to the New York City metropolitan area. Using the extensive amount of materials available on the subject, I demonstrate that this immigration flow is healthy and strategically important for New York in addition to being a crucial “release valve" for the state of Puebla in south-central Mexico. My methodology also includes field research in Puebla, which I have done while in Mexico during the Summer Fellows program.


THE SPACE OF SILENCE: WOMEN'S VOICE IN EIGHT MEN AND IF BEALE STREET COULD TALK.

Katie Young Holmes (Veena Deo), Department of English, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN 55104

Language is constructed by those in power, who in turn create words to describe the experiences they consider worth discussion. The intersection of race and gender often locates female characters in a space of silence. Often, Richard Wright is critiqued for his negative, one-dimensional portrayals of women, while James Baldwin is lauded for creating more women of substance. Although Baldwin's female characters have been fashioned more positively than Wright's characters, they have also been situated in a space of silence. The comparison of these two authors allows for a deeper examination of the intersection between race, gender and voice. Women, because they are located in texts that are primarily focused on masculine experience and voice, redefine their senses of self because their experiences are compromised. They are retold by men or are ignored by men, and their personal voices are lost. Wright, in his collection of vignettes Eight Men, disregards the voice of women. The closest he gets to exposing women's experiences is through the eyes of a male cross-dresser, using a woman's experience as humor and a reaffirmation of masculine heroism. Baldwin, in his book If Beale Street Could Talk, uses a female voice to narrate the story, yet there is more language describing male masturbation than there is illustrating the pregnant narrator's emotions. When a woman character's voice is heard, the male characters often react with fear and anger. In Baldwin, though, the silence can be subversive and manipulating, and it can accomplish more than actual voice does. The interplay between voice, gender and agency strongly impacts this reading of the female characters' sense of self.


RELIGIOUS PLURALISM WITHIN ISLAM: RUSSIAN ORTHODOX CHRISTIANITY AND THE GOLDEN HORDE

Elizaveta Fouksman (Stanislav Shvabrin) Department of History, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095

The stereotype of a militant Islam, ever ready to convert the world by force, has been part of the western cultural milieu since, ironically enough, the time of the crusades. Such a stereotype has been particularly exacerbated in the past few decades by the continual violence and unrest in the Middle East and the raising prominence of fundamentalist religious and political groups in that region. However, such an image of an automatically militant Islam is not only inconsistent with Islam's theological foundations but also with its lengthy history of interactions with – and tolerance of – peoples of different faiths. This paper presents one such historical anecdote within the context of Slavic history. Between the thirteenth and the end of the fifteenth century Russia was conquered and politically and economically controlled by the Golden Horde. Though originally a shamanic people, the Mongols began to convert to Islam in the thirteenth century, and in the early fourteenth Islam was made the official religion of the Horde. What is particularly interesting about this medieval Muslim state is its extreme religious tolerance towards Russia's Orthodox Christian Church. The Mongols not only avoided forced conversion of the Russian people to Islam, but also actually fostered the growth of the Church through benevolent economic and military policies. I propose that such religious tolerance can be rationalized not only by the shamanistic background and traditional policies of the Mongols but also through the theological basis of Islam, which includes doctrines of religious toleration and an understanding of a common divine background with the Christians. Thus, this paper describes a historical instance of Islamic religious tolerance that is not only important in the understanding of Russia's subsequent historical development but also counters the western notion of an automatically belligerent Islam.


COMPARING STEREOTYPES AND CROSS-CULTURAL KNOWLEDGE IN ARGENTINE AND U.S. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

Lindsay U. Westerfield, Kimberly M. Jones, Sociology and Anthropology, Elon University, 2035 Campus Box, Elon, NC 27244

What cross-cultural knowledge and stereotypes exist among Argentine and U.S. university students, and how are these affected by common personal experiences within each subgroup? A comparison study of Argentine participants at Universidad Torcuato di Tella (in Buenos Aires) and United States participants at Elon University (in rural North Carolina) examines participants' travel, language, social, and academic experiences to reveal patterns in their beliefs about the other country and its culture. Ten recorded and transcribed interviews and one hundred surveys from five common majors – International Studies, Economics, Business, History, and Political Science – in each location were analyzed and contextualized in the literature from similar studies in the United States and Argentina. Findings reveal higher levels of intercultural contact in the backgrounds of Argentine participants, consistent with a higher aptitude towards seeking international contact. Many negative generalizations have been formed by each group about the other's culture, but Argentines seem to have greater factual knowledge about the United States than do U.S. participants about Argentina. Several unexpected correlations were discovered which indicate certain cross-cultural interactions may be more influential to the acquisition of beliefs than other seemingly important exchanges. Finally, this information is used to highlight experiences that might facilitate the growth of positive relations between cultures.


THE SEARCH FOR TARGETS THAT INTERACT WITH SORORIN

Megan Dreier (author) Dr. William Taylor (research sponsor) The Department of Biological Sciences The University of Toledo 2801 W. Bancroft St. Toledo, OH 43606

Cancer is characterized by the uncontrolled growth of aberrant cells, kills over 500,000 people a year in the United States. Although current treatments can help patients with diverse types of cancer, new techniques and treatments are needed to prevent and treat cancer. The identification of novel genes involved in the cell cycle could have a significant impact in reducing the number of people who die from cancer each year. Many cell cycle genes, including Cdk1 which encodes the kinase that drives cells into mitosis, are repressed in response to DNA damage. Therefore, we used Affymetrix microarrays to discover new genes that might play a role in the cell cycle. RLC5 (repressed like cdk1) was identified by this methodology, and as our studies were underway another group found that RLC5, also referred to as Sororin, is a regulator of sister chromatid cohesion in mitosis, and a substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). The subcellular localization of Sororin is nuclear in interphase; however, in mitosis Sororin disperses from the chromatin and localizes throughout the cytoplasm. Since Sororin is phosphorylated during mitosis, we decided to identify the sites of phosphorylation in Sororin. This gene appears to possess a cyclin interaction motif and three potential phosphorylation sites. Therefore, we engineered three GST fusion proteins that have different phosphorylation sites deleted. We conducted radiolabelling and identified one phosphorylation site in the C-terminus of Sororin. Future experiments will involve the use of site-directed mutagenesis to determine the amino acid residue that is phosphorylated. These mutants will be fused to GST and mixed with active Cdk1/Cyclin B1 purified from mitotic cells. If phosphorylation is blocked, this will point to a single residue. After this is completed, the mutant will be expressed in mammalian cells to test the role of phosphorylation in Sororin function. Since many cancers are aneuploid, an understanding of how chromatids are linked together and separate at the right time may help to define how cells become aneuploid and may shed new light on the origins of cancer.


I WANT TO BE IN AMERÍCA: THE EFFECTS OF ASSIMILATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF LATINA SELFHOOD

Jennifer Nunez (Dr. Tomeiko Ashford, Associate Director Institute for African American Research UNC-Chapel Hill) Institute of African American Research (IAAR) 150 South Road, Suite 309 CB # 3393 Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3393

Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique (1963), provided white middle-class, dissatisfied housewives with a critique of their situation by defining the “problem that has no name" as the cult of domesticity. Friedan's ideology not only offered women an understanding of their situation, but it also created the need for a movement that would inspire women to free themselves from submitting to the cult of domesticity and to encourage them to enter into the public sphere. Similar to Friedan's theory, Rosa M. Gil and Carmen I. Vazquez published The Maria Paradox: How Latinas Can Merge Old World Traditions with New World Self-Esteem in 1993, which served as a guide for defining marianismo. According to Gil and Vazquez marianismo is “the invisible yoke which binds capable, intelligent, ambitious Latinas…to a no-win lifestyle" based upon “sacred duty, self-sacrifice, and chastity…dispensing care and pleasure, [but] not receiving them, [and] living in the shadows" of their men—fathers, boyfriends, husbands, and sons. “Compromising Feminism: The Effects of Assimilation on the Development of Latina Selfhood" will further the discussion of the Latina feminist movement and will provide insight into one of the major problems facing Latinas today, assimilation versus acculturation and the ability or inability to successfully development one's selfhood. Through careful analysis of the film West Side Story (1961) and Julia Alvarez's novel How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents (1991), I have argued that the main female heroines have been affected by the “feminine mystique" and “marianismo." I have contended as well that their choices to assimilate versus acculturating caused them to be unsuccessful in the development of their Latina selfhood. Their struggles as heroines are representative of the struggles that many Latina women face as they try to resolve and establish their own sense of Latina selfhood. Home Institution: University of North Carolina at Pembroke P.O. Box 1510 Pembroke, NC 28372


TRIMALCHIO'S BANQUET: EATING, TASTE, AND STATUS

Matthew Hartig (Shannon Byrne) Department of Classics, Xavier University, 3800 Victory Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45207

In Petronius's Satyricon, the “Banquet of Trimalchio", better known as the Cena Trimalchionis, shows the host Trimalchio presenting a panoply of deceptive and excessively ornate dishes to his guests. These dishes repeatedly assert the materialistic values of the freedmen's class to which Trimalchio belongs. Nevertheless, in spite of his materialistic values Trimalchio also attempts to present himself as a member of the higher social classes (29.5, 30.1, 60.9). Thus, there is a discontinuity in Trimalchio's self presentation between his concern strictly for display and his aspirations to appear as a man of higher social standing. Trimalchio persists in this self presentation even though material wealth and ornate displays are insufficient for him to gain entry to the equestrian and senatorial classes. The freedmen who attend Trimalchio's party partake freely of his dishes. Their willingness to partake suggests that they ignore the irresolvable inconsistency because they approve of Trimalchio's displays. The narrator, Encolpius, who functions as a quasi arbiter of taste in the “Banquet of Trimalchio", expresses his disgust for Trimalchio's displays at many instances (33.7, 65.1, 69.7). Encolpius' reservation in consuming Trimalchio's dishes serves as a counterweight of disapproval to the freedmen's willingness to consume and approve. With Encolpius as the reader's vantage point, it becomes clear that there is a discrepancy between Trimalchio and Encolpius, between the freedmen and the freeborn narrator whose status places him above them in the social hierarchy despite the host's enviable wealth. Encolpius' reluctance to consume, therefore, suggests an acknowledgement of the social differences between him and Trimalchio and reveals the tension that arises when social boundaries do not reflect the allotment of financial resources.


A MODEL FOR THE PREDICTION OF SUBSTRATE USE DURING EXERCISE

Tayler A. Blake, (Catherine Boulant, Edward Lipinsky, John Phillips), Department of Mathematics, Computer Science and Physics, Capital University, Columbus, Ohio

Energy for endurance exercise is primarily derived from carbohydrate (CHO) and fat. The relative contribution of substrates is affected by a number of variables including: exercise intensity, exercise duration, diet, and training status. During steady state exercise, respiratory exchange ratio ( R ) is a reliable predictor of relative substrate contribution. The present model was developed to predict percent contribution of substrates during steady state exercise. Input variables include: exercise duration and intensity (as a percentage of maximal aerobic capacity), and the fitness level of the individual (on self-rated, 5 point scale). The model assumes a mixed diet of 60%:15%:20%::CHO:protein:fat. The model system is simulated using STELLAâ„¢ (isee systems, Lebanon, N.H., USA), a dynamic mathematical modeling software that represents inputs and outputs graphically. This tool is especially useful for simulating systems over time. The model uses a diagram of stocks and flows which is supported by the language of STELLAâ„¢ to simulate the system. Stocks and flows were enumerated using values obtained from published exercise research. The results include graphs and tables plotting predicted R and predicted percentages of CHO and fat utilized as substrate during the exercise bout. Outputs are then compared to values obtained from different published exercise data. Continued development of the model may include changing nutritional status from a mixed diet to a high fat or high CHO diet.


PATRONAGE, POWER, AND POETRY: LANCASTER AND LITERATURE, 1361-1399.

Lydia A. Fletcher Department of English, Classics, and Philosophy, the University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249

The purpose of this project was to define patronage as a system in late-fourteenth-century England. In order to do this, I examined the relationship between John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster—arguably the most important magnate of the time—with several poets, theologians, and other writers. John of Gaunt and his relationships are representative of late fourteenth-century patronage in that the poems connected with him do not follow the earlier twelfth- and thirteenth-century forms of patronage in which a poet wrote a poem at the request of a patron and was given a monetary reward. There is no evidence in Gaunt's surviving household registers or the works themselves that Gaunt in any way paid his protégés in money; yet there is ample evidence from contemporary chronicles that he gave them support in other ways. For example, he protected John Wycliffe, the heretical proto-Protestant reformer, from the attacks of the Archbishop of Canterbury and the Catholic Church. My paper argues that patronage in late-fourteenth-century England was a matter of exhibiting a magnate's estate. From the 1370s until his death in 1399, John of Gaunt was the principal diplomat involved in negotiating peace treaties with France to hold off hostilities during this stage of the Hundred Years War. He negotiated principally with the brothers and cousins of the king of France, the highest nobles of that kingdom, who had developed patronage in theology, art, and French literature. My paper further argues that John of Gaunt cultivated his patronage of Wycliffe and other writers, such as the great English poet Geoffrey Chaucer, in order to elevate himself to the level of a continental noble and to be able to meet with the French lords on an equal footing to better support the aims of England at the negotiating table.


SAVING THE COMMONWEALTH THROUGH WOMEN: THE WORKS PROGRESS ADMINISTRATION IN KENTUCKY, 1935-1937

Amanda L. Duncan, (David M. Olster, David E. Hamilton), History, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506

The Works Progress Administration (WPA), was created in the summer of 1935. President Roosevelt expected the WPA to provide work for the millions of Americans on welfare, while also providing valuable improvements to the communities where these men and women lived. The WPA has been regarded as a failure by many historians because it did not truly modernize most of the country, do to lack of funds and President Roosevelt's fear of deficit spending. In Kentucky, From the program's inception until 1937, the public and those who sponsored and worked on WPA projects did not feel the same. Based on the Goodman-Paxton papers, the WPA provided jobs and improvements that would not have otherwise occurred in Kentucky. For women, the WPA provided gender specific work. The Training Work Centers, housed in various communities throughout the state and funded by both state and federal money, provided women with the chance to support their families and learn valuable skills alone the way. Women learned to sew, make a complete family wardrobe, and were taught basic hygiene and family health skills. Women also worked as teachers, educating adults and nursery school children. This service taught Kentuckians to read and write, and gave children an early start in education. In short, the WPA in Kentucky, while creating social change, also provided the mechanisms necessary in order to modernize the state. Not only were women learning how to care for themselves and their families, they were providing services to the state.


THE EMERGENCE AND DEVELOPMENT OF RENUNCIATION IN EARLY INDIAN RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS

Daniel Saver (Luis Gonzalez-Reimann) Department of Religious Studies, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720

Renunciation is a widespread and influential phenomenon within many of the diverse religious traditions in modern India. Scholarship has demonstrated the ways in which renunciatory ideology in general and individual renouncers in specific have impacted the evolution of religiosity throughout the subcontinent. Yet the emergence of renunciation itself represents a crucial development in the history of Indian thought, and in the last fifty years scholars have attempted to analyze both the circumstances and conditions that engendered this development as well as the institutional transformations that reflect the emergence of renunciatory values. My research concentrated primarily upon the description and understanding of two theological constructs in a selection of the Dharmasutra and Dharmashastra literature (c. 400 B.C.E. – 400 C.E.), namely the systems of the ashramas (four stages of life) and the purushartas (four aims of life). The former has received considerable scholarly attention, and it has been argued that the historical changes in this system demonstrate a process by which the practice of renunciation was appropriated into an organizational structure accepted by mainstream Brahmanism. The latter system, that of the purushartas, has been rather neglected by the scholastic discourse, and my research suggests that a similar process of appropriation, running parallel to that evident in the ashrama system, was instrumental in formulating the now generally accepted theory of the purushartas. When analyzed from an historical perspective, the ancient sources reveal that the purushartas were originally conceived to be three in number, though over time this number was raised to four in order to incorporate the notion of liberation (moksha)—which is a concept associated with the emerging ideology of renunciation. Such a conclusion lends support to the position of scholars who argue that the development of renunciation in Indian religious traditions is best understood in terms of the challenge it presented to previously existing ideologies and the subsequent assimilation of renunciation into these systems of religious thought.


ART NOUVEAU AND THE ICONOGRAPHY OF WOMEN AS SEEN IN THE WORK OF RUPERT CARABIN

Sarah S. Jones (Dr. Michelle Lang), Department of Art and Art History, University of Nebraska-Kearney, 905 West 25th St., Kearney, NE 68849

In the last decades of the nineteenth century, the European art community created a genre of art which came to be called Art Nouveau or “the new art". One artist who worked in this innovative style was Rupert Carabin, a Parisian furniture maker and sculptor. Carabin was an important figure in fin-de-siecle decorative arts about whom little study has been done. These artists, including Carabin, found visual inspiration in nature. Most examples of Art Nouveau decorative art objects use a very specific visual language which includes flowing arabesques and whiplash curves invoking the delicacy of plant vines or the wild flowing hair of a sensuous woman. Art Nouveau artists frequently widened the scope of their nature symbolism to include the female form representing their idealized view of contemporary women. Jan Thompson points out that Art Nouveau depiction of women were the result of the “essentially male chauvinist attitude of turn-of-the-century men (1)." Women were often shown as the purely decorative objects which many nineteenth century men considered them to be. Mary Louise Roberts indicates that the contemporary male definition of the woman's role in fin-de-siecle society as “decorative – to serve as an ornament for the men in her life (2)." The fantastic furniture designs of Rupert Carabin are a glaring example of the visual subjugation of fin-de-siecle women. I have visually interpreted his work as a commentary on the male reaction to modern women and their increasingly assertive role in Parisian society. Carabin places the female nude in explicitly submissive positions portraying them as the servants of the male users of his furniture. 1. Thompson, Jan. “The Role of Women in the Iconography of Art Nouveau" Art Journal, vol. 31, no 2 (Winter 1971-1972) 158. 2. Roberts, Mary Louise. Disruptive Acts, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2002, 3.


BATHING BEAUTIES, HAPPY HELPERS, AND TIN CAN TOURISTS: GENDER, RACE, AND CLASS IN 1920S FLORIDA LAND BOOM ADVERTISING

Nicole Cox, Dr. LuAnn Jones (Research Sponsor), Department of History, University of South Florida, Tampa, 4202 E. Fowler Ave., Tampa, FL 33620

My paper uses an investigation of the Florida land boom to explore key issues in the cultural history of the United States and the history of the American South. Just as speculation in Florida real estate exploded in the 1920s, advertising and public relations became crucial to the new consumer economy of the United States. Although many historians today consider Florida “in but not of the South," in the 1920s, Florida boom-time advertisers employed “southern" themes to lure buyers to the state. Gender, race, and class are overarching themes in history—but they assume alternate meanings in different times and places. Boom-time advertisements emphasized a “paradise" where white female bathing beauties, African American “happy helpers," and middle-class tin-can tourists lived harmoniously and “struck it rich." Examining the advertisements closely in relationship to other contemporary sources including newspaper and magazine articles, sheet music, and popular film reveal a much different Florida—one where “paradise" was achieved by reinforcing gender and racial stereotypes and hierarchies. Previous studies on the subject of Florida in the 1920s focused more on the phenomenal business aspect and real-estate ventures. This is surprising in light of the importance this topic has in Florida history. Advertising of the land boom helped define and characterize the state's position in not only the South, but the nation. Approaching the promotion and advertising of the Florida land boom in a more Southern context associated with issues of race, class, gender, and the role of Florida in the South, provides a fresh outlook on a distinctive topic.


AMERICAN INDIAN TRIBAL SOVEREIGNTY

J. Robert Schlimgen University of South Dakota Honors Program 414 E Clark St Vermillion, SD 57069

The persistent rate of poverty on reservations has caused some scholars to hypothesize that reservations are a breeding ground for an “underclass" that proliferates social problems (Snipp 363). The destitute status of many reservations is especially germane to South Dakota. Reservations in South Dakota, such as Pine Ridge and Rosebud, suffer severely from social and economic issues. The 1990 census showed that “a full fifty three percent of the working-age population in Pine Ridge was not ‘in the labor force'" (Pickering 15). The Bureau of Indian Affairs conducted a more thorough study which accounted for more specific factors and approximated that unemployment was seventy three percent for Pine Ridge and eighty six percent for Rosebud. Although the two statistics vary, both point to the same conclusion: reservations in South Dakota suffer from a severe lack of economic development and entrepreneurship. Paramount to curing the social and economic issues that exists on reservations is reestablishing tribal sovereignty. Tribal relationships with the federal and state governments have historically been dominated by this ambiguous term. The inadequacy of the term has led to “inconstancy, indeterminacy, and variability" in Indian policy (Wilkins and Lomawaima 6). Although sovereignty would by definition imply that tribes possess the ability to administer their own law and regulations, historically the issue has proven to be much more convoluted as the federal government, state governments, and tribal governments all vie for jurisprudence over Indian country.


POPE PIUS IX AND ITALIAN UNIFICATION

Alex Linville (Dr. Michael Carignan) Department History, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244

Italian and Church scholars when analyzing the events of Italian unification typically view Pope Pius IX as either a foolish, stubborn Catholic zealot who did not comprehend the threat of modern nationalism or a gallant martyr who selflessly desired an earthly kingdom in order to preserve and promote Catholicism for another 2000 years. This project, with five chapters and over sixty pages, finds a position in between these two poles, arguing that Pius was reasonable in defending the Papal States, yet the way he struggled against Italian nationalism, using excommunications and Church councils, was irresponsible and more detrimental to Catholicism and the Italian nation than if he had done nothing at all. My argument relies mainly on primary documents such as “Il primato morale e civile degli Italiani," and copies of L'Osservatore Romano and the La Civilta Catholica, which are Catholic newspapers that during the reign of Pius IX were abuzz with Italian unification news. Additional sources I utilize are papal encyclicals, such as those written by Pope Gregory XVI which parallel those written by Pius in their condemnations of modernism, like the Syllabus of Errors, which blatantly claimed that the Pope should make no effort to “reconcile himself, and come to terms with progress, liberalism and modern civilization." This topic is significant for a number of reasons. One is that its argument is unique in the field. As I have been examining Pius's biographies and other Risorgimento books for missing pieces of the historical puzzle, I have noticed that no historian has argued that Pope Pius IX was just in defending his kingdom but wrong in the way he battled against the Italian government.


MANDIBULAR MOLAR OCCLUSAL SIZE PROGRESSION PATTERNS IN SELECT SPECIES OF AUSTRALOPITHECUS

By: Jamie m. Litzkow Sponsered By: Dr. Sarah Keller Department of Anhtropology and Geography Eastern Washington University 103 Isle Hall Cheney, WA 99004

The study of hominid evolution remains a dynamic field of inquiry. While trends in recent research have focused on the genetic basis of evolution, traits that may contribute to classification of early hominid species derived from morphological analysis remain uninvestigated. This research examines one of those traits by analyzing in situ mandibular M1-M3 samples currently assigned to the species Australopithecus anamensis, A. afarensis and A. africanus. The purpose of this analysis is to determine if there are characteristic patterns present in mandibular molar occlusal surface size progression/regression that could be used to distinguish each species and whether as a result some individual specimens can be seen as anomalous in the context of their current taxonomic group. The existence of these anomalies may or may not be significant in re-evaluating the current classification of a specimen but, at a minimum, the consistency of a progression pattern in the majority of specimens assigned to each of the three species would indicate that this trait is a useful component to include in the species' description. By exploring each of several widely accepted classification groups, this research suggests a potentially useful approach in morphological analysis of early hominid specimens.


ACCESS TO INFORMATION: THE PRESIDENT AND CONGRESS IN AMERICAN HISTORY

Bryce Cullinane, Dr. Susan Hinely, Department of History, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Nichols Rd. Stony Brook Ny. 11794.

Executive privilege, the Presidential power to restrict access to information, is an increasingly controversial issue of 21st century American politics. Yet, despite its significance, many are unaware of its history. Numerous Americans assume that executive privilege is relatively new, that before the 20th century, withholding executive branch information from Congress was unheard of. Yet, in reality, this practice began with George Washington. This study explores the history of Congressional accessibility to executive branch information in American history and asks one central question, how has the availability of information issue developed and changed from the time of Washington to the modern era? To construct a history of this issue, three perspectives are used, those of members of Congress, members of the executive branch, and of contemporaneous scholars. These three viewpoints, selected through an analysis of Congressional Committee Prints, Presidential papers, Law Review articles, secondary sources and the papers of Jacob Javits, held in the Stony Brook University Archives, are used to construct the history of the information controversy in America. Three conclusions are derived from this study. First, although most scholars agree that the term executive privilege was established in 1959, in reality, it was fully developed by 1949. Second, the issue of the withholding of executive branch information from Congress is not new, but has created tension between President and Congress since the 18th century. Lastly, to view the history of the availability of information issue between Congress and the President as the history of executive privilege is inaccurate. In truth, executive privilege is a mere benchmark, a single development, within the larger context of the accessibility of information issue. These realizations have significant implications for an understanding of the modern doctrine of executive privilege. Those who hold certain assertions about executive privilege based upon its inception in 1959, or upon the notion that the withholding of executive branch information is a modern development, must reevaluate and redefine their views.


COMMUNITY DETECTION IN FACEBOOK

Amanda Lynn Traud, Dr. Peter J. Mucha, (Research Education Support Program), Department of Mathematics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599

Arising ubiquitously in biology, physics, technology, and the social sciences, real-world networks are typically neither fully ordered nor fully random but instead share properties with both structured and random graphs. Such "complex networks" tend to live in small worlds (their diameters are small), yet most of them can also be decomposed into interconnected modules or "communities." Such communities play an extremely important role in collegiate social life, as exemplified by networking sites such as the Facebook, which was founded in February 2004 and encompasses over ten million users in over 40,000 regional, work, college, and high school networks. Using recently developed eigenvector-based methods for community detection, we identify hierarchical communities of Facebook pages/individuals. In some cases, such cliques correlate closely to self-identifications of the individuals involved. For instance, the clustering of Caltech-affiliated Facebook pages correlates extremely well with their residential colleges or "Houses." As we will discuss, similar clustering arises at other universities.


WHO'S ON TOP: AN ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL DESIRE AND THE ROLE OF CARNAL KNOWLEDGE IN HARD-BOILED DETECTIVE FICTION

Kelli Ellingson Alice Moorhead English Department Hamline University 1536 Hewitt Ave St. Paul MN 55104

A hard-boiled detective novel without a sensual, somewhat trashy sex scene is like late night TV without infomercials. Sex scenes, in detective fiction ranging from The Maltese Falcon to Solomon's Vineyard to Indemnity Only, serve as one manifestation of power and knowledge. As Foucault notes, sex is often an act of giving up power, an act of weakness or indulgence. As a rule, detectives forge their own path and live by their own rules. Still, they are often led astray through sexual desire. Yet, in detective novels, sexual desire might at first seem to interfere with a case, but in the end the carnal knowledge gained from giving in to sexual desire transfers to case-solving power. In effect, the detective needs to exhibit sexual weakness in order to ultimately gain carnal knowledge and solve the case. Knowing a client, witness or enemy on a physical level translates to knowing the truth of the case. Detectives' sexual power transfers to productive, case-solving power. Sex scenes and accompanying climaxes prove that there's more than one way to catch a criminal. In his three volumes on sexuality, Foucault has much to offer the sexual tension present in detective fiction. Foucault and Lacan have varying perspectives on the function of sex that when combined provide a glimpse into the use of sexual desire and knowledge in detective fiction. This paper will examine how sexual desire leads to carnal knowledge which the detective can transfer into case solving power.


THE ROLE OF GENDER IN THE VIETNAM ANTIWAR MOVEMENT WITH AN EMPHASIS ON COLLEGE PROTESTS

Mary Berkery, Sponsor: Andrea Foroughi, Department of History, Union College, 807 Union St., Schenectady, NY 12308

Scholars who examine the antiwar movement on college campuses rarely consider the gender roles of the movement's members. Women, although involved in most male-dominated antiwar organizations, rarely held positions of power. Men frequently discredited women because they were not eligible for the draft, and therefore did not have a right to protest. Sexism and sexual harassment ran rampant at protests, marches, and meetings, causing some women to shift their activism to the women's movement. College protest movements generally mirrored sexist organizations in the greater movement, and they provide an understanding of gender in the movement in more intimate circumstances. In understanding male and female antiwar protestors' different experiences on college campuses, it is important to consider a male-only school (Union), a female-only school (Skidmore) a mixed gender school (St. Lawrence), and a school that became co-ed, from being all male, during the movement (Williams). All four are small, private, liberal arts colleges in the Northeast, where students organized and protested against the war but were not leaders or revolutionaries in the broader movement. With many other variables remaining the same, gender is highlighted as a difference. In the case of the single sex schools, there was no significant difference in protests or organization, and in fact, the Skidmore women often engaged in the movement more intensely than the Union men. Women at Skidmore were far more active than their counterparts at St. Lawrence and Williams, emphasizing that mixed gender settings frequently deterred women from activism. In the three schools where women attended, the national trends regarding the surge in the women's movement also existed, especially at Skidmore. It is important to understand how the greater trends of the antiwar movement and its gender implications were often prevalent not only in college settings but also particularly in small colleges that have not yet received scholarly attention.


ACCURACY AND PRECISION FINDINGS WHEN ANALYZING OTC DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS FOR SELENIUM USING AN ICP-MS

Dana M. Edwards, James J. Leary, Chemistry Dept., and Maria T. Wessel, Health Science Dept., James Madison Univ., Harrisonburg, VA 22807

This work documents the accuracy and precision that can be achieved in the analysis of selenium in OTC dietary supplements using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). OTC dietary supplements are no longer regulated by the FDA; in 1994 the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act was passed which allows the FDA to issue current good manufacturing practices (cGMP's). This interdisciplinary paper will focus on four main areas: health sciences, dietetics, analytical chemistry, and applied statistics. The health science and dietetics aspect of this paper will emphasize: 1) label values and claims about health benefits of selenium, 2) consumer information regarding dietary supplements, and 3) information regarding the intake of selenium. The laboratory component of this work involved the determination of the selenium content of the following OTC supplements: Centrum Silver®, One a Day® Cholesterol Plus, One Source® Advanced, Equate® Complete, Spring Valley ® Selenium, and One Source® Prenatal. The analytical protocol has evolved to include the use of tellurium as an internal standard in a “standard addition" based experiment. Proprietary considerations have made it virtually impossible to obtain information from manufacturers about either the accuracy or precision associated with the selenium content of any OTC dietary supplement. As a result, experiments were performed that meticulously document contributions to the total standard deviation associated with the results obtained with the laboratory protocol used. Indirect evidence of the accuracy achievable was documented by adding known amounts of selenium to the sets of pills that had already been analyzed and then monitoring the increase in the amount of selenium found. The authors feel that the results of this study could be of interest to any of the millions of Americans who routinely take OTC supplements.


WOMEN IN ARMED CONFLICT: COLOMBIAN WOMEN AND THEIR SEARCH FOR PEACE

Tiffany S. Stokes (Drs. Vilma Concha-Chiaraviglio and Sherry Shapiro), Department of Foreign Languages and the Women's Studies Program, Meredith College, Raleigh, NC 27607

Historically, women have played influential, yet often unacknowledged, roles in armed conflict. For over 50 years, Colombia has been plagued by violence, illegal armed groups and drug trafficking, making it one of the most dangerous countries in the Western Hemisphere and holding one of the largest internally displaced populations in the world. This research focuses on the role of women in this armed conflict and how they are working to foster peace. My work explores (1) the participation of women in communities and organizations that search for peace, (2) the involvement of women in citizenship and the political process as a means to achieve peace, and (3) the different approaches women take to achieve peace, such as targeting the root causes of poverty, displacement, and development. Even though Latin American societies have often been considered traditional and patriarchal, female participation and involvement in addressing the armed conflict has been particularly vibrant. Through a close analysis of articles from academic journals and the media, participant observation of existing organizations, and in-country interviews with peace activists, this work focuses on the role of women in the Colombian armed conflict. By changing the traditional view of women as victims of violence to empowered agents of peace, I hope to strengthen connections between the women's and peace movements.


EXPLORING OPTIMAL VALUES INTO AN APPROXIMATION FORMULA FOR BOND PERCOLATION THRESHOLDS OF PLANAR PERIODIC LATTICES

Jonathan S. Smalletz, John C. Wierman Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, 302 Whitehead Hall, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 21218

Percolation is a random graph model for fluid spreading through a medium. The percolation model is motivated by real-world applications such as the oil flow in porous sandstone, communication networks, and thermal phase transitions. Approximation formulas to predict values for bond percolation thresholds of periodic graphs make use of certain features of lattice such as dimension, average degree, and recently, the second-moment of the degree. Using this relationship with the well-known bond-to-site transformation between the bond percolation model on a graph and the site percolation model on its line graph, we created a new universal formula that improves the accuracy of bond percolation threshold predictions. It has been shown that there are certain optimal values that reduce the error of approximation to extremely small values. These optimal values take the form of powers and subtractions for the universal formula. We have explored a number of combinations of optimal values to determine if there exists and smooth, convex function, and if there exists a global minimum error.


UNITY THROUGH PLURALITY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TRIADIC THOUGHT IN THE ANCIENT RELIGIONS OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE AND THE CHRISTIAN TRINITY

Julia S. Kumpan (Dr. Howard Marblestone) Foreign Languages and Literature, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042

Geoffrey Parrinder, in his article on triads in the Encyclopedia of Religion (Jones), warns against the tempting notion that triadic ideas in ancient Mediterranean religions directly influenced the Christian doctrine of the Holy Trinity. I do not propose to suggest that the ancient religions of the Roman Empire were the proverbial chicken to Christianity's egg. Instead I shall make a comparative analysis of what I shall call the various “tri-themes" found in ancient religions and philosophies up to the time of the Holy Trinity's official formulation at the Council of Nicea in 325 C.E. In religions from all over the Roman Empire, the number three played an important role. The number three was considered holy in its unique attribute of unity through plurality. It is the first number with a beginning, middle, and end; thus it is the first complete number. The importance of the number three can be seen in religions spanning from Mesopotamia to Celtic Ireland. The Roman Empire at the time of the Council of Nicea was full of mythologies riddled with tri-themes; from the simple triskelion and the tricephalus to triplication and the mighty triad. Within this environment, it is of little wonder that the Christians chose a trinity to represent their God. I will show through a comparative analysis of pagan tri-themes and the Christian Holy Trinity how the stage was set through existing ideas and beliefs for ancient peoples to gravitate towards a Trinitarian doctrine of God. My presentation will summarize the importance of the tri-themes and will focus on the Egyptian triad of Isis, Osiris and Horus.


GETTING DUMPED ON: HOW INTERNATIONAL LAW AND THE ERADICATION OF GLOBAL POVERTY CAN ACHIEVE HUMAN RIGHTS

Shasti Conrad, (Dr. Jodi O'Brien), Dept. of Society, Justice, and Culture, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave, Seattle WA 98122-1090

The numbers are daunting. How can international law and the eradication of global poverty help to secure 2.5 billion people's human rights? In the past, international law has failed to achieve this objective through present trade policies and practices which impede the development of economic and social rights. The current economic global order is causally implicated in the perpetuation of severe poverty. The argument presented here therefore seeks to unite past studies that have focused on either economic theory or a humanistic approach to poverty alleviation by employing an original human rights approach to this topic. If global poverty is not recognized as a violation of the most basic human right to an adequate standard of living, the whole system of international human rights (found in such institutions as the United Nations) is threatened. This paper demonstrates that the system can be corrected through the elimination of agricultural subsidies and commodity dumping, which would create a more equitable climate of development for economically disadvantaged nations. The first section of this paper outlines the problem by discussing the magnitude of global poverty indicating that the eradication of poverty is a universal human right, and by demonstrating the causality between the failure of current agricultural trade policy and the role of international law. The second section addresses how revision to international trade policies must focus on reform in the World Trade Organization (WTO), and how a human rights approach to development will lead to long-term poverty reduction. Analysis proves that in order to achieve long-term alleviation of world poverty, a holistic approach (which takes into account the complex issues of food production, development, and poverty alleviation) must be founded upon the basic tenets of human dignity, equity, and people's inherent right to their own livelihoods. Perhaps the new approach found in this paper will yield real action and tangible results, leading to a significant reduction in the existence of abject global poverty.


IMAGES AND DISCERNMENT: A COMPARISON OF THE REPUBLIC AND THREE TREATISES ON THE DIVINE IMAGES

Bonnie L. Keane (Sara Danger) Christ College, Valparaiso University, 1700 Chapel Drive, Valparaiso, IN 46383

Debate over the influence of images on humanity is a central theme in both Plato's The Republic (c. 380 B.C.) and in St. John of Damascus's Three Treatises on the Divine Images (c. AD 730-740). Although Plato and St. John lived more than one thousand years apart, both authors address the use and authority of images in the context of obtaining a better understanding of a higher power or ideal. For Socrates-—the speaker in The Republic—-the ideal is rational understanding; for St. John, it is understanding God. While both recognize that images can aid in understanding, they also both argue that placing too much trust in an image's ability to represent ultimate truth can actually lead one further away from this ideal. Socrates believes that images can lead people away from rational understanding by presenting a warped depiction of truth. Similarly, St. John believes that images can lead people away from God if those people worship images as idols in place of God. In spite of these similarities, however, Socrates and St. John reach very different conclusions about the role that images should ultimately play in society. Socrates bans images from his ideal society, while St. John invites viewers to use their rational capabilities to judge images. Their different response to images is due to their disparate beliefs regarding humanity's ability to discern the validity of an image's representation of truth. Socrates mistrusts humanity's ability to use rational judgment in regard to images, while St. John's argument hinges upon humanity's ability to discern the relationship between an image and the greater truth that it attempts to represent. St. John's view of images is much more satisfying because it elevates the human intellect and allows people to reap the benefits of properly used images. In modern-day society where images abound, St. John's theories offer some hope for individuals to successfully reach understanding through images.


THE ANGULAR DISTRIBUTION AND FLUX OF COSMIC RAYS

Lori Jackson, Sean O'Brien, (C. Steven Whisnant), Department of Physics, James Madison University

A muon telescope has been constructed and used to measure the angular distribution of cosmic rays. The telescope consists of two parallel rectangular plastic scintillators mounted to permit rigid rotation of the telescope to view the full 180 of the sky. The detectors are each 150.x630.x1.00 mm and are separated by 170. mm. Using NIM electronics, true and random coincidences between the detectors were counted. The random counting rates observed are compared to those expected based on the single detector rates and good agreement is found. The random coincidence corrected cosmic ray flux is confirmed to have a cos2 dependence, where  is measured from the horizon. The absolute counting rates are obtained using the solid angle of the detector telescope computed from a Monte Carlo simulation of the experiment. The solid angle was determined using the dimensions of the parallel plates in a C++ program. The propagation of the statistical uncertainties will be discussed. The flux at 90 (normal incidence) is found to be 70 5 (sec m2 sr)-1. This is in good agreement with the global average flux.


REGULATION OF THE P65 TAD OF NF-KAPPA B BY THE P38 PHOSPHORYLATION OF CBP

Amber N. Young (Brian Ashburner) Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606

Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-kappaB) is an inducible transcription factor responsible for regulating a variety of genes involved in immune and inflammatory responses, cell survival, and proliferation. Because NF-kappaB plays a role in regulating those important processes, the dysregulation of NF-kappaB can result in chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. Therefore, in order to better understand how NF-kappaB contributes to disease, it is important to understand how NF-kappaB activity is regulated. One way in which NF-kappaB is activated is through its interaction with coactivator proteins, such as the CREB-binding protein (CBP). My research is focused on determining how the interaction between CBP and the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB is regulated. Preliminary data have shown that stimulation of the p38 MAP kinase pathway can enhance the transcriptional activity of the p65 subunit in vivo, and that p38 is able to phosphorylate CBP in vitro. Based on these results, our current hypothesis is that p38 enhances p65 transcriptional activity by targeting the CBP coactivator protein. To test that hypothesis, I identified potential p38 phosphorylation sites in CBP and performed site-directed mutagenesis to mutate those specific serine and threonine residues to alanine residues, which can no longer be phosphorylated. The mutant forms of CBP were used in luciferase reporter gene assays to determine whether the mutations affect the ability of CBP to function as a coactivator for NF-kappaB. To date, my experiments indicate that mutating serine 92 and serine 275 to alanine residues results in partial loss of the ability of CBP to act as a transcriptional coactivator of NF-kappaB. In contrast, when threonine 614 is mutated to an alanine, CBP can no longer act as an NF-kappaB coactivator. Therefore, threonine 614 of CBP is most likely the site that is phosphorylated by p38 to enhance the ability of p65 to regulate transcription. Experiments are currently underway to determine whether mutation of any of these sites affects the interaction between CBP and p65.


STABILITY OF 1-D TRIVIAL-PHASE SOLUTIONS OF THE CUBIC NONLINEAR SCHRODINGER EQUATION

Eddie Feeley and Dr. John Carter National Science Foundation Mathematics Seattle University 901 12th Ave Seattle, WA 98122

The cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation in (1+1)-dimensions (NLS) is used as an approximate mathematical model of a wide variety of physical phenomena including waves on deep water, pulse propagation along optical fibers, and Bose-Einstein condensates. We add small perturbation functions to NLS to asymptotically study the linear stability of Jacobi elliptic function solutions of NLS. We prove that some of the solutions are stable to all perturbations while others are unstable to perturbations that we construct.


INFLUENZA GENOMICS: VIRULENCE OF PAST AND PRESENT STRAINS

P. Geoff Vana (Kristi M. Westover) Department of Biology, Winthrop University, Department of Biology, Rock Hill, SC, 29733

Influenza viruses cause an estimated 36,000 deaths worldwide per year. All of the currently circulating human viruses originated from the pandemic virus of 1918 that killed an estimated 20-40 million people worldwide. Although individual proteins such as hemaglutinin and neuraminidase, play important roles in virulence, analysis of complete genomes provide more characters for comparison and a more powerful analysis of the hypothesis that the 1918 “Spanish Flu" was avian in origin. This implies that recent H5N1 host shifts from birds to humans may lead to a pandemic with large cost to human life. Previous studies have addressed this question with analysis of phylogenetic relationships based on single genes. To date, no one has approached this problem using entire genomes. We collected individual sequences for all coding regions from representatives of the four dominant human influenza strains (H1N1, H3N2, H2N2, H5N1) where entire genomes are reported. We concatenated these, excluding overlapping regions, and aligned by amino acids. Phylogenies were constructed by neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and minimum evolution methods. We found elevated synonymous (pS) and nonsynonymous (pN) substitution rates in H5N1 strains compared to the other groups, which would be likely with an avian origin of 1918. However, our results showed 1918 basal to H1N1's and together this clade was sister to the group containing H5N1's. We found this result with the phylogeny based on entire genomes and when individual genes were analyzed separately. We found no evidence that the 1918 “Spanish Flu" was avian in origin. In addition, our phylogeny will serve as a tool to identify influenza sequences for analysis of known CTL epitopes. Elevated mutations in H5N1 epitopes may represent evidence of viral escape and be correlated with increased virulence and ability to infect new populations.


MOCKING MISSISSIPPI AND MOSCOW: AN EXAMINATION OF SOCIAL SATIRE IN NATIVE SON AND THE MASTER AND MARGARITA

Philip C. Brondyke (Veena Deo) Department of English, Hamline University 1536 Hewitt Ave St. Paul, MN 55104

With Mikhail Bulgakov's novel The Master and Margarita and Richard Wright's Native Son as anchor texts, this paper argues that at the ideological heights of the American capitalist and Soviet socialist systems, both exhibited the same repressive structures. Due to the strength of these systems in the 1930s, the use of satire was the most effective literary device employed by these authors to highlight systemic flaws without openly advocating social upheaval. Bulgakov's fantastic tale about the devil's visit to Moscow was written during the Great Terror years and was censored until Brezhnev's Thaw of the 1960s for its underhanded critique of Stalinist Russia. The Master and Margarita made light of Soviet government structures and through puns, figurative language, hyperboles, and supernatural forces at a time when state-censored realism was the approved literary school. Personified by the Master, unhindered artistic creation rises above the bureaucracy of Soviet society and overcomes the culture of fear inspired by Stalin. In Native Son, an uncannily similar culture of fear drives Bigger Thomas to murder. In “How Bigger Was Born," Wright describes different “Bigger Thomases" who contribute to a rebellious, hypermasculinized, and ultimately alienated black man in 1930s America: “Bigger, an American product, a native son of this land…is a product of a dislocated society." Illustrations of white characters in positions of power, the perpetuated cycle of hopelessness in black characters, and the neglected living conditions of urban African Americans, help Wright paint a scathing portrait of the “dislocated society" that produced Bigger. Thomas, like the Master, is a composite character that represents the author's motive for systemic critique; he serves as a black “everyman" who, through murder, finds the emotion and humanity denied him in the 1930s Jim Crow system. At the time of these novels, both Americans and Soviets demonized each other's system for repressive aspects; however, both were ultimately guilty. Through the satire of Wright and Bulgakov, these systemic flaws are highlighted.


FINANCING MICROFORTUNES IN LATIN AMERICA

Dorota Danuta Ulatowska, Department of Finance, University of Washington Business School, Business Honors Program, 137 Mackenzie Hall, BOX 353200, Seattle, WA 98195 - 3200

The United Nations Capital Development Fund estimates that only 50 million out of 500 million people eligible for microcredit receive help from microfinance institutions (MFIs) worldwide. Based on my comprehensive research and two interviews with MFIs' workers from Guatemala and Angola, I discovered that in order to achieve significant outreach, MFIs have to find a linkage to financial markets. Non-commercial equity is a necessary source of capital only for the first few years of their business lifecycle. The goal of each MFI should be to decrease dependence on outside donations and base their continued operations on retained earnings, client savings, and stable access to commercial banks, capital markets, and equity investors. Only successful MFIs with operational and financial self-sustainability, poverty-focused mission, as well as large-scale operations can induce economic growth and stabilize societies worldwide. In order to meet a growing demand for microloans and best serve microentrepreneurs in the country's poorest regions, BancoSol from Bolivia transferred from an NGO into a private commercial bank. It sustains long-term viability and generates profit to its shareholders without compromising its mission of reducing poverty, supporting primary education, and promoting gender equality. If MFIs offer investors attractive returns for a given level of risk, they can expect wide access to commercial capital needed to open new offices domestically and globally, install management information software, train employees, offer new financial services and products, and most importantly, provide easy and rapid access to microcredit for the world's poor. The volume of MFIs' operations can be increased through leverage, borrowing money from outside investors. Leveraging existing equity, MFIs can provide more capital to a larger number of clients in hard to reach regions and attract both domestic and international investors. Additionally, this research paper presents a deep country and market analysis of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Peru which have great potential and exhibit a promising opportunity in the microfinancing sector.


MULTICOLOR FLOW CYTOMETRY TO MONITOR DNA REPAIR IN D. RADIODURANS

Vanessa R. Palmer, Emily H. Turner, Haley R. Pugsley, Norman J. Dovichi

Deinococcus radiodurans is not only the most radioresistant form of life known but is also capable of withstanding high concentrations of genotoxic compounds, making its robust repair mechanism of particular interest. The repair protein RecA is produced by the organism to initiate the SOS pathway in response to DNA damage and is the primary focus of our current DEIRA studies. Building upon an earlier method implemented by Nellen, our group has developed a flow cytometry-based method for monitoring levels of RecA in a population following genetic damage while simultaneously distinguishing dead from live cells. We employ MaHa, a strain of DEIRA our group has engineered whose synthesis of RecA triggers the production of a molecule of green fluorescent protein (eGFP), enabling quantitation of RecA levels using conventional fluorometric analyses. After exposure to the crosslinking agent mitomycin C, MaHa cells were incubated with the fluorogenic dyes Hoechst 33342 (blue emission) and propidium iodide (red emission). The former must be actively absorbed into cellular membranes, while the latter is able to permeate only the compromised exteriors of dead cells; thus, by examining fluorescence due to eGFP in tandem with Hoechst 33342 fluorescence to the exclusion of propidium iodide fluorescence, it is possible to study repair protein activity to the exclusion of ghost cells and other "false" sources of eGFP fluorescence.


BACK TO BIRMINGHAM: FOUR SPIRITS AS REMEMBRANCE AND REPRESENTATION

Kelli Hilyer, Dr. Peter Donahue, Department of English, Birmingham-Southern College, 900 Arkadelphia Road, Birmingham, AL 35254

Historical fiction as a narrative form has a unique place in literary history. It often overlaps fact and fiction, truth and untruth, remembrance and representation. Historians, literary critics, and narrative theorists from Hayden White to Dorrit Cohn have long debated the relation of historical fiction to actual historical texts and documents. Just as these kinds of texts often overlap, the historian's and fiction writer's job often becomes intertwined as they compose narratives out of seemingly fragmented sets of events. Sena Jeter Naslund's novel Four Spirits, set in Birmingham, AL, during the Civil Rights Movement of the early 1960s, presents a unique and evocative example of the complicated yet delicate balance between history and fiction. This paper explores Naslund's narrative techniques and intentions in addressing the question, “What does historical fiction offer readers that a traditional history of such a tumultuous period cannot?" Her multi-perspective novel, as do many historical novels, transforms the history of the period from a static and unchanging view to a more active and interior view. This transformation draws important parallels between personal memory and public representation in reconfiguring how the Civil Rights Movement in Birmingham is understood.


REGULATION OF NF-KAPPAB ACTIVITY THROUGH THE P38 MAP KINASE IN HUMAN LEUKEMIC CELLS

Eric Savory, Dr. Brian Ashburner, Department of Biological Sciences, The University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St. Toledo, OH 43606

In the United States alone an estimated 35,070 new cases of leukemia will be diagnosed in 2006. This disease poses a particular threat to children and is the leading cause of cancer death among individuals under the age of twenty. Our lab is focused on understanding the regulation of a key protein, NF-kappaB, which plays an essential role in immune and inflammatory responses. NF-kappaB activity is normally very tightly regulated on several different levels. Dysregulation of these regulatory pathways contributes to the initiation and progression of leukemia as well as other forms of cancer. Much research over the past ten years has been committed to developing inhibitors to block the nuclear translocation pathway that is primarily responsible for the activation of NF-kappaB, and several promising drugs have already been developed. Our work is concentrated on understanding the signals that target NF-kappaB after it has translocated to the nucleus. These signals are required to achieve maximal stimulation of NF-kappaB activity and potentially can serve as additional targets for therapeutic intervention. The p38 MAP kinase is required in many of these signaling pathways. Although p38 has an effect on the transcriptional ability of NF-kappaB, the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Since p38 does not interact with NF-kappaB directly, we are examining the possibility of p38 regulating NF-kappaB activity through the CBP co-activator protein. We believe that CBP may be a substrate for p38 phosphorylation and are studying how this could control the regulation of NF-kappaB. To address this question, cell lines isolated from human leukemia patients are being used. We are using a small molecule p38 inhibitor to examine the effects of p38 inhibition on NF-kappaB activity. The goal is to identify whether blocking p38 inhibits both its interaction with CBP as well as the interaction between CBP and the NF-kappaB p65 subunit. Understanding how p38 regulates NF-kappaB may aid in the development of more effective therapies to specifically target the leukemic cells with fewer adverse side effects.


NARRATIVE STRUCTURE AND THE FICTION OF 9/11

Eric E. Wallace Dr. Peter Donahue Department of English Birmingham-Southern College 900 Arkadelphia Road Birmingham, AL 35254

Since the Enlightenment, a division has been made between scientific and literary disciplines. With the rise of institutional historicism in the 19th century, history has often been approached by its practitioners as a form of science in respect to verification of sources. Using 9/11 as a contemporary yet historically significant frame of reference, this study explores the implications of narrative as they intersect with the limitations of history as a science. It also examines the power of fiction as a form of historical representation. I examine two post-9/11 novels--Jay McInerney's realistic novel The Good Life and Jonathan Safran Foer's experimental novel Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close—as historical fiction. I consider both novels in light of the definitive nonfiction, and hence historical, work about the events of September 11: The 9/11 Commission Report. Drawing from Hayden White's idea that people's illusory perceptions of their lives are patterned around a narrative structure, I compare and contrast these three works as to the accuracy of their narrative representation of the events of and following 9/11. While the two novels are based around fictional characters, the narrative structures of both The 9/11 Commission Report and the more traditional novel The Good Life resemble one another closely. Meanwhile, Foer's Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close is, while considered fiction, the more accurate portrayal of the human response to 9/11. Through the examination of these post-9/11 works, this study aims to expose history as a literary discipline—one that applies a fictional narrative to the facts of the past.


THE INFLUENCE OF MENOPAUSAL STATUS, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ON A WOMAN'S LEVEL OF C-REACTIVE PROTEIN.

Carolyn E. Schubert (Dr. Judith A. Flohr), Morrison Bruce Center, Department of Kinesiology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22081.

Heart disease is the primary cause of death for women in the United States. Among women, almost twice as many will die from heart disease or stroke than from all forms of cancer, including breast cancer. This reflects the importance of screening using traditional coronary heart disease risk factors as well as continued research for the development of new risk factors. The inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) has been identified as a non-traditional risk factor for coronary heart disease. The purpose of this study is to determine if 1) a difference exists in CRP between pre and postmenopausal women, 2) CRP levels differ between women taking and not taking hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and 3) CRP levels are related to physical activity (PA), as measured by a pedometer and questionnaire. Pre and postmenopausal women will volunteer to complete questionnaires concerning HRT status, have blood drawn to determine CRP status and wear a pedometer as well as complete a questionnaire to determine physical activity levels. In addition, the cardiovascular fitness status of each participant will be determined using a graded exercise test on the treadmill. A t-test will determine if CRP differs in menopausal and HRT status. A correlation will test the relationship between step count and CRP. These results will increase our knowledge about inflammatory markers (CRP) and heart disease risk in women. This will also advance our understanding of the influence of PA on CRP and risk for heart disease.


THROUGH THE EYES OF CHILDREN: HISTORY AND GENDER IN DEAR AMERICA AND MY NAME IS AMERICA

Various Authors, Dr. Peter Donahue, English, Birmingham-Southern College, 900 Arkadelphia Road Birmingham, AL 35254

The Scholastic children's historical fiction series Dear America and My Name is America aid young children to better understand American history. The two series have narratives from the American Revolution to the Carlisle Indian School. Presented in fictional diaries and journals of pre-adolescent children, characters experience pivotal, often tumultuous episodes in American history. Scholastic packages the series as real historical documents by concealing the names of the authors and creating a look of a real journal. This “false document" allows the author to thread their character's story into history. The Dear America series features diaries from girls throughout history and, thereby, gives women's history a voice by uncovering how women shaped the events they experienced and participated in. The My Name is America series features journals of boys and young men as soldiers and manual laborers which often articulate the turmoil of proving one's self as a man. Traditional history often omits such emotional perspectives on events. Together the two series educate children about history in a way that textbooks cannot. The journal form helps young readers feel they are a part of history instead of looking at it through the cold language of a textbook. Viewing history through a child's eyes helps young readers empathize with the main characters. That empathy allows children to better understand history from the point of view of the women and minorities who often narrate the stories in the two series. While inside the characters' minds, young readers encounter multiple perspectives of the events. The journal becomes an outlet for their true sentiments on their experiences. Dear America and My Name Is America allow readers to experience wars, poverty, oppression, and hardships of the frontier, all of which give them a better comprehension of history and a sharper ability to look at issues that stem from these issues today.


PROCRASTINATE YOUR WAY TO THE TOP: A CLOSER LOOK AT ACTIVE VERSUS PASSIVE PROCRASTINATION

Amanda Monroe, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180

Most people have procrastinated on at least some task in their life, yet in an individualistic culture like the United States the idea of procrastination often elicits negative sentiments. Like the general public, researchers have long regarded procrastination as maladaptive and both physically and psychologically harmful. Recent research puts a new spin on traditional views of procrastination. Chin Chu and Choi (2005) found that not all types of procrastination may be harmful. Specifically, active procrastination, defined as a conscious choice by procrastinators to put off one task in order to complete another more imminent or important task, may not be harmful to the procrastinator at all. It is the passive procrastinators, those who procrastinate and fail to complete work because of their inability to make decisions, who suffer negative consequences. Traditionally, undergraduates have been included in procrastination research because of their availability and the assumption that they have more opportunities to procrastinate with less severe consequences than their non-student peers. In this study students from a small women's college in the Northeast will be classified as either active or passive procrastinators based on their scores on Chin Chu and Choi's (2005) Active and Passive Procrastination Scales. Participants will be recruited during a high stress time in the semester, midterms, which will ensure that the workload is sufficient to allow the possibility to procrastinate. It is expected that active procrastinators will be more like non-procrastinators in that they will use more problem-focused coping strategies(those that actively engage the stressor), have less perceived stress and have fewer negative health effects than passive procrastinators. Being aware of different types of procrastination would help individuals perform to their highest potential by informing them about the pros and cons of their behavior. Interventions such as stress management courses would help them choose what learning and working style works best for each person instead of generalizing that all procrastination is bad and should be discouraged.


CONTROL OF BIOLOGICAL CRYSTAL GROWTH

Robert Hickey, Justus J. Guerrieri, Elyce Link (Loyd D. Bastin), Department of Chemistry, Widener University, One University Place, Chester, PA 19013

In order to adapt to changing environments, many organisms have evolved vital supporting structures. These structures range from the complex skeletal systems found in mammals and reptiles to the simple shells of mollusks. Typically comprised of calcium-based biominerals, these remarkable frameworks take on numerous functions such as support and/or protection. The nucleation, growth rate, shape, composition, and strength of these structures vary with the type of organic macromolecules utilized by the organism. These macromolecules have been shown to play an important role in the morphogenesis of calcium carbonate crystals in various types of organisms. Previous research on Red Abalone revealed that several proteins play a significant role in the crystal growth of the shell by binding non-uniformly to growing calcium carbonate surfaces. However, similar studies have not been previously reported in other abalone species. Here, we report on the isolation and purification of water-soluble proteins extracted from Green Abalone, Red Abalone and a red/green hybrid. As an extension of the abalone project, we have isolated a family of water-soluble proteins from the shells of Zebra Mussel. These proteins are believed to be involved in the nucleation and control of crystal growth responsible for shell formation in the Zebra Mussel. We are working towards the inhibition of Zebra Mussel shell growth by genetic modification based upon the information obtained about the structure and function of the proteins isolated from Zebra Mussel shells. This genetic modification would prohibit shell growth and thus halt the rampant population growth of the organism. This population growth of Zebra Mussel has recently become a huge problem in the mid-western portion of the United States.


'MY MORE THAN SISTER': FRANKENSTEIN'S ELIZABETH LAVENZA IN 1818 AND 1831

Rose L. Hart (Dr. Carol Siegel), College of Liberal Arts, Washington State University Vancouver, 14204 NE Salmon Creek Ave, Vancouver, WA 98686.

Elizabeth Lavenza, Victor Franksenstein's fiancée, is the most significant woman character in Mary Shelley's Gothic novel "Frankenstein." The comparison of Elizabeth in the novel's original 1818 edition and in the revised 1831 edition show a noticeable difference: Elizabeth is Victor's cousin in 1818, but she is an unrelated foundling in 1831. Most scholars assume that Shelley changed Elizabeth's relationship to Victor in order to avoid allegations of incest, but an investigation of historical attitudes about cousin-marriage show that in the early nineteenth century, cousin marriage was not considered incest. Therefore, an incestuous relationship between Victor and Elizabeth did probably not concern Shelley. Instead, the change can be attributed to artistic concerns. When Elizabeth becomes a non-relative, the people whom the monster kills and against whom Victor rebels are mostly not Victor's relatives. Rather than being members of a group—Victor's family—they are individual people linked to him by various ties: of affection, of relation, of obligation. The Romantic movement, of which Shelley and her comrades were a part, glorified the individual. It is likely that Shelley engaged in a continued dialogue with Romantic ideas and their adherents, and that a more individualist viewpoint on her part may have led to the change in Elizabeth Lavenza's familial status in "Frankenstein."


NON-INTRUSIVE SURVEY AT AN ARCHAEOLOGICAL SITE: PLATAIAI GREECE, 2006

Erin K. Hughes, (Ronald Marchese), Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Minnesota Duluth, Cina Hall 228, 1123 University Dr, Duluth, MN 55812-3095

Geophysical survey is a fast, cost efficient way to map out a large site quickly, while still gathering detailed information. The images produced by the machine serve both as an alternative and as a compliment to traditional excavation. Data generated by geophysical means can supplement excavation data by placing such information in a larger context of the site. However, geophysical survey can also be used in stead of digging when excavation is not an option, either due to permit restrictions or as a result of land tenure laws. Geophysical survey has been conducted at the site of Plataiai since 1998. The site's long history and strategic importance have produced a mass of historic material. The site also covers an area of 260 acres. The intent of the on going research at Plataiai is to map the subsurface features of approximately 50% of the total area within the confines of the Hellenistic fortifications. The survey conducted this past October (2006) was geared towards researching the area around the Acropolis in the part of the city that was built in the late Archaic to early Hellenistic. This study used an RM15 Advanced Resistance Meter and a Magnetometer to survey a selected area of the grid. Scans were taken in one meter intervals and processed to create illustrations of the site's layout. These images provided three dimensional representations of subsurface anomalies. The results have been better than expected; with the discovery of one of the main roads, the possible agora of the city, and a sacred district. Individual blocks of the city grid may also be distinguished, with buildings and partition walls. We are hopeful that this work may further contribute to the study of this historically important city and help us to understand the process of habitation at Plataiai.


'THE ONLY ONE CREATURE THAT I CAN CALL BLESSED": ANDROGYNO AND ANDROGYNY IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND

Jeremy R. Jurgens, Department of English and Literature, Utah Valley State College, 800 West University Parkway, Orem, UT, 84058

This paper examines the use of the hermaphroditic figure in Ben Jonson's 1616 comedy, Volpone. It focuses on situating the hermaphrodite in early modern literature and examines how perceptions of androgyny were changing at the beginning of the seventeenth century. In part, the paper discusses how literature itself is an androgynous, or doubly sexed, medium. Not only were hermaphrodites gaining increased attention in medical studies in early modern England, but gender duality and ambiguity were frequently featured in Elizabethan and Jacobean drama. In fact, in this era the very designation of Hermaphroditism was not limited to physiology: the term Hermaphrodite was frequently employed as a slur for sexual or gender deviance. Jonson uses an androgynous character in Volpone to illuminate both the dichotomies at work within the text itself as well as comment on the gender crises of his time. Androgyno, the character in question, appears early on in the text and serves as a foreshadowing device for the duality later exhibited by many of the text's primary characters. The hermaphroditic character's brief presence in the first act of the play draws out the sexual overtones that pervade the work, reinforcing the atmospherics of double-naturedness that the titular character and those around him revel in. By drawing from androgyny as it functioned in early modern society, Jonson adds another layer of incisiveness to his work and focuses his satire of Jacobean London.


CNN'S BREAKING NEWS COVERAGE OF TERRORISM ACROSS THE GLOBE

Melissa Apperson Brooke Barnett Communications Elon University 100 Campus Drive Elon, NC 27244

This quantitative and qualitative content analysis of the first five hours of CNN's breaking news coverage of the Oklahoma City bombing, the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, the 2005 London subway attacks, and the 2006 India train attacks examines journalistic roles and conventions in breaking news situations. Results show that although CNN journalists spent most of their time performing the traditional journalist role, they spent 22% or more of the time as experts, eyewitnesses, or social commentators when covering these breaking news stories. Journalists strayed from everyday norms by reporting unconfirmed reports and rumors. Although not a specific variable for study in the quantitative analysis, qualitative results show journalistic speculation, including suggestions of who could be responsible for the attacks. The type and amount of coverage also differs upon whether the attack occurred on U.S. soil, and the relationship between the country affected and the U.S. For example, during the breaking news coverage of Oklahoma City and 9/11, CNN covered these events exclusively for the five hours studied. The terrorist attacks in India and London were covered for 54% and 91% of the five hours studied, respectively. The international coverage of the London subway attacks was interrupted for an update on the disappearance of American teenager Natalee Holloway, suggesting a potentially troubling ethnocentric focus to U.S. breaking news coverage of international terrorism. This study concludes that when the phrase “breaking news" is associated with coverage of terrorist events, journalists tend to break conventions; with breaking news becoming more customary, journalism conventions could become more relaxed offering less newsworthy coverage.


THREE SEASONS AS A PARK RANGER: RESOURCES, INTERPRETATION, AND STORIES OF KATMAI NATIONAL PARK AND PRESERVE

Amy Stasch (Julia van der Ryn), Department of Humanities and Cultural Studies, Dominican University of California, San Rafael, CA 94901.

Katmai National Park and Preserve is a 4.2 million acre wilderness managed by the National Park Service in southwestern Alaska. The U.S. Congress has deemed this land worthy of protection by the Department of Interior because of its wildlife (including the largest protected brown bear population in the world), its vast lakes and streams (and tremendous salmon populations that exist within its waters), 15 active volcanoes, and immense wilderness. This presentation will first offer an overview of the park and detail some of its many resources, then proceed to a discussion of interpretation as a specialty practiced in the National Park Service. Stories of my experiences in Brooks Camp will be interwoven, highlighting the unique experience of working in the Alaska ‘bush' with a large population of brown bears and diverse tourists. Management themes and challenges will also permeate the discussion with consideration of the dynamics of the various interests engaged in the day-to-day management on the ground within a national park.


CALCULATION OF THE SOLID ANGLE OF A NUCLEAR DETECTOR USING THE MONTE CARLO METHOD

Sean O'Brien, Lori Jackson, (C. Steven Whisnant (NSF)), James Madison University Physics Department, 800 S. Main St. Harrisonburg, VA 22807

To generate absolute counting rates with a detector system requires knowledge of the solid angle of the detector assembly. When the detector geometry is optimized for an experiment, it is difficult, if not impossible to compute the solid angle analytically. The solid angle of a two-detector cosmic ray telescope has been computed numerically. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, written in C++/MatLab, the solid angle of two rectangular, parallel detectors separated by an adjustable distance was computed. The algorithm used will be described and the results discussed. The position and angle dependence of the acceptance will be shown as will the dependence of the solid angle on the separation of the detectors. The results of the calculation have been verified experimentally by a measurement of the angular dependence of the cosmic ray flux by the two detectors operated in coincidence.


DEVOLATILIZATION OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS VIA COLLISION

Chris Thompson, Bryce Cummings, Steven Henke (Paul J. Thomas) Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Wisconsin – Eau Claire, Eau Claire, WI 54702

The solar system's Kuiper belt is likely to contain many objects similar in size to Pluto. Pluto's composition, based on its mean density (2030 kg/m^3), is 60% rock and 40% ice. This composition is notably more rich in rock than typical outer solar system satellites, which have rock fractions of 40%. This work investigates the possibility that devolatilization (the removal of ice) of typical Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) may occur as a byproduct of large impacts. Our target KBO is represented as an object with a 40% rock mass fraction. The impactor is a cometary object composed entirely of ice. We model the collision of the target with a series of impactors, varying the impactor's size and angle. These impacts are simulated using a three-dimensional smoothed-particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. For each impact, we analyze the fraction of ice thrown off from the target. The impact speed is the escape speed of the target object (~1.5 km/s). Our simulations will constrain the critical impactor size and impact angle ranges required to increase the final rock mass fraction of the target to the 60% value observed for Pluto.


THE AUTHENTICITY OF OUR PAST: FORGERY AND ART

Bradford N. Vezina. Adrian Tinsley Research Program at Bridgewater, Massachusetts, 131 Summer Street.

This project explores the aesthetic philosophy of forgery to understand why people deem a forgery inferior to an authentic work of art. More importantly, this presentation asks whether such a response is justified. If a fake remains visually identical to an original after reattribution, is a person justified in deeming the fake inferior to the original? Some philosophers and art critics argue that a forgery shares the same aesthetic value as a genuine work of art, that to scorn a forgery is a symptom of cultural “snobbery." This study refutes this position, maintaining that external qualities of art (such as authorship, provenance, and cultural importance) are necessary components in aesthetic judgments. Through the textual analysis of both ancient and modern aesthetic theory, the research considers the extrinsic and intrinsic values of art in viewing a forgery. It highlights the development of a “pure" aesthetic, as propounded by Clive Bell's theory of formalism. Moreover, the study examines the controversies surrounding contemporary forgeries. Overall, this presentation highlights the rift between our tendency to view art strictly on a pure, objective, sensory plane and our need to view art as a symbol of culture, ultimately arguing that meaningful viewership (i.e., aesthetic experience) requires that we consider both the sensory (intrinsic) and the cultural (extrinsic) values of art.


METASTATIC ANALYSIS OF THE 168 MURINE BREAST CARCINOMA FOLLOWING INTRODUCTION OF CCL5

Michael Werner (Robert Kurt) Biology Department, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042

Each year over one million women worldwide are diagnosed with breast cancer. Metastasis to the lungs, liver, or brain is the most common cause of death in these patients. In the investigation of metastatic disease, chemokines have received much attention, as these immune molecules help orchestrate cellular motility and organotropism. Of particular interest is the elevated expression of the chemokine CCL5 found in advanced stages of breast cancer. Using the 4T1 murine breast carcinoma, which constitutively expresses CCL5, we have previously demonstrated that increased CCL5 expression impairs T cell chemotactic activity and that inhibition of CCL5 reduces metastasis. These findings indicate that CCL5, among numerous other factors, may play a critical role in the progression of breast cancer disease. The current research project investigates whether CCL5 expression alone is sufficient to increase metastasis. This will be accomplished using the 168 murine breast carcinoma, which does not constitutively express CCL5 and exhibits low metastatic frequency. The 168 tumor was transfected using a eukaryotic expression vector encoding CCL5. Three stable CCL5+ clones and one CCL5- vector control clone have been identified. Experimental groups of ten naïve mice are injected with parental 168, the CCL5- vector control, or the CCL5+ clones. In vitro and in vivo tumor growth is monitored for 28 days, after which the mice are sacrificed for enumeration of metastasized cells in the lungs. The growth kinetics will be used to evaluate the relationship between tumor volume and the number of metastases. A chemotaxis assay will be performed to verify the functionality of the CCL5 produced by the transfected clones, and phenotypic analysis of MHC expression will serve as an internal control.


40 YEARS OF LABELING –GERMAN PUBLIC DISCOURSE AND THE TURKISH COMMUNITY

Ina Baum (Dr. Verna Corgan) Communication Studies Department, Hamline University, 1536 Hewitt Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55104

Since the German government signed an agreement with Turkey to recruit additional laborers to propel Germany's booming economy in 1961, the native German community has sought to ascribe meaning to and make sense of this new group in its midst. Through studying the labels and themes the print media has used to write about the Turkish community over 40 years, this thesis reconstructs the evolution of German culture's perception of the immigrants. This research is the first longitudinal study of its kind, identifying all articles mentioning Germany's Turkish community published in Der Spiegel from 1960 to 2000. Applying communication scholar Bormann's Fantasy Theme Analysis, the study traces the development of labels used to describe this group and analyzes the themes surrounding these terms. Labels are important because, as communication theorist Kenneth Burke pointed out, they are used to simplify the description and identification of a real and complex phenomenon. They are a summary of all the referent's characteristics condensed into one word. Thus, necessarily, labels are selective. When applied to people, they reflect what the users see in and how they understand the referent. Further, according to Bormann, studying the themes invoked by the labels may reveal a community's underlying ideologies and its shared understanding of reality. The labels used for the German Turkish community have transformed from Gastarbeiter (guest worker) to Auslaender (foreigner) to Mitbuerger (co-citizen) to Deutschtuerke (German Turk). As research on Der Spiegel shows, these labels are surrounded by themes related to crime, (illegal) immigration, cultural inferiority, and children's as well as women's issues, among others. This study illustrates how a print medium such as Der Spiegel constructs realities for the audience and perpetuates portrayals of a specific ethnic group. Thus, the history of labels and themes may help understand a host countries reaction to an immigrant group and the role the media plays in preformulating attitudes toward and opinions about this community.


EMERGENCY UNDERGROUND COMMUNICATION USING SEISMIC WAVES

George W, Flathers III (Dr. James Squire) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA 24450

Despite the unparalleled technology advancements of our century, mining continues to be on of the most dangerous industry in America (Bureau of Labor Statistics 2002). Currently, following a mine collapse, all communication is cutoff. Landlines are instantly severed by the force of the collapse, and radio signals are absorbed in the conductive earth. The purpose of the Extremely Low Frequency Seismic Detector (ELFSD) is to improve mine safety by communicating directly through the overburden to emergency services on the surface. An underground transmitter and portable topside receiver have been developed that allow trapped miners, with a limited supply of oxygen and potentially in need of medical help, to communicate their condition with the outside world. Similarly, the system allows emergency personnel to detect and locate survivors. When activated, the transmitter continually transduces a signal into the ground as seismic energy. The receiver collects and processes the ground signal. The presence of a valid signal indicates survivors. The transmitter, built from a 12" speaker and a 275 watt amplifier, generates a continuous, tunable, extremely low frequency (40 to 200Hz) sine wave. The wave is transduced as seismic P-waves into the ground using a modified voice coil and spider springs. Geophones in the topside receiver collect the signal from the ground and a high-Q bandpass filter removes noise around the desired frequency. The signal, though, remains 100,000 times weaker than the ambient noise. The computer integrates the signal over a relatively long period and uses Fourier Transforms to extract it from the overpowering noise. A MATLAB application has been created to perform the transforms, log the data, and graphically display the result in realtime. The prototype system has been successfully tested surface-to-surface at a range 200 feet. The ELFSD concept can be expanded for two-way communication, multiple bit messages, and mobile transmitters.


DIRECT EFFECT AND THE EU-WTO TRADE AGREEMENTS

Magda Sarnowska, Dr.Bradley Andrew, Accounting, Business & Economics, Juniata College, 1700 Moore Street, Huntingdon, PA 16652, USA.

The ambiguous relationship between the European Community (EC) law and the World Trade Organization (WTO) law has been a subject of many rulings by the European Court of Justice (ECJ). According to Article 300 of the Treaty of the European Community, the WTO agreements, like other international agreements, should be binding on the institutions of the Community and on the Member States. However, by the decision of the ECJ, the WTO agreements are denied direct effect and their implementation is open to judicial review by the Court. This research paper examines the relationship between the EC and WTO law asking: Why is the rule of law stressed in the internal law of the European Union, but quite comfortably ignored in international trade dealings? The research was conducted under supervision of Attorney Tim Corthaut of the European Court of Justice. Collected evidence relies on case studies, legal documents of the European Union, scholarly articles, and books. The documentation is enriched by interviews with various Members of the European Parliament, transcripts of the EC Economic Development Committee Meetings with Commissioner Mandelson, and personal experience interning at the European Parliament. The main features of the relationship between the EC and WTO law are examined, and the controversial arguments for and against direct effect of the WTO agreements in the EC legal order are analyzed from an internal and external perspective.


EFFECTS OF THE ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF BLUEBERRIES ON MORTALITY RATES AND INDY GENE EXPRESSION IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

Jenna N. Derr (Kimberly A. Carlson) Department of Biology, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney, NE 68849

Aging may involve free radical accumulation, which causes cell damage. Foods with antioxidant properties, such as blueberries, may extend the longevity of an organism. In addition to environmental factors, genes also play a role in aging and death. In Drosophila melanogaster, genetic mutations to the Indy gene (I'm not dead yet) have shown to decrease the rate of aging. Other genes involved in the antioxidant process of aging are catalase and superoxide dismutase. The objective of this experiment is to determine if blueberries added to instant fly food affects mortality rates and gene expression profiles of D. melanogaster. To do this, D. melanogaster were reared on media with or without blueberries, mortality curves tallied, and flies collected for RNA analysis of age related genes by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Mortality curve graphs showed that flies reared on blueberries lived longer than those from control medium. This research will provide insight into the genetic and environmental components of the aging process.


SEEING, KNOWING, AND LOVING: LOVE AND MIRROR IMAGERY IN C. S. LEWIS'S TILL WE HAVE FACES AND GEORGE MACDONALD'S PHANTASTES

Jessica A. Junqueira, (Dr. Ann Eisenberg), Honors College, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, Texas 78249

C. S. Lewis may be best known as the writer of the Chronicles of Narnia, but beyond being a children's book author, he was also a literary critic and an apologist. Lewis, a fellow at Magdalen College at Oxford University for thirty years in the Languages and Literatures Department, was also a professor of Medieval and Renaissance Studies at Magdalene College at Cambridge. Lewis had been delighted by fantastic elements in literature since his childhood. In his autobiography, Surprised by Joy, he described his fascination with Phantastes, a fantasy work by George MacDonald. Both Lewis and George MacDonald, British authors from the Modern and Victorian periods, present fiction in which the social or empirical world, depicted through literary realism as in the works of Charles Dickens in the Victorian period and through stream of consciousness by Virginia Woolf in the Modern period, is less important than the metaphysical world depicted through fantasy in literature. Arguably, this concern with metaphysics is attributable to a strong strain of Neo-platonic thought in these two writers. The goal of this project was to explore and explain how and to what extent the Neo-Platonic influences underlie Lewis's and MacDonald's works of fantasy and how those influences help to explain the similar imagery and symbols in the two authors' works. The paper argues specifically that understanding the influence of Neo-Platonism in Lewis's and MacDonald's works is crucial to comprehending Lewis's fiction, his imagery of mirrors and faces, and his dependence on MacDonald and the Cosmo story in Phantastes.


VIVISECTION AND PASTRIES: EXAMINING THE AUTOGRAPH ALBUMS OF JM BARRIE AND WILLA CATHER

Amanda Marinello (Evelyn Funda) Department of English, Utah State University, Logan, UT 84322

“Who is your favorite author?" “Do you believe in love at first sight?" “What is the mark of a true friend?" These questions are not mere conversation starters, but are representative of a literary genre - namely the confession book (also called autograph book or friendship album), which became extremely popular both in the United Kingdom and America during the mid-nineteenth century. Precursors to today's email surveys and magazine questionnaires, these confession albums offer insight into the sexual politics of the Victorian and give direct insight into the author of the survey. By analyzing autograph albums filled out by young authors, specifically JM Barrie and Willa Cather, as mini-biographies, it is possible to gain a rare understanding of their early life influences and trace the beginnings of themes found in their literary works for the remainder of their lives. This project examines the autograph book entries of JM Barrie and Willa Cather and shows how autograph albums function as a literary genre, and can be analyzed by the same critical techniques we use to analyze a novel or a play.


DOES SELF-EMPLOYMENT PAY?: THE CASES OF ASIANS AND HISPANICS IN THE U.S.

Shova KC, John Lunn and Todd Steen Hope College Department of Economics 41 Graves Place Holland, MI 49423

There has been a growing influx of immigrants from Asia and from Central and South America. Compared to native-born Americans, these immigrants opt for self-employment at greater rates. Further, the self-employment rates of various groups within the broad categories of Asian or Hispanic vary substantially. For example, the self-employment rate of Koreans is 21.7 percent while the self-employment rate of Laotians is 4.03 percent. The economic literature on self-employment is still unsettled as to the appropriate theory, especially with respect to immigrants. Some models depict self-employment as selected because traditional employment in good-paying jobs is closed to immigrants, while others see self-employment of immigrants as a sign of success. We attempt to contribute to this discussion by comparing earnings of self-employed immigrants with the earnings of immigrants who work for wages and salaries. We utilize the human capital model of economics to estimate earnings for both groups. Examples of explanatory variables that we will include are experience, education, ability to speak English, marital status, year of immigration. We also will provide separate analysis for narrower national or ethnic groups to see if the patterns are homogeneous or not. We will use the Public Use Microdata Samples from the 2000 Census of Population and Housing to estimate the empirical models.


PARALLEL DISTRIBUTED PROCESSING WITH NEURAL NETWORKS

Benjamin Smith, Jack Tan, Computer Science Department, University of Wisconsin, Eau Claire, 105 Garfield Avenue, Eau Claire, WI, 54702.

The study of neural networks spans several disciplines. From a biology or psychology perspective, simulating the mechanisms found in neurons may answer difficult questions about how the brain works. These simulations offer techniques for adding intelligence to computer software, increasing the range of problems solvable by computers. While many models for simulating neural networks exist, none are considered a solution to the problem of reproducing thought, learning, and behavior. To solve this problem enhancements to neural models can be made, but the enhancements increase the time and computing resources necessary for their simulation. This research addresses these obstacles by taking advantage of the inherent parallelism found in neural networks. The calculation done by neurons consists mainly of simple operations performed on many pieces of data simultaneously. Modern CPUs include features for speeding up these operations, and computers with more than one processor on a chip are becoming commonplace. This project has used the single-instruction, multiple-data instructions present on most CPUs, allowing the necessary calculations to be performed between two and four times as quickly. The speedup comes with no overhead; it simply represents a better way to perform these operations. When using multiple CPUs to speed up calculations, the speed increase comes at a small expense. The overhead required to spread work between multiple CPUs is minimal, and only affects very small data sets. With the results of this research in place, the hardware requirements for larger neural simulations can be estimated. These estimates indicate that an inexpensive personal computer can simulate neural networks as large as those found in some insects. The scalability of the parallel approach applied to this problem demonstrates that large-scale simulations are possible using existing technology.


"IF THERE EXISTS A KNIGHT CAPABLE": TRAGEDY AND EXISTENTALISM IN LE MORTE D'ARTHUR

Cara Baummer. (Dr. David A. Salomon). Department of English and Modern Languages. Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, NY 12180.

In her recent biography of Sir Thomas Malory, Christina Hardyment asserts that in Le Morte D'Arthur . . . Although keeping faith with one's liege lord is of prime importance, defiance, not submission, is the Arthurian knight's reaction to unjust treatment. What Malory's presentation of Lancelot's actions illustrates above all is the right of the just man to take the law into his own hands if he felt that that was the only way in which justice could be obtained. (21) By returning to Aristotle's classical definition and exploring the development of tragedy within the genre of romance in the Middle Ages, this paper focuses on the character of Lancelot as a tragic hero in Malory's Le Morte D'Arthur. The nature of Lancelot's character contains elements of both empathy and pity, which are vital to the success of tragedy, according to Aristotle. Lancelot's torn human nature allows the reader to empathize with him, making Malory's tragedy successful in Aristotelian terms. Additionally, Lancelot is examined as an existential hero in light of Jean-Paul Sartre's literary and philosophical works. Focusing on issues of existence, being, and love, Lancelot's quests throughout Le Morte D'Arthur are mirrored in the existential quest for being and identity. Torn between his duty as a knight to Arthur and his loyalty to Love and Guinevere, Lancelot's choices are ultimately not between one or the other but rather between apathy or action, the choice of all existential heroes. It is Lancelot's choice to act, even though it leads to tragedy and demise, which in the end makes him both heroic and noble. Viewing Malory through the lens of existentialism provides a sense of hope at the end of this tragic tale. This paper presents a perspective on these characters which allows them to transcend the Middles Ages, reaching across the centuries to connect ancient tragedy with medieval heroism and 20th century philosophy.


36-JUNCTION THERMOPILE MICROSENSORS: FABRICATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND APPLICATIONS TO SENSING OF CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS

Patrick T. Olin (Dr. David Lawrence), College of Integrated Science and Technology, James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA 22807

Thermopiles consist of several thermocouples connected in series. Thermopiles are sensitive thermal detection devices that have a higher output voltage than thermocouples when the sensing junctions are at a different temperature than the reference junctions. Our thermopile design consists of 36 bismuth-antimony sensing junctions that we microfabricate for a final thermopile circuit size of 9 x 9 mm. This process involves thermal evaporation and photolithography to deposit and pattern the metals. The sensor output is monitored using an amplifier circuit built for 100x gain of the analog signal which is then acquired by a computer using LabView®. For ammonia sensing, a controlled flow rate of air is injected over a sensor that has been coated with copper oxalate. When ammonia is present in the airflow, it reacts with the CuC2O4 exothermically. This generation of heat produces an output voltage by the sensor, thus allowing for detection of ammonia in air. The current design of the sensor allows for detection of ammonia concentrations less than 4 PPM. Methods have been developed to monitor several sensors simultaneously to account for variations in sensor outputs. Coatings for detection of biological contaminants are also being researched and will be discussed, as well as results we have obtained from various sensitivity and response experiments.


DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOXIC BIO-REACTOR INCORPORATING PH AND DO2

*Christopher Bennett (*Dwight Dimaculangan, +Rich Goodwin) +University of South Carolina-School of Medicine, Columbia, SC 29201 *Department of Biology, Winthrop University, Rock Hill, SC 29733

During Myocardial Infarctions (MI), ischemia causes cell death (apoptosis and/or necrosis) through hypoxia and acidosis. The cellular responses to this damage are not well understood and there are few in vitro tissue culture models for studying hypoxia and acidosis in cardiac tissue. In this study, we are using a 3-D cardiac tissue culture system as an in vitro model of MI induced ischemia. To accomplish this we constructed a closed-circuit Hypoxic Bio-Reactor system (H-BR) that continuously monitors pH and dO2 through a single-lined media source. We determined the circulating line to be 20% of the total volume and the flow rate to be 0.24mL per minute. We also determined approximately 8 minutes is required for the in-line solution to be circulated, and 31 minutes to completely turnover the media in the culture well in a 6-well plate (6mL in well + 1.5mL in line of H-BR totaling 7.5mL). To determine lag-time for meter reading, the pH of the solution was raised to pH 11.84 with 5M NaOH. The 11.84 pH required approximately seven minutes to register. To initially test the response of the Seeded Cardiac Tubes (SCTs) to hypoxic injury, we exposed them in the H-BR to different oxygen levels (atmospheric-21%, physiological-6%, and hypoxic-1.5%) for at least fourteen hours and determined myocyte death by measuring Troponin-I release. To look for changes in gene expression we isolated RNA from the SCTs, and measured RNA concentration and purity with a spectrophotometer. The RNA samples are being used in Real Time-PCR to test for changes in gene expression of cytokines and hypoxic inducible factors (TNF-α, HIF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6), as compared to the control STO fibroblast cell line. We are trying to determine if the SCT's in vitro response mimics that of in vivo MI models.


BONE DENSITY DISTRIBUTION IN THE SYMPHYSEAL REGION OF THE ANTHROPOID MANDIBLE USING QUANTITATIVE MICRO COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

Matthew A. Roginski (Andrew J. Rapoff) Department of Mechanical Engineering, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308

Analysis of bone density distributions in the symphyseal region of the anthropoid mandible using quantitative micro computed tomography (CT) provides valuable information about the mechanical properties of the symphysis. Micro CT uses three dimensional x-ray scanning to provide information about the internal structure of the mandible without destroying the structural integrity or morphology of the bone itself, producing images of bone samples in varying shades of gray from black to white. The gray scale variation corresponds to the density variation within the sample itself, and density, in turn, is a strong determinant of the structural properties of bone. Bone density analysis of the symphyseal region of the mandible may help explain the function of the mandible as a load-bearing element. Masticatory forces, generated by muscles on either side of the mandible, subject symphyseal and alveolar bone to internal stresses that produce functional adaptations manifested as local density variations. The density variations obtained in this work will be incorporated into related efforts in developing structural models of the mandible. For this work, 10 mm sided bone cubes were prepared from symphyseal regions and scanned using a micro CT system. Gray scale variations were converted to true densities using calibrated samples of known densities. Bone density variations were obtained throughout the symphyseal region in several sections parallel to two primary anatomic planes, the sagittal and transverse. Density variations obtained in the parasagittal planes provide information into how the mandible resists “wish bone" type bending while undergoing masticatory loading, and variations obtained in the transverse planes provide insight as to how alveolar spaces do not serve as stress risers as holes in other structures do. Variations found indicate increasing density gradients (>6%) from the lingual to the labial aspect of the symphysis and even lower densities adjacent to alveolar spaces (11% less than labial bone).


QUESTIONING CONVENTIONAL SEXUAL POLITICS IN THE ROVER

Emily Thompson and Paul Trolander. Berry College Department of English, 2277 Martha Berry HWY, Mount Berry, GA, 30149-0350.

Elizabeth Kraft's “Ethics, Politics, and Heterosexual Desire in Aphra Behn's The Rover" argues the play's strong female characters demonstrate “female wit, self-direction, and focused desire" and are not simple “victims" of male patriarchy. Kraft examined the play from the perspective that Behn advocates equality between the sexes that the female characters are able to out-wit the male characters in attempted rape scenes, thus freeing themselves from the role of the victim. Because she focuses only on Willmore and Hellena's relationship, Kraft's argument cannot show the full extent of the observations she makes for Behn's play. My essay attempts to provide a more thorough application of Kraft's argument by comparing and contrasting each relationship within the play and analyzing how Behn presents these relationships through the lens of various models of sexual equality as the traditional model, an ethical or moral model, and, the model of domination. Florinda and Belvile represent society's traditionally ideal relationship characterized by loyalty, respect, and patriarchal gender roles such as male dominance and female submission. Reacting against this is Behn's “ethical ideal" of Hellena and Willmore's relationship; while not the most virtuous characters in the play, they are able to maintain a sense of equality—both viewing the other as an object— acknowledging the other's inconstancy. Strong contrasts to this model are relationships where gross inequality marks the dynamic between the sexes, as with Lucetta and Blunt and Willmore and Angellica. Blunt plays the submissive role, and Lucetta holds the power in the relationship as the more dominant partner. This imbalanced dialectic leads Blunt to swear vengeance on females. He becomes rapacious, capturing Florinda in an attempt to re-establish a sense of male dominance within himself. Similarly, Willmore dominates tender-hearted Angellica. These different models reveal that Behn uses Hellena's relationship with Willmore as a vehicle to express libertine arguments for sexual equality. By presenting Hellena and Willmore's relationship as positive, this libertine argument appears more moderate, and less patriarchal than other models.


INHIBITION OF CALCIUM SULFATE CRYSTALS USING PHOSPHONIC ACIDS

Mark Schneider and Hollis T. Warren (Loyd D. Bastin) Department of Chemistry, Widener University, One University Place, Chester, Pennsylvania 19013

Many salts, such as calcium sulfate (gypsum) and barium sulfate (barite), are found prevalently in oil well lines and water treatment systems as well as on ocean vessel shells. These deposits are costly to oil refineries, water treatment plants, shipping companies, and the navy, as they cause operational issues and are difficult to remove. The presence of these deposits on ocean vessels also increases pollution due to increased drag caused by the deposits. Previous studies investigated the effect of organic molecules as inhibitors of barium sulfate crystal growth. However, few researchers have studied the growth inhibition of calcium sulfate crystals. We have found organic compounds that inhibit the crystal growth of both calcium and barium sulfate. We have synthesized a group of crystal growth inhibitors from simple diamines based upon previous barium sulfate research using the Mannich Reaction. Here we report the synthesis, purification, and analysis of hexanebis(nitrilodimethylene)tetraphosphonic acid, octanebis(nitrilodimethylene)tetraphosphonic acid, nonanebis(nitrilodimethylene)tetraphosphonic acid, and N,N-dimethylenephosphonic acid-12(O2N2corand-4). We also report the ability of these molecules to inhibit the growth of calcium sulfate crystals in supersaturated solutions.


BURROWING IN ELLIPTIO COMPLANATA IS DECREASED BY ECOLOGICALLY RELEVANT ATRAZINE CONTAMINATION.

Maria Belopolsky, (Katherine Flynn), Department of Biology and Environmental Studies Program, Adelphi University, 1 South Avenue, Garden City NY 11530

Atrazine is the most commonly used herbicide in the United States, and a suspected endocrine disrupter. It may have estrogen-like activity and behavioral effects. Laboratory-acclimated adult freshwater mussels (Elliptio complanata) were exposed to atrazine at 1.5, 15, or 150 µg/l for two 72 hour trials and two 6 hour trials (n = 8/dose). These concentrations correspond to 0.1, 1, and 10 times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's allowable atrazine concentration for aquatic ecosystems. Estradiol and 70% ethanol were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Burrowing behavior was evaluated every 6 hours for the 72 hour trial and every hour for the 6 hour trial, using calipers to measure each mussel's exposed length. Percent burrowed for each mussel at each time period was calculated. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with treatment and time as variables indicated a significant main effects of treatment and time on burrowing (p < 0.001) but no interaction. The estradiol treatment group and the mid atrazine treatment group differed significantly from control at p < 0.06, burrowing 40.0% less than control and 31.4% less, respectively. The low and high atrazine treatment groups also burrowed less than control, 28.6% and 20.0% respectively, but these differences did not reach significance. These data suggest that in freshwater mussels, temporary exposure to ecologically-relevant concentrations of atrazine results in an estrogen-like alteration of burrowing behavior. Further, the data suggest a U-shaped dose-response curve, similar to that reported for other suspected endocrine disrupters.


SHYNESS AND VULNERABILITY TO STRESS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS

Lauren K. Crump, Jillian Littlefield, Maribel Martinez-Perez, Rachel V. Wynn, Alicia C. Bolton, (Irene M. Staik, John W. Burling, D. Kristen Gilbert), Psychology Program, Department of Behavioral and Social Science,University of Montevallo, Montevallo, AL 35115

For most college students, the college years are times of personal growth, continuing education, and learning to deal with new stressors. During this time, the students are developing their autonomy, exploring their career choices, usually working to help pay for college tuition and books, and fine tuning their self identities. In addition, many of the students will be adjusting to living on their own and handling their own financial concerns for the first time. Each of these areas provides exciting new avenues for the students to explore, but may also create stressors which may be debilitating and impede the students' progress. Social networks of family and friends can help alleviate the stress as can the help of counseling centers on campuses. However, some of these students have a biological predisposition toward shyness, and may lack the social skills or social network to aid them in adequately coping with these stressors. Our study was designed to assess the presence of shyness in a sample of 80 college students at a small, southern liberal arts university and to investigate the relationship among shyness, locus of control and vulnerability to stress. Our hypotheses were that a high level of shyness would correlate positively with a high level of vulnerability to stress and a high level of externality in terms of locus of control. Conversely, we expected to find a high correlation among lower levels of shyness, lower vulnerability to stress, and internality in terms of locus of control. Analysis of the results of three scales which we gave the students to assess shyness, vulnerability to stress, and locus of control supported our hypotheses. The conclusions of our study are important to students and to counselors on a college campus as they work together to enable optimal growth and development for the students.


THE REPRESSION OF DISSENT: MULTI-GROUP DISSIDENT RESPONSES TO STATE REPRESSION IN BURMA, 1980-2005

Lauren E. Coffey (Dr. Stephen M. Shellman) Department of International Affairs, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602

My study seeks to explain dissident group responses to repressive governments. My study will focus on the repressive State Law and Order Restoration Committee (SLORC) or State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) regime of Burma/Myanmar and various dissident groups' responses to the regime. The SLORC regime took power in 1989 and is known for its harsh repressive policies. Numerous dissident groups including the All Burma Students Democratic Front (ABSDF), the Karen National Union (KNU) and Khun Sa's Mong Tai Army (MTA) exist in opposition to the regime. I seek to explain the behavioral relationships between the militant groups and the government by focusing on their day to day behavioral exchanges of conflict and cooperation. The project employs several difference of means tests to determine how government repression affects the substitution of tactics by rebels over time. Specifically, the project will compare the mean of each rebel group's behavior prior to repressive activities of the state and determine whether or not state repression succeeds at decreasing the mean hostile activities of each group. I expect to find that different groups will behave differently to repressive activities of the state. Traditional research on militant group responses to repressive regimes may be flawed and their statistical estimates biased since they aggregate all dissident groups' actions towards the state into a single variable. One of the aims of my research is to determine whether the practice of previous research projects of aggregating all groups together influences the inferences we draw from statistical studies. Findings from my research could shed light on policy implications as well as future scientific and academic analyses of government-dissident interactions. By taking an in-depth look at multi-group relationships, I hope to find new policy solutions to conflict management and peace science.


THE SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF NOVEL MOLECULAR TRANSPORTERS

Almeida, A; Olsen, D. E.; Danowski, B.; Kehlbeck, J., Kehlbeck, J. Chemistry Union College 807 Union St Schenectady NY. 12308

Molecular transporters are a class of compounds displaying high efficiency for traversing the cellular membrane. Multiple naturally occurring proteins are efficient at crossing the cell membrane and further studies indicated the important regions for inducing cellular uptake are highly cationic, containing multiple arginine amino acids. The guanidinium head group of the arginine side chain appears to be the primary factor in determining uptake efficiency, however the method of internalization is currently unknown. Efficient molecular transporters have been synthesized with various significant structural changes. Molecular transporters with various length, backbone structure, and alkyl side chain extensions have all been shown to be efficient in cellular uptake. The effectiveness over a wide variety of structural alterations suggests that a receptor-mediated process is unlikely. One theory suggests that the cationic guanidinium moiety forms a double hydrogen bond with negatively charged cellular membrane moieties. The formation of this complex yields a less polar compound, capable of passively diffusing through the non-polar cellular membrane, though the molecular details of this interaction remain unclear. We aim to elucidate the role of polarizability in cell penetration. We report the design and synthesis of a peptoid molecular transporter with the highly conjugated, polarizable guanine as the pendant side-chain. The transporter was synthesized by attachment of a guanine precursor to a nonamer peptoid chain. The side chain precursor, 2-chloroethylguanine, was synthesized in an overall yield of 52 % without chromatography or steric blocking groups. Selective crystallization yielded the desired N9 regioisomer, eliminating the need for preparative chromatography. A non cell-penetrating polylysine peptoid chain was synthesized by solid phase synthesis as a negative control. Polyguanidinylation of the lysine peptoid yields the cell-penetrating polyarginine peptoid as a positive control. A cellular assay with the fluorescently tagged peptoids was carried out to measure the efficiency of internalization.


PHISHING: AN IDENTITY THEFT SCAM

Whitney Price, Dr. Nolan Taylor (Dr. Rafael Bahamonde) Department of Physical Education, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis, Indiana 46202

Over 9 million individuals were identity theft victims in 2004. Financial institutions are losing capital and the number of identity theft victims is continuously increasing, because of a relatively new identity theft scam called phishing. Phishing is the act of sending out emails to lure Internet users to imitated websites to steal their personal and financial information. The purpose of this study is to identify characteristics that lead individuals to become phishing victims and to see which characteristics could help in reducing the number of successful phishing attacks. This study tests several characteristics involving phishing, such as online and offline behaviors and habits. This study was administered online and tested 60 randomly selected Indiana University Purdue University- Indianapolis Internet users about their reactions to a phishing scam. The subjects evaluated 3 legitimate and 3 fraudulent emails and answered a set of personal questions about their habits, behavior, and knowledge related to information privacy and protection. Our results suggest the following: individuals use knowledge of an existing account (or lack thereof) as a way of determining email authenticity; individuals have difficulty with judging the authenticity of both legitimate and fraudulent (phishing) email; and that certain characteristics could led to individuals to become potential identity theft victims.


RETURNING TO THE MOTHERLAND: THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF RECENT ARGENTINE MIGRATION TO SPAIN

Erin E. Kennelly (Dr. Steven Gardner) Department of Spanish, Illinois College, 1101 West College Avenue, Jacksonville, Illinois 62650

Argentina was once considered a country of immigrants because of the large numbers of people who immigrated to the country during the 20th century from such places as Spain and Italy. In sharp contrast, Argentina is now becoming a country of emigrants due to the vast exodus from the country in the 21st century. This mass exodus has led to the creation of entire Argentine communities in Spain. Argentine immigrants have decided to leave their homes to begin new lives despite the economic and social uncertainties they knew they would encounter. The focus of the project is Argentine emigration to Spain after Argentina's economic crisis in December 2001. Based on field research in the form of interviews conducted during the summer of 2006 in Alicante, Spain, this paper explores the reasons why Argentine citizens felt urged to migrate to Spain after the economic crisis. These interviews help to develop an accurate portrait of the typical Argentine immigrant who has left his/her homeland and everything he/she knew to start life over in a new country. The interviews also explore future options for the immigrants living in Spain, which include staying for an indefinite amount of time in Spain, returning to Argentina, or migrating to another country. This paper not only examines why people have been emigrating from Argentina to Spain but why others will likely continue to emigrate in the future. The analysis combines the interviews with information from other studies in order to put the lives of people interviewed into the context of the larger social and economic changes surrounding Argentina's economic crisis. It also puts their lives into the context of Spanish society and the role Argentine immigrants play in it.


SHARING THE TABLE: LUTHERAN AND ROMAN CATHOLIC RECONCILIATION ON THE EUCHARIST

Matthew McCuen, (Franklin Harkins), Christ College, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, IN 46383

Since the sixteenth century, Lutherans and Roman Catholics have been at odds over many issues. Justification, papal authority, temporal-spiritual authority, and the sacraments are just a few of these issues. One issue, the Eucharist, is a major point of contention between the two churches because of the significance of the sacrament. Points of contention include Christ's presence in the sacrament, the sacrificial nature of the sacrament, the authority of the clergy, and Eucharistic ministry. Since the age of reform—especially in the last century—increased dialogue between Lutherans and Roman Catholics has brought both church bodies closer to Eucharistic reconciliation. While there are still other issues such as justification separating the two churches, progress on the Eucharist demonstrates that sharing a common table is a distinct possibility in the near future. As the five hundredth anniversary of the posting of the Ninety-Five Theses on the Castle Church in Wittenberg approaches in 2017, Roman Catholics and Lutherans are demonstrating that the points of disagreement on the Eucharist are rooted in sixteenth century bureaucracy and not in doctrine or dogma. Therefore, Eucharistic reconciliation is possible between Catholics and Lutherans both because of a willingness to work together and the realization that the Eucharistic split was a product of papal abuses in the age of reform.


CONTROL DENIED

Ryan Marchand, Adrian Tinsley Program of Undergraduate Research, Art, Bridgewater State College, 131 Summer Street Bridgewater, MA 02325

Ever since the invention of the printing press, there has been much concern that pirates will distribute free copies of an author's work without the author being compensated. This matter pushed the government to create copyright laws, which protect an author's work. With the development of computers and the Internet, the concerns of the past have grown larger due to the facilitated ability to copy and distribute almost any digital media. This led to further expansion of the copyright laws and use of protective hardwares and softwares. Through research in books, articles and online resources, I have cited many examples in which corporations have created protective methods to prevent piracy, but have instead stifled fair uses of new media. Since it's enactment, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act has been invoked in numerous cases and incidents where artists, authors, researchers, and other non-pirates have figured out how to get past the protections and then have been threatened or brought to trial for infringement. In one case, Sony's protective software XCP, granted malicious hackers the ability to have full control over someone else's computer but protected the CD it was on from being copied. Upon discovery, a graduate student at Princeton University felt he needed to warn the public and was unjustly rewarded with a DMCA lawsuit for publishing a way to disable XCP. Furthermore, the law has been used to lock consumers to a brand. Protections have been used in hardware like DVD players, printers and cell phones that prevent using a DVD from a different country than the player, ink cartridges made by a different company, and SIM chips in different service provider's phones. Upon getting around these protections an individual or company is sued. I have written a structured thesis that exposes how companies are stifling the use of author's works rather than protecting them.


NEUROTICISM AS A PREDICTOR OF SUBJECTIVE ACCULTURATIVE STRESS IN MEXICAN-AMERICAN COLLEGE STUDENTS

Rafael Veraza (Deborah Mangold, Psychology Department) Lancy Scholars Program, Honors College, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249

Neuroticism is a risk factor for mood and anxiety disorders and a strong predictor of subjective stress in non-Hispanics. This study examined neuroticism as a predictor of subjective acculturative stress in Mexican-American college students. Neuroticism was measured using the Revised Neuroticism Extroversion Openness Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R), and acculturative stress was measured using the Hispanic Stress Inventory (HSI). Overall neuroticism and the facets of depression, vulnerability and anger/hostility significantly predicted acculturative stress. The association between neuroticism and greater subjective psychosocial stress can now be extended to acculturative stress for a sub-group of Mexican-Americans. Findings support and extend previous work from our laboratory suggesting that neuroticism modulates the relationship between exposure to culturally specific stress and risk for certain mood and anxiety disorders.


THE INTRODUCTION OF AN EVIDENCE-BASED RESTRICTIVE FORMULARY SYSTEM AT A LOCAL VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL CENTER AND ITS EFFECTS ON COST AVOIDANCE AND PRESCRIBER OPINION

Authors: Nathan Moore, University of Texas at Austin, Dr. Steven Orwig, Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Medical Center Sponsor: Dr. Ken Lawson, University of Texas at Austin

The Oklahoma City Veterans Affairs Medical Center (OKCVAMC) restructured its formulary system in 2003, creating a system of restrictive criteria for certain drugs in an attempt to improve pharmaceutical cost-effectiveness by enforcing evidence-based indications in the prescription system. The criteria restriction system requires the use of formulary drugs, which can be prescribed without justification, as first-line therapy; prescriptions for criteria restricted drugs must be justified by the prescriber in accordance with the criteria established by the P&T Committee. To determine the effects of the system on cost avoidance and prescriber opinion, I analyzed drug utilization statistics and surveyed prescribers that used the system. I employed two methods of estimating cost avoidance, one that assumed prescription rates would have stayed constant at the OKCVAMC, and one that assumed prescription rates would have changed in a similar manner as other VAMCs in the Southwest. I found that the criteria restriction system has been an effective cost avoidance tool because inappropriate prescriptions for restricted, high cost drugs have been curtailed in favor of lower cost formulary alternatives. The total cost avoidance at the Oklahoma City VAMC pharmacy from placing 15 drugs on the criteria-restriction system is estimated at $1.25 million to $1.50 million yearly, which equals four to five percent of the total outpatient pharmacy budget. Prescribers generally felt that the system was a necessary nuisance, but many expressed frustration concerning the unwieldy interface of the system. Several fundamental questions about criteria restriction have yet to be answered, especially those regarding its effects on patient care and medical utilization. The criteria restriction system may well become popular across healthcare systems as costs continue to rise, and in this presentation I will discuss the widespread implications of introducing and using such a system. **This paper has been accepted for publication in the journal "Formulary (www.formularyjournal.com) and will likely have been published by April**


ODORIFEROUS WALLPAPER

Monique C. Schuster (Judith Pike) Department of English, Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD 21801

Many Gilman critics, particularly Treichler, Shumaker, and Fetterley have come to the consensus that the physical wallpaper of Gilman's “The Yellow Wallpaper" (1892) is representative of the narrator, and femininity. While a more recent critic, Hume, briefly recognizes the phallic symbolism within the paper, she does not elaborate any further on how this pattern contributes to the paper being a form of masculinity rather than femininity. I propose that the wallpaper, in fact, is not “a metaphor for women's discourse," (Treichler 63) or femininity, but rather symbolizes the dominating male force that encompasses the narrator within the house. Moreover, critics of Hume have ignored the smell emanating from the yellow wallpaper. The paper projects itself on the narrator not only by color, but also smell, spreading throughout her clothes, her hair, and even the house. At first it is described as “awful," but eventually she becomes accustomed to it, as she is to become accustomed to the male dominance within her culture at the time. While being held prisoner in this male created edifice she closely examines the paper, finding that it is full of contradictions (just like her husband), and that its pattern is revealing “new shoots on the fungus," a masculinity that is spreading at the fast rate of a contagious sickness. She becomes angry at John's and Jennie's apparent interests in the paper because it represents their alignment with the masculine text, something she so desperately tries to defy. The climactic ending, in which she rips the paper from the wall, represents her attempt to rid herself of the masculine force that surrounds her. She can remove the wallpaper, but the smell lingers, foreshadowing that this defeat is only temporary. Not only will the smell continue, but John will awaken from his fainting spell, and her son (begot of her) will eventually become a man.


DISCOVERING REALITY IN FICTION: THE IMITATION OF LITERARY TECHNIQUES FROM VLADIMIR NABOKOV'S LOLITA TO DEPICT FEMALE OPPRESSION IN AZAR NAFISI'S READING LOLITA IN TEHRAN

Jennifer L. Romano Dr. Janet Myers English Elon University 100 Campus Drive Elon, North Carolina 27244

Simply reading the title Reading Lolita in Tehran is a study in contrasts. Why would anyone risk reading Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita, a story about a kidnapping pedophile, in Tehran, the capital of one of the most socially conservative nations? Nabokov and Azar Nafisi, author of Reading Lolita, are both expatriates writing their works in the US, and they share a similar experience of exile from their home country. Looking past Lolita's pedophile main character, Nafisi discovers a depth and value to this fictional novel in its theme of the oppression of women, particularly revealed through the character Lolita. In my research, I show how the structuring of Nafisi's non-fictional memoir Reading Lolita in Tehran around this theme not only provides insight into the influences of oppression in the life of an exile author but also gives a unique look at the reality of female oppression in Iran through the use of fictional literary elements that allude to Nabokov's Lolita, including metonymy, metaphor, and the theme of absence.


REGION-SPECIFIC GROWTH EFFECTS IN THE DEVELOPING RAT PROSTATE FOLLOWING FETAL EXPOSURE TO ESTROGENIC UV FILTERS.

Luke E. Hofkamp, Sandy Bradley, Margret Schlumpf*, Barry G. Timms, Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion SD 57069. *GreenTox, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.

Environmental endocrine disrupters are potential risk factors for humans. Many of these chemicals have been shown to exhibit disruption of normal cellular and developmental processes in animal models. Ultraviolet (UV) filters used as sunscreens in cosmetics, or additives in plastics, furnishings and household products, have previously been shown to exhibit estrogenic activity using in vitro and in vivo assays. The two UV filters examined in this study were 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) and 3-benzylidene camphor (3-BC). Pregnant Long Evans rats were fed diets containing doses of the chemicals that resulted in average daily intakes of 7.0 mg/kg and 0.24 mg/kg body weight for 4-MBC and 3-BC respectively, corresponding to effective doses in prior studies. On postnatal day 1, the whole pelvic region of males from control and exposed animals was removed and processed for histological serial sections. Using digital photographs, the epithelial ducts from specific regions of the developing prostate, plus the seminal vesicles and coagulating gland were identified, contoured and aligned. The total volume for each region was calculated from 3-dimensional, surface-rendered models using Winsurf® software. Fetal exposure to 4-MBC (but not 3-BC) resulted in a significant increase in ductal volume in the coagulating gland, seminal vesicles, dorsolateral and ventral prostate compared to the untreated males. For both compounds there was a 75-85% increase in the number of ducts in the dorsal prostate. In the ventral ducts, increased distal branching morphogenesis appears to be a consequence of exposure. These dose levels are within the range of calculated human systemic exposure.


HOMOSEXUALITY & FRATERNITY LIFE: CAN THE WALLS OF FEAR AND OPPRESSION COME DOWN?

Michael G. Bumbry, (Dr. Lamar Bland), English Department, Elon University, 100 Campus Box, Elon, NC 27244

While homosexuality has become more visible in our media and society, fraternities have yet to address the sexuality issue in an appropriate manner. Collegiate fraternities remain hegemonic masculinity systems that define men by outdated standards which advocate exclusion. This presentation details my investigation of homosexual presence in fraternities nationally, into fraternity culture and its attitude towards homosexual men. Homosexuality within fraternities has not been widely researched. However, I have found the following books and journal articles to be enlightening: Freeman and Windemeyer, Out on Fraternity Row; Dilley, Queer Man on Campus; and Trump and Wallace, “Gay Males in Fraternities." In addition, websites such as that of the Lambda 10 Project contain several articles that are dedicated to educating the public and increasing the visibility of gays and lesbians within the fraternity system. The advantages and disadvantages of fraternities like Delta Lambda Phi, the nation's first fraternity for gay, bisexual, and progressive men, are addressed. I have also interviewed heterosexual and homosexual fraternity men from Elon University to better understand the complex and varying perspectives on gay men in predominantly heterosexual fraternities. I am a brother of Pi Kappa Phi at Elon University, who also carries the double minority status of being an African American and homosexual male. I will share my personal experience and how minority status affects my relationship with fraternity brothers. My presentation will identify why homosexual men, closeted or open, rush fraternities, the challenges that they face, their typical fraternity experience, and methods for improving the ideology of fraternities toward homosexual men. This presentation advocates specific methods, modeled largely on my positive experience at Elon, for improved fraternal behavior and a more humane ideology toward homosexual men.


MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF THE MM-50 TRANSCRIPTIONAL SILENCER IN DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

Christopher M. Chamberlain (Presley Martin), Department of Biology, Hamline University, St. Paul, MN 55104

The MM-50 transgenic line of Drosophila melanogaster contains a D. melanogaster alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) transgene inserted at position 25C of chromosome 2. Previous analysis has shown that expression of this Adh transgene is inhibited by a silencing activity located in an 1180 b.p. region near the 5' end of the inserted gene. The sequence of the silencer region revealed the existence of two 20 b.p. homologies, which have been shown to inhibit Adh expression by 50%. The objective of this investigation was to determine what other sequences within the silencing region are required to produce the near 100% inhibition of expression observed when the whole region is present. Seven unique fragments of the silencer sequence were cloned using PCR and purified using standard procedures. Two fragments contain the first homology of the sequence, one fragment contains the second homology, and 4 fragments contain neither of the homologies. Each of the seven fragments were transformed into plasmids containing a functional Adh gene, thus yielding seven complete plasmids each containing one of the fragments and one copy of the Adh gene. Each plasmid has been injected into Drosophila embryos and the larvae assayed for the level of Adh gene expression. Results suggest that the silencing activity is not localized to one of these seven cloned sequences but is possibly the result of an interaction of two or more segments within the 1180 b.p. region.


EXPOSURE AND ATTITUDES TOWARD INDUSTRIAL MEAT PROCESSING AND PACKAGING CENTERS

Spencer J. Headworth Department of Psychology Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43402

In 1968, Robert Zajonc offered a suggestive hypothesis relating stimulus exposure and personal attitudes, arguing that increased exposure to a given stimulus tends to enhance subjects' attitudes towards it. Subsequent research has empirically supported this proposed correlation. Studies conducted in this area have, however, focused primarily on exposure to relatively neutral stimuli, and have not adequately addressed how rates of exposure to decidedly negative stimuli might correlate with attitudinal responses. To explore this relationship, this project focuses on the power of exposure to industrial meat processing and packaging centers (IMPPCs) to predict attitudes toward these facilities, seeking to establish whether personal approval or disapproval is associated with greater rates of exposure. This research project uses survey data to examine two main constructs: perceived degree of exposure to the operations of IMPPCs, (intensity and frequency of auditory, olfactory, and visual exposure), and level of approval of IMPPCs. Cronbach's Alpha for each scale indicated high reliability. Proposing the relationship between exposure and attitudes as an internal mental process observed almost universally, a significant degree of generalizability across the population was assumed. Accordingly, participant (N=101) selection focused on obtaining a range of exposure levels, accomplished by splitting questionnaire distribution into two areas: the Bowen-Thompson Student Union, where average passerby were presumed to have relatively low levels of exposure, and an apartment complex near campus located directly next to an IMPPC, where exposure levels would seemingly be much higher. Results indicated the validity of this technique, yielding a U distribution and a significant positive relationship (p=.024) between residence in the pertinent area and perceived level of exposure. Statistical analysis revealed no significant correlation (p=.517) between perceived level of exposure and attitudinal response, and slightly higher mean approval among those living near the IMPPC than among those living in other locations. These results lend further support to Zanjonc's ‘mere exposure' hypothesis, suggesting that attitudinal responses to even distinctly negative stimuli may be enhanced by increased levels of exposure.


ROLE OF WEB LOGS IN THE CHANGING PRESENTATION OF PRINT MEDIA

Jessica Nicastro, Joseph Chesebro, Department of Communication, State University College of New York at Brockport, Brockport, NY 14420.

The development of online news sources – particularly the growing popularity of web logs - has changed how readers access information and the industry delivers news. This impacts newspapers of all sizes and discovering ways in which papers deal with this development may help give a better indication of how the newspaper industry is adapting. Newspapers are incorporating blogs into their online counterparts and using advertising in the print version to entice readers to visit the Web site. Blogs include personal anecdotes and commentary on local issues – but include both spelling and Associated Press style errors. These changes are occurring when readers are viewing the newspaper industry as less credible. The introduction of grammatically incorrect blogs reflects a growing trend – utilizing blogs to create a separate identify from a media that is frustrating consumers. However, blogs simply present the same information that mass media does, just in a new grassroots-oriented manner. Blogs can help heal the discrepancy between consumer and mainstream media delivered information by dissecting media yet turning to the media's ideas to support its arguments. This study examined how blogs utilize mainstream media ideas to increase awareness about specific issues, particularly on a local level.


WHEN ROSES ARE BLUE AND ELEPHANTS SMALL: EFFECTS OF COLOR AND SIZE IN LEXICAL PROCESSING

Gwyneth A. Lewis, (Dr. Max Louwerse), Department of Psychology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152; 202 Psychology Bldg. Memphis, TN 38152

Research in cognition argues that language processing is fundamentally embodied. Language comprehension, for instance, requires perceptual manipulation of symbols. Evidence for this comes from research on the Stroop effect in language processing. This research has found that text color can cause interference while processing color words presented in a nonmatching font color (e.g. red presented in blue font color). Little is known, however, about the effects of color of words whose references have a prototypical font color (e.g. rose presented in red) and to our knowledge no research is available on font size (e.g. elephant in large font). The current study will investigate the effects of color and size on lexical decision. In a pilot study participants rate a list of stimuli for their color and size typicality. Stimuli with the highest prototypicality ratings will be used in the main experiment. The main experiment will include the protypical stimuli presented in four color/size conditions as well as nonsense words (e.g. phlooph) and filler words (objects with no prototypical size or shape). Lexical processing times of participants will be recorded as they rate whether words are real words or nonsense words. Variance in accuracy and response times will be analyzed to determine whether color, size, or both can affect lexical processing times. In the line of perceptual simulations in language processing, the prediction is that text congruent with its referent in color and size will be processed fastest.


CONNECTING CURRENCIES AND BURYING HISTORIES: THE EFFECTS OF THE EU ON GERMAN NATIONAL IDENTITY

Laura E Hash (Patricia Hardin), Department of Modern Languages and Cultures, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA, 24450

Cosmopolitanism. Globalization. A type of thinking that is relatively new, implicating a physical and mental shift of not only individuals, but entire nations as well. These words equate a shift from identifying oneself in the traditional fashion (place of birth, country of residence), to being able to identify oneself in a larger collective (region of birth, continent of residence), or to feel as at home in a foreign place as in a native one. What was once referred to as the western European countries has now become the ground-breaking example in this shift of identification. The evolution of the European Union (EU) from a solely economic organization to a three-pillared intergovernmental organization has provided the first steps towards creating a commonality between separate nations that supersedes that of international organizations. For the first time in history, a European identity, or even patriotism towards a collective European government, is possible. Europeanism. However, promoting such an organization and unified identity can lead to wholly dissolving separate national identities in itself. Losing this sense of national identity may present beneficial and negative effects, yet either way leads to the loss of a cherished history which has always been a profound characteristic of the nations within Europe. In this project, the political, economic, social, and psychological influences of the EU on national identity are analyzed, with the main focus on the effects of the enlargement of the European Union on Germany. Germany is an excellent case study due to its central location amongst the EU member states, its own historical struggle with a national identity, and because it is one of the largest economic and political contributors of the EU. The major goal of this project is to analyze the cultural shift from nationalism to Europeanism in Germany; a new identity which could potentially change governmental and culture interactions on a global scale.


CELLULAR PLANETS: OPTIMIZING PLANETARY SIMULATIONS FOR THE CELL PROCESSOR

Brent Peckham, Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212

The CELL Broadband Engine is the first version of a new type of microprocessor developed jointly between IBM, Toshiba and Sony. This chip is comprised of a new architecture that extends that of the 64-bit PowerPC architecture. The CELL is a multiprocessor that contains nine separate processors that all operate on a shared main memory, and these processors are divided into two different types: the PPE and SPE. The PPE is a 64-bit PowerPC architecture core, and it can run 32 and 64 bit operating systems and applications. The SPE on the other hand, is for more compute-intensive applications, and each one can run its own different application. The reason why the CELL is significant is its potential for floating performance. In 2006, IBM introduced its new QS20 blade server running two Cell processors. The prototypes for it the blade server ran at 2.4GHz, but current systems run at 3.2 GHz and provide 410 GFLOPS single-precision floating point performance per board. By altering the code of planetary simulations that use numeric integrators with gravity equation as the interparticle force, and optimizing the simulations to run on the CELL processor, the chip's power can be harnessed. In addition to doing benchmarks for performance, how data structure arrangement affects performance will be looked at as well. The impact of increasing the scale of the problem is explored to see what impact is found when the problem becomes too large to fit in the local memory stores of the SPEs and what must be done when more complex data structures are needed to perform efficient approximations.


GENDERED CLASS WARS: THE SEXUALITY OF SOCIOECONOMICS IN "THE YELLOW WALLPAPER"

Clayton Alsup, (Judith Pike), Department of English, Salisbury University, 1101 Camden Avenue Salisbury, MD 21801

The existing analysis of Charlotte Perkins Gilman's “The Yellow Wallpaper" has failed to take into account its role as the germ of Gilman's later economic theories. The focus of earlier critics (Gilbert, Fetterley, Hume) has been primarily feminist in nature, involved overwhelmingly with the role of male patriarchy in contemporary American society. Yet these critiques can blind themselves to a larger view of Gilman as a writer by focusing on so narrow a topic (Dock), and a fuller exploration of her work shows economics to be the overriding theme of her corpus. “The Yellow Wallpaper" is part of a tradition of satirical literature, including Thorstein Veblen's The Theory of the Leisure Class, that examines the peculiar socioeconomic status of women in the late nineteenth century, segregated as they were into a different “gendered class" than men. Gilman goes on in her mature writing (“Parasitism and Civilised Vice", Women and Economics) to develop the ideas which first present themselves in “The Yellow Wallpaper." Gilman's later nonfiction can also shed light back on “The Yellow Wallpaper" when recognition is given to the worker ideal which pervades her writing, but which can so easily be overlooked when gender roles become the primary focal point of criticism.


THE FEDERALLY THREATENED PLANT SPECIES, LESQUERELLA FILIFORMIS: EVALUATION OF MODELING METHODOLOGY.

Corey Elledge, James Franklin (Michael Kelrick, Hyun-Joo Kim)Science, Mathematics & Computer Science, Truman State University, 100 Normal, Kirksville, MO 63501

Lesquerella filiformis, Missouri Bladderpod, is a federally threatened rare winter annual plant species endemic to southern Missouri and northern Arkansas. Microhabitat cover and Missouri bladderpod abundance are currently being monitored over a permanent grid of 963 15- x 15- m cells at Wilson Creek National Battlefield in Republic, MO. Linking specific microhabitats to the presence of this species is a crucial step to the development of an effective management plan. Logistic regression habitat suitability modeling is an increasingly common tool of conservation biologists, and is particularly useful for illustrating the potential influence of microhabitat variables on the dichotomous response of Missouri Bladderpod presence or absence. However, there exists a variety of methodologies for both creating such models and evaluating their performance. In this study, the model averaging and single-model selection criterion methodologies of model construction using four different model selection criteria (AIC, AICc, KIC, KICc) were evaluated in terms of proportion of correct predictions and prediction error source. Models were built for each of the five data sets, representing two sites and four years, and were subsequently validated against all data sets.


SILENT CASUALTIES: THE EFFECTS OF WAR ON IRAQI CULTURAL PROPERTY

Kendra M. Dacey (Judith Maloney) Department of Art History, Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA 16652

Many ancient architectural sites vital to the study of art history and early human civilization are located in places where warfare is not uncommon. Throughout Operations Desert Storm 1990-1991 and Iraqi Freedom 2003-present, Mesopotamian archaeological remains in Iraq have sustained significant damage from proximity bombs, theft, bullets, and tanks. Although United States Army and Marine teams have been placed at sites like Babylon and the National Museum of Baghdad, thousands of unprotected sites have been stripped of artifacts. Without proper conservation efforts, future research will be hindered or impossible. According to Article 53 of the 1977 Additional Protocol of the Geneva Conventions, the United States military is prohibited from allowing or contributing to the destruction of Iraq's cultural property. However, the loss of cultural property has been viewed by the US military as a negligible cost of advancing the war. I argue that Iraq's archaeology, architecture, and art are significant and the impact of their treatment is drastic on a local and international scale. I am interested in the ways in which—despite international protocols—the cultural ideals of invading military forces affect the level of attention paid to the protection and restoration of archaeological sites. To delve further into this topic, I will explore the effects of the Gulf Wars on three sites: Ur, Nineveh, and Karbala. The world famous ziggurat at Ur has suffered structural damage from splinter pieces of bombs. Nineveh, the ancient Assyrian capitol and one of the best preserved examples of architecture and relief on the Tigris River, has since the 1991 Gulf war acquired significant bullet damage, and thieves have chiseled valuable relief from the stone walls. The Sufi shrines of Karbala have also taken considerable damage from bullets and bombing. I will follow accounts of these sites to gauge changing levels of protection, restoration, and preservation since 1990-1991. I will also consult case studies of Afghanistan in the 1990s and Germany (Kristallnacht), comparing these with Iraqi and international accounts of the Gulf Wars, to demonstrate the effect of architectural destruction on cultural memory.


PHOSPHORUS AS A POTENTIAL LIGHT ELEMENT IN PLANETARY CORES

Sabrina Huggins, Henry P. Scott, Department of Physics and Astronomy, (SMART), Indiana University South Bend, South Bend, IN 46634; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL, 60439

It has long been known that Earth's magnetic field is generated in the core, and it has been determined that iron makes up the majority of the core. In addition, however, it is known that Earth's core contains a lighter alloying component, or components, in addition to iron. The identity of these light components is of great interest in Earth science due to their controlling effects on the melting temperature of the core and implications for the bulk chemistry of the planet, and accordingly many investigations have been conducted. However, previous research into Earth's core components has not included an analysis of phosphorus as an alloying component. Fe3P – schreibersite is commonly found in iron meteorite inclusions, which makes schreibersite the most likely phase that would allow phosphorus to be incorporated in planetary interiors. In order to determine the likelihood that phosphorus is a light alloying element in planetary cores and whether Fe3P schreibersite is the phase phosphorus would be found in, the room temperature equation of state for Fe3P – schreibersite was determined. To obtain the equation of state we collected in situ diffraction patterns using a diamond anvil cell (DAC). Our zero-pressure lattice parameters and unit cell volume are the following: a= 9.099(2)Å, c=4.463(2)Å, V=369.5(2)Å3. A second order Burch-Murnaghan equation of state produces an isothermal bulk modulus, K0T of 160+/- 3GPA, with a dK/dP ≡ 4. The bulk modulus of iron is ~160 GPa, which is nearly identical to that of the determined Fe3P – schreibersite. This indicates that if phosphorus is present in planetary cores, it would most likely be seismically invisible. From 8 GPa to 30 GPa the unit cell volume begins to scatter and an unknown structure appears. On decompression, the original Fe3P structure reemerges. Due to this instability, it is unlikely that Fe3P-schreibersite is the stable structure for phosphorus that would be found in planetary cores.


DEVELOPING LOW-COST VEHICLE LOCATION AND WEB MAPPING USING CELL PHONES AND GOOGLEâ„¢ MAPS

Ethan Heilman, Analyst, GeoGraphics Laboratory, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, MA

Research and demonstration projects sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation explored low cost and higher reliability alternatives to Global Positioning System (GPS) based Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) systems. As a result, the GeoGraphics Laboratory has both developed and tested AVL software for low-cost (capital and operating) mobile phones and web mapping which allows for the collection, transmission, storage and mass consumption of location data (web-based mapping). This paper will report on research in the following areas: •Development of j2me software for military specification Sprint-Nextel™ mobile phones to allow the collection of Location data at a refresh rate of 5 seconds. •Creation of protocols and software on a mobile phone and on a web server for the efficient and timely (within 2 seconds of collection) transmission of location data to a database using XML, TCP sockets, and web services. •Creation of database structures and software development using Google's AJAX mapping tools (maps.Google.com ) to display at a glance phone location (bus location), bus routes, bus stops and bus stop data including handicap accessibility, "map within a map" and super high definition photos of the stop. •Development of a user interface to allow bus drivers to easily update which vehicle and route they are running, and when they are active. •Testing of all of above components, in a real-world operating testing environment.


RECONSTRUCTION THE FIRE HISTORY OF THE FLORIDA EVERGLADES USING CHARCOAL DEPOSITS

Chelsea Bohner, Cassandra Peterson, Dr. Jason Lynch, Dr. Colin Saunders, Department of Biology, North Central College, Naperville, IL 60540; Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University, OE 148, Miami, FL 33199.

The large decline in species diversity in the Florida Everglades may have resulted from a change in fire frequency. According to the Intermediate Disturbance Theory, an increase in fire frequency can lead to a reduction in diversity due to few species being adaptive to recurrent disturbances. However, a reduction in fire frequency may result in a few dominant species overtaking the ecosystem. Currently, there is no prehistoric long-term record of the fire history in the Florida Everglades to determine if fire frequency is to account for a shift in species diversity. We quantified charcoal fragments deposited in soil cores to determine the fire history of the Florida Everglades for the past 1,000 years. Soil core samples taken from various locations within the Everglades were divided into 1-cm segments for dating and charcoal analysis. The total surface area of charcoal fragments per one-cm segment were measured to determine charcoal abundance which relates to the frequency of past burnings. Charcoal accumulation suggests that fire events were much fewer in the current ecosystem as compared to pre-settlement in the 1800's, suggesting the lack of burning being a factor contributing to the loss in species diversity and ecosystem change.


A MINIMUM COVERING WITH FISH

Megan Logue Science and Mathematics Jacksonville University 2800 University Blvd. N. Jacksonville, FL 32211

A fish is a graph consisting of a four cycle and a three cycle joined at a single vertex. A fish system of order n is the pair (S,F) where F is a collection of edge disjoint fish that partition the edge set of the complete graph Kn with vertex set S. The spectrum for fish systems is known to be n = 1 or 7 (mod 14). The question then arises, “For n not equal to 1 or 7 (mod 14), how close can we come to constructing a fish system?" We will define close in terms of a minimum covering with fish. A minimum covering with fish of order n is the pair (S,F) where F is a minimum collection of fish from the complete graph Kn, with vertex set S, with the property that each edge of Kn belongs to at least one fish in F. (For the purposes of this presentation, it will be assumed that no edge of Kn will belong to more than two fish.) For each n not equal to 1 or 7 (mod 14), we will determine the minimum number of fish in a minimum covering with fish of order n as well as constructions used to create them. We will also distinguish between minimum coverings of the same order by the collection of edges that are used in more than one fish in F.


MAYBE YOU CAN HELP ME": NEGOTIATING MASCULINITY IN FEMININE SPACE

Lori Lundell, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Weber State University, Ogden, UT, 84408

This study explores how men negotiate their own public display of masculinity while in a space that is highly feminine. More attention has been paid to women's negotiation of their gendered behavior as they enter into the public spaces of men, than men's negotiation of their gendered behavior as they enter into the public spaces of women. This research took place in two local beauty supply stores where the researcher observed the extent to which masculine behaviors line up with gender stereotypes. The information gathered was recorded quantitatively using a research tool, as well as recorded qualitatively using more specific notes taken of observations. This study creates a framework of analysis that will be useful for future, more systematic studies, while exploring the qualitative differences in how men “do gender", according to the theoretical perspective of West and Zimmerman (1987), in feminine space. This study will discuss to what extent these behaviors will line up with gender stereotypes. Analysis reveals many men do fit the stereotypes, and that many interesting masculine behaviors are performed by the majority of men in order to maintain masculinity while in feminine space


BEYOND LITERAL DIAGNOSIS: USING LITERARY INTERPRETATION TO DECONSTRUCT THE COMPLEXITIES OF PAIN IN MEDICINE

Caitlin A. Goodin (Michael Reynolds), Department of English, Hamline University, 1536 Hewitt Avenue, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 55104.

In The Culture of Pain, literary scholar David Morris points out the scarcity of multi-disciplinary approaches to the problem of pain in medicine. He finds this unsettling since personal experiences of pain are now categorized and shoved solely into the hands of doctors. The dominant focus on the biological offsets perhaps underestimates or plainly neglects the way pain is also a physiological state to be examined in terms of psychology, culture, communication, and literature. In this paper, I make a case for literary interpretation as a useful mechanism to sift through the complexities of medical diagnosis and identify the voice of pain. The problems of literary criticism and textual analysis overlap with the struggles that accompany medicinal interpretation, especially in terms of how doctors read patients, the frequently unreliable narrators at hand. Pain is a sensation that is shaped by language, either by a patient stammering to articulate their agony, or by doctors trying to frame the problem with an over-simplified pain scale. These parallels are especially relevant in terms of adopting an appropriate balance between emotion and reason, an equilibrium that must be found in both fields for thorough comprehension. In light of these problems, I consulted the literary texts Ingenious Pain by Andrew Miller, Marguerite Duras' The Ravishing of Lol Stein, and Anne Fadiman's The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. Each of these primary texts makes a unique contribution to the dialogue, revealing the frequently ignored multicultural and personal facets to readings of pain in Western medicine. In the world of medicine, where objectivity and control of interpreter are given paramount recognition, literature stands alone as an ideal complementary resource to diagnose the problems facing medicine and understand the individual narrative behind the pathology.


A FRAMEWORK FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF HUMAN COGNITIVE ASSESSMENTS ON A HANDHELD DEVICE

Chris Weitzen, Mentor: Joel Hollingsworth (Elon University Honors Program, Elon University Undergraduate Research Program) Department of Computing Sciences Elon University Elon, North Carolina 27244

This research aims to develop the necessary software framework to allow for implementation of a series of automated psychological tests used in testing attention, working memory, and/or planning. These tests have the potential to be utilized in the assessment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), traumatic brain injury, and exposure to environmental neurotoxins. The resulting automated tests will provide significant use in real-world cognitive and clinical psychology. We attempt to show that it is possible to develop a generalized framework for the implementation of human cognitive assessments on a handheld game device. Our line of inquiry follows a number of questions: (a) What is an acceptable script-language for extensibility and ease of parsing on an embedded system? (b) Of the many handheld devices, which is best suited for these types of tests? (c) Is it possible to provide a generalized framework that meets psychologists' needs using a handheld game console? and (d) What functionality must be implemented for these types of tests?


THE CLIMATE OF IDEAS

Dearra Johnson (Dr. Claude Louishomme)Department of Political Science, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Founders Hall 2200, Kearney, NE 68849

Alexis de Tocqueville posited, “All the causes which contribute to the maintenance of the democratic republic in the United States are reducible to three heads…I. The peculiar and accidental situation of Providence…II. The laws…III. The manners and customs of the people". While de Tocqueville believed all three to be of great importance, this research puts forward the climate of ideas as having been the greatest factor in creating today's democratic republic in the United States. As Baumgartner and Jones argued, policy in America is characterized by long periods of stability punctuated by periods of dramatic changes in the climate of ideas that bring about a new equilibrium. A new climate of ideas is created by change in public perception of policy problems and the institutions within a working democracy that that characterize policymaking. As different groups become active on a given issue, partial equilibria of preferences are altered with the climate of ideas quickly from one point to another. Utilizing a comparative case analysis of the effect the climate of ideas has had on the commerce clause and the general welfare clause of the United Sates Constitution, this research provides evidence explaining the effect the climate of ideas has on the balancing of responsibility and freedom when deciding whether to maintain a strict reading of the principles of American philosophy found in the Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, the Bill of Rights, and the Civil War Amendments or a broad reading that adjusts these principles in order to adhere to the periodic changing of the climate of ideas within American people.


REGULATION OF ORGAN BOUDARIES DURING REPRODUCTIVE DEVELOPMENT IN ARABIDOPSIS.

Moni R. Bhattacharya (Dr. Harley M.S. Smith) Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, Center for Plant Cell Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521

Post-embryonic development in flowering plants is regulated by the shoot apical meristem (SAM), which maintains a population of pluripotent stem cells. A key stage during plant development is the transition from vegetative to reproductive phase. The floral transition transforms the vegetative SAM into an inflorescence SAM, which initiates lateral organs, such as flowers, internodes, cauline leaves and axillary meristems (AMs). During organogenesis, it is essential to separate the distinct patterns of gene expression that maintain stem cells in the SAM from those that regulate differentiation of lateral organs. This is accomplished by lateral organ boundaries that are established and maintained between the SAM and the newly forming primordia. However, the mechanisms that regulate such boundaries are poorly understood. Studies haves shown that two redundantly functioning genes PENNYWISE (PNY) and POUNDFOOLISH (PNF) are important in internode and floral cell fate specification. Interestingly, in pnyPNF/pnf mutants pedicels are often fused to each other and to the main stem, demonstrating that PNY/PNF are also important for maintaining boundaries between inflorescence meristems (IMs) and floral meristems (FMs). A recent study indicates that the LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LAS) gene also regulates boundaries between IMs and FMs. Therefore, the goal of this study was to understand how PNY/PNF might function with LAS to maintain lateral organ boundaries. Our results show that the las mutation enhances the boundary defect in plants that have reduced levels of pny and pnf during flowering. Based on our genetic studies, we propose that PNY/PNF and LAS function in independent pathways to regulate organ separation during reproductive development. Future directions include analyzing the expression of LAS and other organ boundary genes (CUPSHAPED-COTYLEDON 1 and 2) in pnyPNF/pnf mutants. Additionally, the pnyPNF/pnf las mutants are currently being analyzed in short day (SD) conditions, which are known to enhance the las phenotype. Such studies will allow us to establish a hierarchy of lateral organ boundary genes.


ANTI-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION LAWS AND COLLEGE EXPERIENCES OF MINORITY STEROTYPING

Sasha Craft, Dr. Deirdre Bowen, Department of Sociology, Seattle University 900 Broadway Seattle, Washington 98122

Affirmative Action has been a significant topic of debate in American society since it was first implemented in 1961. In recent years three states have passed legislation that does not allow affirmative action to be a consideration in school admissions. Several similar initiatives are pending in other states. Due to the passing of this legislation many universities have seen a drop in the application and attendance of minority students, specifically in the fields involving the hard sciences. Over 350 students filled out a self-administered six page survey at a national bio-medical conference specifically for minority undergrad and graduate students in Anaheim, California. In addition, a small sample of students agreed to participate in an in depth telephone interview. Using the data from the Anaheim study, this paper specifically addresses how minority students planning to go into a scientific career experience and thinks about negative stereotypes that they may face regarding impressions of affirmative action held by other students and faculty on campus. For example, I examine how many of these students perceive that other students and faculty believe that they are not truly admission worthy at their college and how this impacts their ability to succeed academically. In addition, I explore how many of these minority students believe that affirmative action is needed in order for minority students to be accepted to college or university. This research will provide one measure of the impact of affirmative action and anti-affirmative action policies on a university's minority student population.


TRANSFORMATIONS WITHIN THE BLACK NATIONALIST MOVEMENT: RELIGIOUS BLACK NATIONALISM, A CHRONICLE OF THE MISSING YEARS, 1930-1950

Kamyle W. Griffin, (Kurt Young, and Kelly Astro) The Burnett Honors College,the University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Blvd, Orlando, Florida 32816

Within the field of study concerning the Black Nationalist movement of the 20th century in the United States scholars and historians have generally focused on two aspects of the movement, The Marcus Garvey era of the early twentieth and the Black Power movement of the tumultuous 1960's and early 1970's. In regards to the decades in between, the 30's 40's and the 50's, scholars have been in comparison relatively reserved. While at first glance, it may appear that the Nationalist movement was dormant during these years, the research presented will show evidence to the contrary. The research establishes that during the 30 year period between Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association and the Black Radicalism period of the late 60's early 70's, the Black Nationalist movement was expanding and evolving under the leadership of Religious Black Nationalist organizations. The research focuses on how the activities and political and ideological transformations within Religious Black Nationalist organizations the Black Hebrew Israelites, the Father Divine movement, the Nation of Islam and the Shrine of the Black Madonna served as a liaison between the two more popular forms of the Black Nationalism. During the perceived lull in Black Nationalist activity in the United States, the above mentioned groups were organizing African-Americans (and to some degree white liberals) in the urban centers of the North Eastern United States and amongst the congregations of Southern churches. These groups combined different expressions of Black Nationalist ideology with varying spiritual and religious practices. In different degrees the Black Hebrew Israelites, Father Divine, the Nation of Islam and the Shrine of the Black Madonna incorporated Black Nationalist ideologies into their spiritual messages. The research will argue that politically, these Religious Black Nationalist organization were the forefathers of the Black Power organizations that were prevalent in the 1960's. These Religious Black Nationalist groups provided examples to the next generation on ways to mobilize individuals, spread their message, set up economic foundations for their movements, and perhaps most importantly the way to organize politically within a system in which they were not recognized.


HELPER CONVERGENCE AND EMERGENT GROUPS FOLLOWING HURRICANE KATRINA IN FALL 2005

Kathryn E. Fox; National Science Foundation and Department of Defense Award #0451219-REU Site: Hazards, Disasters, and Society: Training the Future Generations of Social Science Researchers, University of Delaware - Disaster Research Center; Department of Sociology, Dickinson College, Carlisle PA 17013

This paper focuses on the social phenomenon known as convergence. Researchers such as Kendra & Wachtendorf (2003) and Fritz & Mathewson (1957) describe convergence as the movement of people, information, and materials to disaster affected areas. This paper examines the convergence of people, specifically helper convergers, to the greater New Orleans area following Hurricane Katrina in fall of 2005. It will explore the intersection of helper convergers from within the affected New Orleans area, from throughout Louisiana, and from outside of the state. Through a content analysis of print media sources and after action reports, this paper will, more specifically, focus on issues including the types of helpers who converged to the impacted area, the roles these helpers played in the response, and the interactions between them. In addition, this paper will describe the emergent groups that formed from the massive influx of helper convergence to the area impacted by Hurricane Katrina. Scholars have demonstrated that convergence and emergence often compliment each other during disasters (Kendra and Wachtendorf 2003; Stallings and Quarantelli 1985). This research will illustrate the relationship between convergence and emergence and describe how the emergent groups came into being and what role they played in the disaster response. Since previous research has shown that the convergence and emergence of helpers are a typical part of the post-disaster period, this work sheds light on the challenges and benefits of this large movement of helpers from within and outside the disaster-impacted area. It will further help generate a deeper understanding about the interactions of helpers and the importance of helper convergence and emergent groups in disaster response.


ABDOMINAL MUSCLE DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH INCISIONAL HERNIA PERSIST FOLLOWING PROLONGED RECOVERY

Albert K. Ma; Shaun P. Patel; Michael Franz; William Kuzon, Jr; (Melanie G. Urbanchek) The University of Michigan Department of Surgery,Plastic Surgery Section

Introduction: Laparotomy incisions fail to heal 11% of the time, forming incisional hernias. Approximately 24-58% of incisional hernia repairs fail to heal. The majority of laparotomy wound failures and subsequent incisional hernias occur with no indication of a potential healing defect. We hypothesize that early mechanical laparotomy wound disruption induces a biological defect that is perpetuated as the abdominal wall muscles become weaker. This study characterizes the longer-term effects of laparotomy and hernia on the contractile force capacities of the rectus abdominus (RA) and external oblique (EO) muscles following surgical recovery of approximately 4 months and makes comparisons to a shorter recovery time (1 month). Methods: Middle-aged (10 months) rats were randomly assigned to receive one of three surgeries: Sham, Laparotomy (Lap), or Giant Hernia (GH). A 3x5 cm abdominal skin flap was lifted for all groups; for the Lap and GH groups, a 6 cm midline fascial laparotomy was also incised. This fascial incision was immediately suture repaired in the Lap group but left untreated in the GH. All initial skin flaps were closed. After 4 months (allowing muscle adaptation to length and loading changes), full RA muscles uniform in length and uniform full thickness strips of EO muscles were extracted and subjected to contractile force testing. Results: RA and EO maximal and specific contractile force data were collected. Specific force is the maximal force normalized to muscle cross sectional area. At 4 months recovery, RA muscles showed greater than 40% specific force deficits for the Lap and GH groups when compared with the Sham at the corresponding recovery time following a 1 month recovery. However, EO muscles at 4 months showed no force deficit for the Lap group while a 28% force deficit existed in the GH group when compared with the Sham group. Conclusion: After allowing 4 months for Lap and GH post-surgical repair and adaptation, the abdominal muscles continue to show similar force deficiencies as were seen at 1 month after surgery. These persisting and disproportional decrements in muscle properties may be critical to understanding incisional hernia formation.


TIN ROOF RUSTED: MUTATIONS OF THE HOMOEROTIC AND THE FEMALE NEUROTIC IN THE WORKS OF TENNESSEE WILIAMS FROM PAGE TO SCREEN

Nicholas J. Bell (Jeff Turner/Mike Reynolds) Department of English, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN 55104.

“TENNESSEE WILLIAMS shocks you again as he transports you to a STRANGE, NEW BOLD WORLD!" reads one of several taglines for the 1959 cinematic adaptation of Williams' play Suddenly Last Summer. But the shocking subject matter is only inferred, never stated as homosexuality. However, using this play as a case study concerning the mutation of homosexual themes in classic adaptations of Williams' work and examining the film and its mother text through adaptation, reception, and queer theory the film stands as both a perverse hybrid of sexual tension and the Hays Code of Hollywood and also a revolutionary opening for the cinematic homosexual. Though film, when compared to text, represents a “different aesthetic genera" according to adaptation theorist George Bluestone, this film (and others of William's cinema) are more than adaptations of one form to another; instead, they are mutations caused by a need for social adaptation, leading to an importance in reception theory and its application towards the film. While reviews, posters, interviews and film stills from 1959 are relevant, the film can be read differently in the twenty-first century, as, for example the relationship of Montgomery Clift and Elizabeth Taylor, both in their relationship towards the text, to each other, and to the gay community.


VARIATION IN LEAF-LITTER MACROINVERTEBRATES IN RESPONSE TO CALCIUM ADDITION IN NEW YORK STATE

Abigail Cahill (Timothy S. McCay) Department of Biology, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346

Acid deposition is a well-studied phenomenon in the lakes and streams of the northeastern United States and in northern Europe. However, the direct and indirect effects of decreased pH on terrestrial communities are less well-known. This study examined the effects of large-scale calcium addition on the communities of macroinvertebrates present in the leaf litter of maple-beech forests the Adirondacks, which suffer from acid deposition due to poor buffering capacities in the soils. Similar, untreated forests in Madison County, which has a well-buffered soil, were used as reference sites. Lime was added to five treatment plots over the course of a year. Discriminant analysis showed differences in calcium-rich invertebrate groups (Diplopoda, Arionidae, and Isopoda) between the two regions. All were more abundant in the calcium-rich Madison County sites, indicating that the need for calcium to form external structures (millipedes and isopods) or eggs (slugs) may be a factor in their distribution. It is unclear at this point in the study, one year after liming, if there is a difference between the treatment and control plots; a tendency to see more millipedes in the limed plots indicates that changes are beginning to occur. Regional differences between the groups will be explained as a function of the physical and chemical properties of leaf litter at these sites.


WHAT MAKES A HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION SUCCESSFUL? THE CASE OF HAITI 2004

Alejandro M. Sueldo (Dr. James M. Scott), Department of Political Science, Oklahoma State University, 519 Math Science Building, Stillwater, OK 74074

What factors are most conducive to successful humanitarian intervention? This paper presupposes that a humanitarian intervention is considered a success when it reduces armed conflict, thwarts a humanitarian crisis, and prevents an institutional breakdown. Existing literature on the topic of humanitarian intervention does not adequately analyze or answer the research question, as it lacks both adequate support for the prescriptive arguments put forth, and thorough analysis for why humanitarian interventions succeed. Judging from the 2004 Haiti case, humanitarian intervention was successful in this failed state because: 1) the external military intervention led by strong states, not only prevented an institutional breakdown by ensuring the constitutional succession of power following the collapse of the government, but it also reduced armed conflict and thwarted a further deterioration of the human condition by both prompting the disengagement of rebel forces, and by allowing for the introduction of international humanitarian aid 2) the removal of the principal issue of contention made possible a political solution 3) the domestic political consensus reached amongst the country's major factions, a process which had been facilitated by intervening states, was central to the establishment of a transitional government which would see to the administration of the country until new elections were held 4) soon after the initial military intervention, the strong powers then removed their troops in favor of a UN stabilization force led by a regional state, with no history of colonialism, and joined by other regional states. The study concludes by discussing practical guidelines of humanitarian intervention that may be used to both evaluate past humanitarian interventions, and respond to future crises.


TECHNOLOGY COMMUNICATION NEEDS AS PERCEIVED BY ADOLESCENT AND YOUNG ADULT CANCER SURVIVORS

Chrystal L. Sullivan (Ellen Buckner, Richard Brown), University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 35294-1210

Adolescents and young adults find the diagnosis of cancer difficult when they are already struggling to accomplish developmental tasks. Most adolescents and young adults rely heavily upon their friends during this critical period of identity formation for support. For adolescents with cancer the ensuing treatment courses and illness tend to isolate them from friends. Most desire the support from friends and may form friendships with others in treatment. Isolation from a support system of friends is common; however, a technology revolution over the past decade has dramatically increased the ease of communication with friends despite patients being confined by treatment or illness. The purpose of this study was to explore the needs expressed by adolescent and young adult cancer survivors concerning use of technology to stay in touch with friends and their opinions of benefits to others currently undergoing treatment. This IRB approved study used an investigator-designed mixed method questionnaire, reviewed for content validity by a panel of nurse educators and clinicians. Privacy and safety issues were addressed through parent questionnaires and questions about screen names and disclosure issues. Participants (n = 8) were recruited from a survivor's clinic and reunion retreat. Preliminary results indicate that preferred methods of technology use were internet, e-mail, cell phones and instant messaging. Technology was used to connect with friends who had and did not have cancer. More participants recommended personal websites than had an existing website. Blogs, patient support sites, camera phones, facebook and listservs were infrequently used. Respondents said the most needed equipment were cell phones and laptops, especially during hospitalizations. All participants believed that using technology is beneficial to those undergoing treatment. Participants noted that social support dwindled over time and technology could also be beneficial after therapy was completed. Nurses are in positions to encourage communication opportunities for these adolescents. Based on the preliminary data, the questionnaire is being revised for use in screening for communication needs.


FOUNDATIONAL ASSUMPTIONS IN THE SUPREME COURT'S DEFENSE OF FREE EXPRESSION

Justin M. Rex (M. Neil Browne) Department of Economics, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green Ohio, 43402

The defense of free expression has a longstanding tradition in Western political thought since the Enlightenment. As such, many Enlightenment assumptions (as well as several others) have become embedded in arguments for free expression. One consequence is that both the defense of free expression and the corresponding assumptions have fused into the American legal framework. The research for this paper aims to address two questions: What are these assumptions? Do these assumptions exist throughout the history of the American Legal system? If common assumptions exist, then courts have consistently not addressed and proven the empirical validity of these unstated, yet fundamental, beliefs, which provide the foundation for the defense of free expression. To answer these questions I will conduct a careful legal content analysis of several Supreme Court opinions regarding landmark free expression decisions. The research will span several types of expression protected under the First Amendment, including, but not limited to, obscenity cases like Miller v. California, campaign-spending cases like Buckley v. Valeo, and cases about protest demonstrations like Cohen v. California and Texas v. Johnson. Preliminary findings suggest that, for diverse types of expression, the Court has consistently assumed that in the marketplace of ideas an objective truth exists, which can be found by allowing free expression, that all people speak with an equal voice (or that some deservedly speak with a larger one), that one accessible public sphere exists in which competing claims actually clash, that people have perfect information about contested topics, and that if people have the necessary information they also possess the ability to reasonably assess competing claims. The recurrence and scope of these assumptions suggests that the Supreme Court's opinions on the freedom of expression have a common underpinning and that the strength of these decisions hinges largely on the empirical strength of these foundational assumptions.


CLICK FUNCTIONALIZATION OF ALIPHATIC POLYESTERS

Domonique O. Downing, Andrew H. Brown, and Valerie S. Ashby, Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Venable Hall CB 3290, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3290

Aliphatic polyesters are a class of synthetic polymers that are considered well-suited for biomedical applications due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. Lactones, lactides, and glycolides are some common monomers used to make biomaterials via ring opening polymerization. Although these materials have various biomedical applications such as degradable sutures, drug delivery vehicles, implant materials, and tissue engineering scaffolds , they provide a relatively limited scope of properties with respect to solubility, morphology and reactivity as these materials are typically hydrophobic and semi-crystalline. Hydrophobicity, crystallinity, and other polymer characteristics can be modified by adding functionality to the material, but this is often difficult due to the possibility of main chain degradation of the polyester. A mild and efficient method for synthesizing functionalized aliphatic polyesters via the Cu(I)-catalyzed Huisgen coupling of alkynes and azides (“click" reaction) was studied. An alcohol endcapped copolyester containing about 30% unsaturated repeat units was synthesized via the step-growth condensation of adipic acid, trans-beta-hydromuconic acid and 1,8-octanediol. The polydiol was acetylated and then reacted with bromine under mild conditions to yield a reactive polyester. This brominated polyester was substituted with sodium azide and coupled to propargyl benzoate in a click reaction. The structure of each material synthesized was characterized by proton and carbon NMR, and GPC analysis. The molecular weight of each material ranged from 8 to 10 kDa, with polydispersities between 1.3 and 1.9, demonstrating that the reaction conditions are mild and do not degrade the polyester backbone. The thermal properties of each material were characterized by DSC analysis, and every material was shown to be semi-crystalline. This should prove to be a versatile technique for grafting functional groups and polymer segments onto aliphatic polyesters.


KUHN AND POPPER: PROGRESS AND RATIONALITY IN SCIENCE

Aaron K. Stricker (Robert Deltete); Dept. of Philosophy, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave, Seattle, WA

The works of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn dominated the philosophical investigation of science during the second half of the twentieth century. Many of the defenders of each thinker have implied incommensurability between their views. Popper himself argued against the existence of rigid paradigms that dictate the direction of scientific progress over any given period. Popper went as far as to call Kuhn's normal science a process of “indoctrination," dangerous to the spirit of genuine scientific discovery. Kuhn rejected the supposed logical rigor of Popperian falsification in favor of his own more psychological approach to evaluating scientific change. It is my thesis that a synthesis of Popperian falsification and Kuhnian structures is capable of yielding a descriptively accurate account of science that provides a normative foundation on which to ground both rational theory choice and scientific progress. Scientists do not, as Popper asserts, actively seek to refute the theories they work with; rather, as Kuhn holds, the bulk of scientific labor is a process of extending the descriptive scope of the paradigm. This process entails a rigorous investigation of “puzzles," that is, those elements of the paradigm that do not quite “fit." In practice, then, the puzzle solving process is methodologically identical to an investigation of the potential falsifiers of a paradigm. In the identification of puzzles or potential falsifiers, we find a ground for the development of new theories or paradigms; the solutions to the “problems" that elude the theory under examination are precisely what scientists use to develop new theories. By presenting new theories as conjectural solutions to the problems of older theories, we undermine Kuhn's claim of the incommensurability of theories. In the absence of incommensurability we find the possibility of rational theory choice through the comparative evaluation of competing paradigms or theories. By synthesizing a modified version Kuhn's structural account of science with Popperian falsification, we are able to find a place in science for both progress and rationality.


DR-CAFTA: A CRITIQUE OF THE MULTINATIONAL-ENTITY SCHOLARSHIP

Mike Pesko; Department of Management and Economics; Hamline University, 1536 Hewitt Ave., St. Paul, MN 55104

This research shows that gaps exist in the areas of development in scholarship produced on the Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement (DR-CAFTA) by multinational entities such as the World Bank and the United States government. DR-CAFTA was signed between the United States and the presidents of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala in the summer of 2005. Proponents of the free trade agreement, including the multinational entities, claimed that the agreement would bring prosperity to the citizenry and warned that the agreement needed to be approved for the countries to compete with other low-cost producers. Opponents of the agreement, including large majorities of the people, believed that the agreement would increase inequality, poverty, and their reliance on the United States. To date, the agreement has been ratified and implemented in four of the six countries. In order to critique the scholarship produced by the multinational-entities, the researcher gathered qualitative information in three of the country signatories (Guatemala, Honduras, and the Dominican Republic) in order to assess the common people's initial observations (N=60) of the agreement and perceptions of its likely future effects on development. In order to gauge the agreement's likely effects on development, Human Development Index categories of education, literacy, health, and poverty were researched. Econometric models are also utilized to show the historical changes in inequality and poverty levels after free trade implementation. In conclusion, the research reveals that gaps in multinational-entity scholarship do exist in several areas of development and particular attention should be paid to these areas in the future scholarship that these multinational entities produce.


EVALUATIONS OF PERSONAL, ACADEMIC, AND CULTURAL GROWTH DURING A SEMESTER ABROAD EXPERIENCE

Jessica J. Young (Dr. Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler), Department of Psychology, Elon University, Elon, North Carolina 27244

Study abroad is becoming increasingly popular in college, especially in the United States. However, few empirical studies have examined students' expectations and evaluations of academic, personal and cultural changes. Although some studies found that students learn extensively about the host culture (Kitsantas, 2004), some critics have suggested that students learn more about themselves than about the host country (Freinberg, 2002). Twenty-three American university students completed surveys and interviews during a semester abroad in Toledo, Spain. Ten students lived with host families while thirteen lived in a dormitory. Surveys and interviews were completed during the first and last 3 weeks of the semester. Paired t-tests were conducted to examine differences in personal growth and cultural awareness survey data at Time 1 and Time 2. Only personal awareness increased significantly over time (p < .05). Significant differences in students' expectations and their subsequent evaluations of each area of change were also assessed through paired t-tests. Initially, students had the highest expectations for cultural and personal growth. Overall, mean evaluations were lower than expectations, but only academic evaluations were significantly so. When interviewed about academics, 70% of students said the most important program component was learning Spanish, although many found classes difficult due to language. At time 2, 70% of students said they learned most about the host culture through everyday interactions, and 61% of students said they had become more independent. One of the greatest disparities between students with host families and those in the dormitory concerned evaluations of interactions with the host culture. At Time 2, 83% of host family students said taking classes with other Americans helped adjustment but hindered interactions with the host culture, while dormitory dwellers gave mixed responses between helping and hindering. In conclusion, students expected and reported experiencing more cultural and personal growth than academic growth, and personal growth showed significant positive change in the surveys. Other differences and emerging themes in the data will also be discussed.


AN ANALYTICAL STUDY OF SOME NON-EQUILIBRIUM DRIVEN MODELS USING THE BETHE ANSATZ METHOD

Shreya Durvasula, Isaac Lambert (Irina Mazilu, Brendan Weickert) Department of Physics, Department of Mathematics; Washington and Lee University, Lexington Virginia 24450

There is a great interest in developing a fundamental understanding of the operating principles of bio-molecular motors in order to exploit this knowledge to integrate these macromolecular assemblies into useful devices from the nano to macro scale. Our goal is to study analytically simple computer models of far-from-equilibrium systems (Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process systems) that retain the basic behavior of kinesin molecular motors. In our previous work, we focused on computer simulations of these systems. In this study, we employ the Bethe Ansatz technique, which is a method for finding the exact solutions (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) of certain one dimensional quantum many-body models. So far, we looked at particle systems with periodic (or cyclic) boundary conditions and we derived the Bethe ansatz equations describing the complete spectrum of the transition matrix . We can match the expected values to the values that the computer simulations give us.


BENDING THE RULES: WHY AMERICA CREATED THE US - INDIA CIVIL NUCLEAR COOPERATION AGREEMENT

Shane D. Heller (Professor Helen Purkitt) Political Science Department, United States Naval Academy, 121 Blake Road, Annapolis, MD 21412

In 2006, the United States under President George W. Bush made an offer of civilian nuclear technologies to India if India would agree to some minimal levels of IAEA inspections. The U.S. – Indian Civilian Nuclear Cooperation would allow India to vastly increase its available fissile material for nuclear weapons, which is a drastic departure from the Administration's strong stance against nuclear proliferation. The proposal was sharp change in U.S. – India nuclear relations, and was made by President Bush and his close circle of trusted advisors. Various theoretical approaches for understanding foreign policy decision making and nuclear nonproliferation successes will anchor this study about what drove this group to make their decision. Why did America, specifically the Bush Administration, drastically change the standing nuclear proliferation policy to make the 2006 landmark deal with India? My initial hypothesis is that shared beliefs about containing China, ensuring regional stability, supporting democratization, the willingness to use unilateral actions, and ensuring India's cooperation in the Global War on Terrorism among Bush and his top advisors were important determinants of the final policy proposal. Although the actual determinants of this foreign policy discussion cannot be studied directly, some indications of the relative importance of these shared beliefs for members of the Bush administration can be found by studying the beliefs that Bush and his advisors used to justify the decision. This study examines the relative salience of these shared beliefs and their importance in the Administration's public script that President Bush and his advisors use as the main rationale for the decision. A content analysis of President Bush's speeches since his inauguration in 2000 will be coded; also the Congressional debates will be analyzed to determine what themes were prevalent when this proposal was brought before Congress. A series of interviews with experts in the fields of nuclear proliferation and India's nuclear program will add depth to the intricacies of the policy. Through this research I expect to see the administration's shared beliefs, which indicate the important factors for its policy script and indications of India's changing image. Finally, I intend to establish the extent to which a new administration and new personnel in key advisory roles changed the focus and direction of America's nuclear policy towards India.


COLLABORATIVE WATERSHED GROUPS AND THE DIVERSE URBAN-SUBURBAN COMMUNITIES OF PHILADELPHIA

Julia A. Kalloz (Villanova University) Department of Political Science, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Avenue, Villanova, PA 19085.

Watershed management is a wicked issue. Wicked issues present special problems to managers because they are not easily defined; they involve different policy areas, and they are not easily solved by one entity. This complexity is increased when watershed management is in an urban area, such as Philadelphia, with diverse populations cutting across economic, racial and cultural lines. In the past 10 to 15 years managers in the United States have sought a solution through collaborative watershed management. The literature on these network structures is detailed on why and how to collaborate, but there is relatively little directly addressing the needs of urban-suburban communities. The first section of this project is a literature review of the importance of network structures and the need for participation of all relevant actors in watershed management. The second section discusses how different actors and programs in Philadelphia are addressing watershed management, especially, participation. Some of these actors include; the Philadelphia Water Department, preservation groups, the federal and state governments, the Environmental Protection Agency, and Delaware Bay groups. The third section evaluates the quality and composition of participation in Philadelphia through a case study of the Darby-Cobbs watershed, which begins in a wealthy suburban community, drains through the old inner-ring of Philadelphia and finally empties into the John Heinz Wildlife Refuge. Collaborative watershed management that facilitates the participation of all relevant actors provides a solution for Philadelphia and other urban-suburban communities. Increasing the quality and composition of participation in the evolving network structures beginning in Philadelphia will not only serve the environmental needs of the watersheds, but will increase social capital and identity within the watershed.


IMPLICATIONS OF ALTERNATIVE FARMING METHODS ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND ENERGETIC IMPACTS OF ETHANOL FUEL

Milena J. Petrova, A.B. Engineering Department, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042

Ethanol fuel is believed to have the potential to diversify energy supply, ameliorate the environmental problems created by gasoline, and boost the domestic agricultural sector. Whether ethanol production results in a positive energy gain is of great significance to both scientists and industry. Studies on this issue have been conducted by different institutions, including the United States Department of Agriculture, the World Watch Institute, and the German Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture, and Consumer Protection. The most recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) assessed the environmental, economic and energetic sustainability by calculating the net energy balance of ethanol, its life-cycle environmental impacts, its economic competitiveness and net social benefit. The study calculates the net energy balance of ethanol to be 25%. Although the balance is positive, NAS claims that ethanol could achieve a higher net energy balance if the feedstock (corn) were producible with low agricultural inputs, on lands with low agricultural value, and with a more efficient conversion process. This research is focused on evaluating ways to minimize the energy inputs involved in corn production in order to achieve a better net energy balance for ethanol and to decrease the environmental impacts of the fuel. Current industrial agriculture practices use substantial amounts of gasoline, water, fertilizers and pesticides compared to alternative agricultural methods such as organic farming. The levels of inputs and yield for corn under organic agriculture management system are estimated and the net energy balance of ethanol produced from organic corn are calculated using the methods for evaluating the sustainability of ethanol established by NAS. Other advantages and disadvantages of organic farming are also investigated and compared to the practices in traditional farming in order to asses how each farming practice affects the life-cycle effects of ethanol production.


THE EFFECTS OF BLACK-TAILED PRAIRIE DOGS (CYNOMYS LUDOVICIANUS) ON MIXED GRASS PRAIRIES IN CENTRAL NEBRASKA

*Grant E. Sorensen and David L. Smith, Department of Biology, University of Nebraska Kearney, Kearney, Nebraska 68849

Black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) once inhabited approximately 40 to 100 million hectares of North American prairie in the early 1900's. Black-tailed prairie dogs inhabit less than 10% of their original range due to eradication programs and the negative perception of prairie dogs. Given the co-evolutionary past between grasses and grazers, it was hypothesized that black-tailed prairie dogs do not have detrimental effects on the range ecology of mixed grass prairie sites and can increase the species richness and the net above-ground primary productivity of plants (NPP). Ten exclosures were established at each of 3 prairie dog colonies in central Nebraska. The exclosures served as experimental controls which aided in the measurement of NPP, utilization rates, species composition and abundance, and the coefficient of conservatism. There was a significant difference in NPP among sites (P=0.013) and among grazed, temporarily protected, and control treatments (P=0.009). In addition there was a significant difference in NPP between the control (mean=0.483 g m-2 d-1) and the temporary exclosures (mean=1.192 g m-2 d-1, P=0.009). There was no significant difference in total utilization (mean=28%) among the three different sites. Furthermore, plant species richness was higher within the colonies (81 species) than in the control areas (57 species). Finally, average the coefficient of conservatism was 2.2 at the grazed sites, which suggests that the plants on the colonies are disturbance-tolerant. The data suggests that prairie dogs do not have detrimental effects on the range and can increase NPP and species richness.


IDENTIFICATION OF PORTABLE OXYGEN AND NITRIC OXIDE SENSITIVE N-DEGRONS DERIVED FROM MOUSE RGS4

ZeNan L. Chang (Dr. Rong-gui (Cory) Hu, Prof. Alexander J. Varshavsky) Division of Biology, California Institute of Technology, MC 156-29, Pasadena, CA 91125

The oxygen and nitric oxide gases are both essential to the survival and function of normal and tumor cells. The Varshavsky lab previously discovered that a set of mouse RGS proteins (RGS4, 5, and 16) must have their N-terminal-cysteines (Nt-Cys) oxidized in an oxygen and nitric oxide (O2-NO-)dependent manner in order to be degraded (Hu et al. 2005, Nature 437:981-986). In this study, we first mapped from RGS4 a minimal Nt-Cys degradation signal (degron) sequence that is responsive to O2/NO modification. Subsequent fusion of this degron to a test protein rendered the protein's stability responsive to changes in O2/NO levels. Through further engineering with different numbers of degradation enhancers, we have created a series of O2-NO-sensors with differential sensitivity to changes in environmental O2 and NO. It has been well established that in comparison to normal cells, tumors have much lower oxygen levels, an essential aspect in tumorigenesis, cell survival, and malignant progression. In principle, cytotoxins grafted with the study's enhanced Nt-Cys degrons may have prolonged half-lives and exhibit strong toxicity in hypoxic tumors, while remaining short-lived and of attenuated side effects in normal cells. Work with similar design has substantiated this notion. The Nt-Cys degron, being short in size but functionally conserved in a variety of cell types, bears unique promise to future studies in both cellular imaging of O2/NO in vivo and engineering of next-generation cytotoxins to achieve improved selectivity against tumor cells.


VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS AS BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS AND TOOLS OF TERROR

Author: Wesley R. Hopkins Sponsor: Colonel R.E. Burnett Ph.D, Lieutenant Colonel Wade Bell Ph.D Departments: Security Science, Biology Institution: Virginia Military Institute Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, VA 24450

'Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers as Biological Weapons and Tools of Terror' was developed and written as a policy type paper for submission to the Department of Security Science. It is a three part project, designed to look at the threat posed by a particular form of biological weapons agent (hemorrhagic fevers, i.e. Ebola, Marburg, Lasa) from multiple angles. The first part will be to study and discuss the scientific and historical perspective of the hemorrhagic fevers class of virus. Look into the origins of the virus, data on its impact and transmission, and various methods of treating and reacting to a conventional outbreak. The second part will be to research the existence of weaponized forms of hemorrhagic fevers, primarily Marburg, but also potential weapons produced from Ebola and others. We will detail the effects that an outbreak of such an agent would have on a country, to include social, political, and economic threats, and also look at attacks as if they have been perpetrated by either terrorists or hostile nations, and the varying levels of effectiveness of different types of attack. Part three, develop an effective response plan to a biological attack involving the use of hemorrhagic fever weapons, based upon present CDC, DOD, and DHS response measures, as well as potential responses including the newly developed Ebola vaccine.


NIGERIEN DEVELOPMENT AID: COMPARING TWO EUROPEAN NGOS AND THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN NIGER

Katelyn Brewer, Political Science and International Relations Department, Wheaton College, Norton, Massachusetts 02766; Concern, Dublin, Ireland; Eau Vive, Paris, France

NGOs devote much of their time and a portion of their annual budget to convince the public that development aid does in fact enhance and progress people's living situations in the developing world. Their ability to prove to the public that their NGO is effective lies in the capacity to properly implement and evaluate their projects in the field. While questions and possible evaluation strategies have been established for NGOs, it is still difficult to utilize this knowledge due to budget and staffing issues, as well as it's applicability to their particular projects. In my thesis, I analyze two NGOs, Concern, based in Dublin, and Eau Vive, based in Paris, and their ability to infiltrate their target population, successfully manage their sustainable development projects, and evaluate their impact on the lives of their target population by traveling to Niger personally to see the projects. Through a primary evaluation of the NGO itself, using primary source documents from each organization, followed by the evaluation of its projects in Niger, I will also analyze which approach seems more successful in fulfilling the needs of the donor, the NGO itself, and the target population. Finally, I will offer possible suggestions for more effective management strategies and future programs based on my findings.


VACCINATING THE NEXT GENERATION: THE IMPACT OF IMMIGRATION ON CHILDHOOD IMMUNIZATION COVERAGE IN THE U.S.

Jonathan R. Young (Younghwan Song), Department of Economics, Union College, Schenectady, New York 12308

Using cross-sectional data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey, this paper investigates the effect of a mother's immigration status on her child's vaccination status. Because vaccinations are cost-effective ways to prevent disease outbreaks and improve the health of the population, health experts have placed a great emphasis on increasing immunization rates. One important way to accomplish this goal is to identify mothers who are least likely to vaccinate their children and educate these groups about the importance of immunizations. Immigrants are typically unfamiliar with the U.S. health care system, and previous studies have demonstrated that immigrants are less likely than non-immigrants to seek medical care. Furthermore, the number of children born to immigrants has increased substantially in recent years, and they form a significant portion of the population. This paper finds that children born to immigrants are less likely to receive the recommended number of doses for the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, the Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine, and the hepatitis B vaccine. In addition to a mother's immigration status, this study analyzes the effects of other maternal characteristics, such as income, family size, race, education, age, perceived health status, perceived adequacy of income, and insurance coverage, on childhood vaccination rates. By identifying the common characteristics of mothers who do not vaccinate their children, this paper can help improve the U.S. immunization rate. Physicians can use these characteristics to target mothers who are least likely to vaccinate their children and encourage them to bring their children to health care professionals for recommended childhood vaccinations.


EVADING CULPABILITY IN POSTMODERNIST SECOND PERSON FICTION: TO WHOM DOES THE "YOU" REFER?

Alison R. Reed (Dale S. Wright), Department of Religious Studies, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041.

In second person fiction, the narrator addresses another character as "you." You, the reader, feel uncomfortable about this form of address: to whom does the "you" really refer? Narratologists, philosophers and literary critics have attempted to answer this question with one overarching response: "you" simultaneously points to you the reader, me the author and/or narrator, he or she the narratee-protagonist, and we the collective identity. By allowing multiple interpretations of the "you" to operate within a text at the same time, this paper exposes a central tension of second person fiction: by potentially addressing everyone, the "you" directly implicates no one. Close readings of Jay McInerney's "Bright Lights, Big City" (1984) and Carlos Fuentes's "Aura" (1962) expose the referential uncertainty and consequent openness of second person fiction. Furthermore, these two novellas reveal that second person engenders a literary device for rendering protagonists with fractured identities. Second person narration ultimately evokes a duplicitous dualism of self: to be yourself and to be "the other" at the same time. By embracing the vacillation of the "you," second person potentiates a framework of self-introspection. In a world of interior monologues rather than external confrontations, second person calls for a text rooted in the suspension of feeling, or reaction, over action. After all, this point of view is inherently receptive; grammatically, the "you" is being spoken to, as opposed to speaking itself. My listener-based interpretation of second person fiction expands the existing narrative model for approaching second person texts by focusing on the narrator's ability to listen, rather than propensity to speak. This revised model challenges future authors to employ second person narration as a rhetorical device, as in the texts of McInerney and Fuentes, rather than a whimsical experiment.


THE EFFECTS OF ABUSE HISTORY ON THE LIKELIHOOD OF DATING THOSE DEMONSTRATING RISK FACTORS FOR DATING VIOLENCE

Amanda Perry, Michael Murtagh, Ph.D., Department of Psychology, Bridgewater State College, 131 Summer Street Bridgewater, MA 02325

This study investigates the differences in the ability to recognize and respond to warning signs of potential abuse between three groups of women: those that have never experienced dating violence, those that have experienced dating violence – and have not received treatment, and those that have experienced dating violence – and have received treatment. This study will also explore male's predictions of how women will respond to potential warning signs of abuse. Subjects will complete a questionnaire containing ten first date scenarios. Nine of the scenarios contain a different warning sign of potential dating violence, while one contains no warning sign. Following each scenario, female subjects are asked to rate the likelihood that they would go on second date with the man in the scenario on a seven-point Likert scale (male subjects rate the likelihood that the woman in each scenario would go on a second date with the man in each scenario). Once the data collection has been completed, results will be analyzed through the use of a 3 factor 2 (sex of subject) x 3 (history) x 10 (scenarios) mixed subject ANOVA. It is hypothesized that for there will be a main effect for history, with those with a history of abuse and treatment being significantly less likely to date those demonstrating a warning sign than either those with a history of abuse and no treatment, and those with no history of abuse, and there will be no significant difference between the latter two groups. It is also hypothesized that there will be a significant main effect for scenarios with people being more likely to date the man in the scenario with no potential warning signs then those with warning signs. No predictions are made for sex of subject and the relative strength of effect for each specific warning sign.


READING THE GARDNER: VIEWERSHIP, READERSHIP, AND PUBLIC ART

Nicole, A. Williams (Dr. Lee Torda) Department of English, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, MA 02325

This research project investigates the relationship between viewership, the role of a viewer in a museum, and readership, the role of a reader with a novel, using the Isabella Stuart Gardner Museum. The Gardner, for the purposes of this project, should be understood as a text – constructed through the joint and critical work of readers/viewers and the museum. This presentation argues that meaningful reading, as reader or viewer, requires the same critical moves and interpretive movements to make meaning from the text. After an ongoing ethnographic study of the museum examining gallery exhibits, listening to lectures and visitors, exploring the history of, and identifying the role of Isabella Stuart Gardner as “author" to this text, it became clear that the Gardner Museum provides a more challenging and rewarding experience for viewers. Research of both museum theory and visual rhetoric helped prove that the setup of the Gardner exhibits, which required work on the part of the viewers, was the most conducive for learning. After considering reading theory and the work of theorists Eagleton, Rosenblatt, Iser, Sontag, and Smith a similarity between reading written texts and the texts of museums became apparent. In both cases readers and viewers have to work to fill in gaps and blanks in the text using their own knowledge to make meaning from what they are reading or viewing. In turn readers acquire more knowledge from texts that they put work into. Thus, it can be asked why is it more art museums aren't arranged in the style utilized at the Gardner which emphasizes a broader learning experience.


CITIZEN JOURNALISM: NEWS OF THE FUTURE

Elizabeth A. Farry, (Mr. Brad Weaver), Department of Communications, Westminster College, New Wilmington, PA 16172

Citizen journalism is becoming more popular because of the internet and perceived media bias. Pictures and video captured with cell phones and consumer electronics from citizens is making it onto CNN during breaking news situations. Newspapers are also soliciting video and pictures from audience members as online versions of print media seize opportunities to engage and interact with the citizenry. The growth of the weblog and the search of and examination of such personal online publications is also having an impact. Citizen journalism has the potential to change not only news content, but how news is gathered and distributed. Through first hand interviews of industry professionals this research gauges a consensus by media professionals that citizen journalism cannot be ignored, but exactly how traditional media will cope with it is unclear. This research explores the positive and negative affects of true citizen journalism on established journalism outlets and how the established journalism outlets are contending with this emerging approach to news. My presentation uses audio and video clips of first hand interviews with media professionals in addition to traditional research methods to explain why citizen journalism has the potential to become a hybrid of audience participation balanced by professional journalist skill and talent.


THE CHANGING FACE OF AGRICULTURE: CHARACTERISTICS AND PERCEPTIONS OF ARKANSAS WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE

Carmen C. Albright (Jennie S. Popp) Department of Agricultural Economics and Agribusiness, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701

This two-year study uses quantitative data from surveys of the 2005 and 2006 Arkansas Women in Agriculture conferences' participants and follow-up focus groups with survey respondents to ascertain: 1) the roles women hold in agriculture and agricultural-related businesses, 2) how those roles impact types of agriculture produced, community development and rural family management, and 3) possible changes in those roles over time. For both years, survey respondents were broken into two groups-- FARM (women working directly in agricultural activities) and NON-FARM (women working in agriculture-supporting activities). Of the 2005 women surveyed, 44 percent say they have a greater role in the operation/business today than three years ago. These greater roles have led to changes in many areas, most noticeably in quality of life, family finances, relationships with others in agriculture and changes in capital investment in the operation. The 2006 results suggest that FARM women in principal roles share or lead decision making across many business/family concerns. More than half of the FARM women consider themselves to be one of the main operators and would continue to run the business if something happened to their partner. Comparisons between the two years showed that while the demographics and agricultural information of both years were similar, the needs of these women, the problems they faced, and the value they place on their work were different across time. These results suggest the importance of conducting research on women in agriculture at different points in times so that a) changing roles and needs associated with those roles may be identified, and b) educational programs can be developed to fulfill those needs.


STEAM REFORMING OF ETHANOL OVER RH(111): ELUCIDATING THE REACTION MECHANISM FROM DFT

Anna Goldstein and Sally Wasileski Chemistry Department University of North Carolina at Asheville 1 University Hts., Asheville, NC 28804

Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells utilizing hydrogen gas as a fuel offer a viable source for energy production as an alternative to fossil fuels. However, the source of hydrogen must be considered in developing sustainable energy resources. Dehydrogenation of ethanol from biomass is one method for producing renewable hydrogen gas. Experimental studies have shown the success of Rh as a catalyst for the dehydrogenation of ethanol (CH3CH2OH + H2O → 4H2 + CO), but the elementary steps of the reaction mechanism are not yet known. Ab initio computational methods such as density functional theory (DFT) have been widely utilized for probing energies and reaction pathways of heterogeneous catalytic systems. Here, periodic DFT calculations are used to investigate the elementary steps of ethanol dehydrogenation and partial oxidation, using a single-crystal Rh(111) surface as an approximation of the experimental Rh catalyst. The full dehydrogenation and C-C bond cleavage mechanism of ethanol over a Rh(111) catalyst surface will be presented, based on the Bell-Evans-Polanyi principle, which states that the kinetic pathway for dehydrogenation reactions can be determined from the thermodynamic reaction energies. Briefly, from adsorbed ethanol (CH3CH2OH), the initial loss of a hydrogen atom is endothermic, forming one of three molecules (CH2CH2OH, CH3CHOH, and CH3CH2O) with similar thermodynamics. Both CH3CHOH and CH3CH2O can proceed to lose a second hydrogen atom in an exothermic reaction step to form CH3CHO. Therefore, the first two dehydrogenation steps are the loss of the OH hydrogen and the α-hydrogen, in no particular order. CH3CHO then undergoes a highly exothermic dehydrogenation (-0.53 eV) to lose another α-hydrogen and form CH3CO.The C-C bond is broken in a thermoneutral step to form CH3 and CO adsorbed separately on the surface, after which dehydrogenation is completed in a single pathway.


TOO COOL FOR YOU: AN ANALYSIS OF FASHION AND HIGH SCHOOL SOCIAL HIERARCHY FORMATION

Dara Quinn Stull, (Sook-Young Lee), Communication Studies Department, Luther College, Decorah, IA 52101

For years fashion has been a key ingredient to establishing social status and prestige among the rich and famous. High status figures put styles on the radar, and they are quickly picked up by the rest of the population and emulated throughout. One of the key groups that is heavily affected by the fashion world is the adolescent female. Adolescence is a time of self-exploration and expression. One of the major ways this is achieved is through dress. However, in any society it is easy to see there is a standing hierarchy in order. In adolescent girls there are the “queen bees" who seem to be a step above all the rest. This study attempts to discover if fashion is a key factor in the establishment of social hierarchy in the high school environment. Two separate focus groups were formed from two different cliques of high school girls. After the genres were selected, school officials aided in identifying one girl from each social group. The two girls then selected four of their friends to complete each focus group. Over the course of the focus group, questions about clothing choice motivations and the status of the standing hierarchy in the school were asked with recorded responses. Upon analysis, fashion was determined to be a factor for the less popular group. However, the dominant social group seemed to be unaware of social hierarchy. First impressions were made based on what a person was wearing, although they were not prevalent factors in determining the formation of social hierarchy in high school.


THE PRESENTATION OF TRANSGENDER AND TRANSSEXUAL CHARACTERS IN CONTEMPORARY FILM

Hilary J Ross

Within the last ten years, more than fifty movies and television programs featuring transsexual and transgender characters have surfaced; however, only a handful of journal articles discuss this trend. Furthermore, most of the existing literature discusses the presence of transgender and transsexual individuals in the media; the literature largely ignores how these individuals are depicted. Yet, these representations influence and reflect the public's opinion of transsexual and transgender individuals. I examine depictions of transgender and transsexual individuals in a sampling of contemporary media productions. I studied a sample of two movies, Boys Don't Cry and Transamerica and two documentaries, The Brandon Teena Story and Southern Comfort. Using the perspective of symbolic interactionism, I examined each film in the sample frame by frame. I analyzed features such as language, setting, tone, and character interaction to ascertain the deeper societal meaning. I employed Goffman's theories regarding presentation of self and stigma; I also used Jean Baudrillard's media theories. Because of the small sample, my analysis is not representative of the population of media productions concerning transsexual and transgender individuals. However, this analysis demonstrates how these productions can reinforce stereotypes and gender boundaries while at the same time seem sympathetic to the plight of the transsexual character. In the sample, the films emphasize gender identity for cinematic and dramatic purposes; thus, the characters' gender identities become their master statuses. Consequently, these characters are stigmatized, vulnerable, and portrayed as deviants.


COMBINATORIAL AND NUMBER THEORETIC PROPERTIES OF CELLULAR AUTOMATA

Israa Taha (Guerrieri Student Research Fund) Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Salisbury University, Salisbury MD 21804

The primary focus of this research is to examine some of the patterns found in Pascal's triangle modulo a prime number and to describe those patterns using binomial identities. Pascal's triangle itself is an infinite one-dimensional cellular automaton whose fractal nature can help in the proof of some of these binomial identities. Describing the identities found in Pascal's triangle is facilitated by the use of color computer graphics generated by the Java software PascGalois JE. This program is used to visualize these patterns in order to translate them into mathematical formulae. This created another research opportunity that involved the development of Java applets that were used to generate graphical representations of Pascal's triangle and other one-dimensional cellular automata. The identities involve sums as well as products of binomial coefficients modulo a prime. Although the formulae may seem complex, they arise naturally from certain geometric patterns found in Pascal's triangle modulo a prime. The graphical technique developed offers a different approach from the traditional techniques of number theory and combinatorics such as the p-adic representation, Kummer's Theorem or even Lucas's Theorem. This method uses geometric constructs to visualize identities and can be easily adapted for more general infinite cellular automata.


FUNCTIONAL DIVERGENCE IN PROMOTERS OF THE HD-ZIP GENE FAMILY, CLASS III, IN TOMATO

Laura Kolbach, Wenli Li (Robert Kuzoff) Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI 53190; Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408

We seek to understand the molecular-genetic basis of alterations in the development of laminar organs, including leaves and floral appendages. Our research explores functional changes in genes that mediate laminar development, especially members of class III of the HD-ZIP gene family (HDZ-III). Specifically, we are characterizing patterns of expression for a set of HDZ-III genes in Tomato and comparing them to one another and to their orthologs in Arabidopsis. Our in situ hybridization results reveal that expression patterns for Tomato HDZ-III genes are generally consistent with those of their orthologs in Arabidopsis, with some notable exceptions. For example, in Arabidopsis one HDZ-III gene, CORONA (COR), has a diffuse pattern of expression in floral meristems. In contrast, its ortholog in Tomato, TomCOR, shows a strong and specifically localized pattern of expression in floral organ anlagen and on the adaxial side of developing floral organ primordia. Additionally, in Arabidopsis PHABULOSA (PHB) shows a strongly adaxial pattern of expression in developing leaves and floral organs. However, the ortholog of PHABULOSA in Tomato, TomPHB, had no detectable expression. These results suggest that the functions of the TomCOR and TomPHB promoters have diverged relative to their counterparts in Arabidopsis. Ongoing experiments are characterizing the roles of HDZ-III orthologs in developing Tomato ovules. In Arabidopsis, HDZ-III genes play a role in the differentiation of the inner and outer surfaces of both integuments. However, the functions of HDZ-III genes in unitegmic species, like Tomato, remain unclear. Ongoing experiments will characterize patterns of gene expression in Tomato to determine whether the roles of these genes in ovule development have been altered. These results may provide crucial insights into the functional evolution of these genes and, more generally, the developmental programs in which they operate.


INCORPORATING SUSTAINABILITY INTO ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND THE EFFECT IT HAS ON WOMEN PURSUING ENGINEERING CAREERS

Christina M. Corrigan, Deaprtmenr of Civil Engineering, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancorft St, Toledo, Ohio, 43606

Historically, there is a lack of women in the engineering field. This project examines how incorporating sustainability into engineering education affects the number of women pursing an engineering degree. Past studies suggest that many women do not study engineering because they believe it does not have a direct impact on society. My research examines whether young women show more interest in engineering when they are introduced to the concept of sustainability and the potential applications in engineering. An international group of young female engineers was surveyed to find out how much they knew about sustainability and why they chose engineering. In addition, this work investigates how sustainability is currently being incorporated into engineering education around the world, in the United States, and at the University of Toledo. Specific universities in the United States and overseas where sustainability focuses are part of their engineering programs were researched. The demographics at these respective institutions were compared to national averages, with a specific focus on the number of women enrolled in their programs. It is anticipated that a significant increase in enrollment of female students will correspond with engineering programs that include a sustainability focus. Then, recommendations will be made as to how Universities can incorporate these data in order to increase the number of women enrolled in engineering programs.


FINANCIALLY DISTRESSED FIRMS AND THE TURNAROUND PROCESS

Tsvetomira Gerova (Ralph R. Trecartin Ph.D.) Department of Business Administration and Economics, The State University of New York – Brockport, Brockport, NY 14420

The literature on company “turnarounds" is related to the literature on mean reversion in stock returns. Most investors prefer to avoid investing in firms that are severely financially distressed. These firms often end up in bankruptcy with little or no return to equity investors. On the other hand, many of these firms go through a company turnaround process with stock prices rebounding significantly. This paper uses COMPUSTAT data from 1988 to the present to categorize financially distressed firms using three different measurements. The first measurement approach is to list all firms with negative earnings for three consecutive years. The second measurement is to look at all firms with negative book equity. The third approach is to look at firms with declining revenues each year for three consecutive years. Using the turnaround literature as a guide, these firms are evaluated for clues on the turnaround process. The paper answers the following major questions: A) How many of these firms survive? B) How long on average does it take a surviving company to “turnaround?" and C) What are the mean and standard deviation of annual returns before, during and after the turnaround process for these groups of firms?


VISUAL ARTS AND ITS IMPORTANCE TO THE K-12 CURRICULUM

Nathaniel A. WIlliams, Dr. Jessica Barnes Ph.D. (McNair/SROP Program) Department of Outreach and Engagement, Michigan State, East Lansing,MI 48824,

The aim of this report is to assess the extent to which exposure to visual art-related activities at school has beneficial effects on academic and personal outcomes. Data from a large, regional, longitudinal study was used to assess relations between participation in visual art activities within a school-based after-school program. Attendance and survey data were collected on 2,090 students. The survey assessed academic and socio-emotional functioning and was administered during the spring of the academic year. Analyses consisted of hierarchical regression on matched target and control samples to answer the research questions. Results suggest there are significant relationships between participation in visual-art related activities and school preparation and enjoyment of school work.


THE 1899 COAL STRIKE: RACE AND THE STRUGGLE FOR CONTROL OF THE WORKPLACE—EVANSVILLE COAL MINERS, MINE OPERATORS AND THE UNITED MINE WORKERS

Dana M. Caldemeyer (University of Evansville) Department of History University of Evansville 1800 Lincoln Ave Evansville, IN 47722

This research paper examines the conflict between union activism, race, and corporate resistance to union presence in the coal mines of southwestern Indiana. The struggle of local coal mine operators to control their mines was tested with the arrival of the UMW in the Evansville area in 1899. Inserted in this battle over workplace hegemony was the role of race when mine owners recruited African-American miners to work the local mines and resist the encroachment of the UMW in southwestern Indiana. UMW representatives came to Evansville in April 1899 to bring local miners into the UMW, to demand that miners receive the national pay scale earned by UMW miners and to force mine owners to recognize the UMW. Predictably, the owners refused union recognition and the UMW struck on May 1, 1899. The strike pitted mine owners against the relatively young UMW, founded in 1890 and became a classic struggle between the miners and the mine owners who wanted to operate their mines according to free market conditions. The UMW Strike of 1899 exposed the traditional conflict between the interest of miners and mine owners, but it also revealed the powerfully divisive role race played in the attempts to unionize workplaces. The intensity of the struggle and the insertion of race into the conflict revealed that the strike was less about wages for miners, but more about who had the power and control of the workplace in coal mining operations. The 1899 Evansville coal strike exposed the escalating role of race in the developing labor movement as well as indicating the role race played in the country.


SLIMER: A SYSTEM IMAGER

Mike Drew, Alex Graham, Thomas Gibson, Travis Stark, (Dr. Ali Kooshesh), Computer Science Department, Sonoma State University, 1801 E. Cotati , Rohnert Park, CA, 94928

The Computer Science department at State University recently acquired three new computer labs. The system administrators needed an efficient way to install the various operating systems and software for the computers in the labs. Several Computer Science students at Sonoma State University heard the call and began development on Slimer. Slimer is an open source solution heavily utilizing readily available technologies to efficiently image a group of identical computers. The core of Slimer contains a mechanism for reading the harddrive at a low level and then transmitting that information reliably over an inherently unreliable multicast network. Slimer is able to image roughly 30 computers with 500GB hardrives over 1 Gb Ethernet in about three hours. Slimer is continuously under development and shows great promise to be an efficient and intuitive imaging solution.


SIGNIFICANT SOLE: UNDERSTANDING THE REALITY OF THE SHOE IN GUSTAVE FLAUBERT'S MADAME BOVARY

Johanna R. Brinkley (William Olmsted) Christ College, Valparaiso University, Valparasio IN, 46383

Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary, a tale of corruption, deception, and material consumption, is rich with details concerning people, places, and objects. When Flaubert introduces a character, he includes more than just a word identifying them as a person; he finds it necessary to give specific details concerning his or her appearance including clothing, jewelry, and even shoes. With so many details given even for characters that remain unnamed, Flaubert's writing may be called into question because the abundance of information seems superfluous. If Flaubert's details are a mere device used to fill the pages of what could otherwise be a shorter book, what is the merit in reading the text? In his essay “The Reality Effect," Roland Bathes poses a similar question concerning the way in which the insignificant details gain significance and concludes that these details are able to transform an object that is mundane in reality and transfer meaning from the object signified to an idea or person greater than the object. In order to explore the possible validity of Barthes' reality effect, I examine the text in relation to an often overlooked object—the shoe. The shoe is a detail that occurs repeatedly throughout the text and grows in meaning as the novel progresses, greatly exceeding its role in everyday life outside of the text. By examining the way in which the shoe is used within the text, I argue that through this mundane object Flaubert successfully establishes his characters as real and creates relationships between shoes and their wearers, different shoes, and ultimately, causes the shoe references to indicate relationships between characters. Using the pattern of the shoe in Madame Bovary as a guide, the possible significance of the seeming insignificance pervading the text may be revealed.


IRANIANS IN CLASSICAL GREEK PLAYS: SOCIOLINGUISTICS, REPRESENTATION, AND POLITICS

Alan S Farahani (Thomas J. Figueira, Jack Cargill) Department of History, Rutgers University – New Brunswick, New Brunswick, NJ 08901

The portrayal of the Other, distinct in language and culture, is often explored in a many media, from past to present. In the modern world, we witness the great rise of Orientalism, not only in scholarship but in popular culture, such as Hollywood in the 1920s and 1930s. Familiar ‘traits' of the Easterner, irrationality, uncontrollable emotion, and unbridled lust, were depicted with ardor. Linguistically the modality of the “Easterner" was portrayed through non-verbal vocalization or short, terse sentences confined to the bare minimum required for expression. For all the struggle of modern Arabs and Persians for sensitive depiction, where the exaggeration of a movie like Not Without My Daughter (1991) is more typical, the conflation of all Middle Eastern ‘others' prevails: even Oliver Stone in his Alexander has his Persian nobles barking out orders in Arabic. I propose a new model of viewing Iranians in Classical Athenian plays, in which I would like to illuminate the correlation of an evolving cultural awareness with the flow of political events. It seeks to view how dramaturgical imperatives must reform under the influence of the ongoing cultural-political process. I think especially of the oft-discussed quote of the Persian Ambassador in Acharnians. Similarly, new linguistic studies of the “foreigner register" of the Scythians in plays such as Thesmophourizae have yielded a great deal of information on Greek attitudes to such guests in their culture. Specifically, there is a significant evolution in the process of the “othering" of Iranians in the two aforementioned plays. Whereas in Aeschylus' Persians the Persians speak a highly prestigious, epic form of Greek, the Persian Ambassador in Acharnians speaks not only in his own language, but, as I will argue, his only line of Greek is an attempt at a sincere representation of an educated Persian speaking Greek. It is an extraordinary example of what linguistics call a “foreign register". The presentation and short paper will focus on this distinction, and will offer conclusions as to how the political milieu affected the representation of Iranian peoples, and furthermore, how this was manifested linguistically within the plays themselves.


SOUND TRANSMISSION THROUGH A ONE-DIMENSIONAL PERIODIC FILTER WITH A DEFECT

James D. Lloyd (Dr. Ian Lindevald) Division of Science, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

Waves are ubiquitous in physics, and wave phenomena, best known in one area of physics, often have interesting analogs in another. One example of this is the occurrence of energy band gaps for electrons in metals, a quantum wave phenomenon linked to the periodicity of the crystal structure. An analogous acoustical system would involve transmission band gaps for sound propagating through a periodically varying waveguide. In the acoustical system, band gaps are frequency ranges for which through-transmission is highly attenuated. A PVC pipe was fitted with plastic tubes to form a one-dimensional waveguide with periodically varying cross-sectional area. Both the number of “cells” and the period length of the filter were adjustable by moving or removing the inserts. Earlier research using this system showed that band gap structures predicted by theory were easily verified experimentally in variety of conditions. The current research focuses on changes in the transmission spectrum when a defect, or a break in the periodicity, is introduced. Existing theory has been extended to make predictions for transmission through a system with a defect, and these predictions have been verified experimentally. In general, the presence of a defect introduces narrow transmission peaks within the band gap regions. These “defect peaks” have widths that increase as the number of cells decrease. Ultimately, this system will be used to investigate supersonic group velocities for pulse transmission in the band gap region and subsonic group velocities for frequencies within the defect peak, as has been reported by other researchers.


HCSA REVERSAL OF THE "QUIS EFFECT"

Megan Bashaw and Giedre Raugeviciute Science Department North Central College Naperville, IL 60540 USA Faculty Advisor: Dr. Nancy Peterson

The “Quis Effect" describes a phenomenon where certain drugs become sensitized in brain slices after exposure to quisqualic acid. For example, cystine does not cause depolarization in naïve hippocampus brain slices. However, after slices are briefly exposed to quisqualic acid, cystine does cause depolarization in the hippocampus brain slices. Homocysteinesulfinic acid has been shown to reverse this sensitization. The testing was done on rat hippocampus extracellular synapse to answer the question if HSCA is a direct reverser. Bath application of HCSA to a rat hippocampus slice after the brief exposure to quisqualic acid reverses the sensitization of the neurons. This is known from previous studies that have shown that the exposure of cysine after the HCSA no longer causes depolarization. Our recent research showed that HCSA does not reverse the “Quis Effect" as a direct antagonist. The HCSA direct antagonistic features would completely block reapplied quisqualic acid and would not show depolarization afterwards. Through a sequential bath application, the cystine applied after the HCSA does not cause depolarization of the hippocampus brain slices. This shows that the HCSA is not directly reverse the effects of quisqualic acid. However, the results prove that repeated applications of quisqualic acid after bath application of HCSA causes depolarization of the response as well. The HCSA tends to reverse the “Quis Effect", but HCSA does not block quisqualic acid in the postsynaptic area of the neurons. The postsynaptic blockage of the quisqualic acid would represent no depolarization of the brain slice after HCSA is co-applied after the bath treatment of the quisqualic acid. Although in co-application of quisqualic acid followed by HCSA, the hippocampus brain slice continuously depolarizes. This allows for the conclusion that HCSA does not block quisqualic acid in the postsynaptic area.


THEORETICAL BEAM PATTERN OF A 26M RADIO TELESCOPE WITH VARIOUS FEED SYSTEMS

Anna Castelaz, Brian Dennison, Department of Physics, University of North Carolina Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804; Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, Rosman, NC 28772

My objective was to calculate theoretical beam patterns of the two 26m radio telescopes located at Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) using various feed systems available in the near and long term. These include both NRAO feeds currently at PARI on loan from Green Bank and feeds newly developed at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden. Using known sensitivity patterns collected from laboratory testing of the feeds, I calculated the theoretical beam pattern of a 26m telescope using the feed under consideration. We plan to use these feeds in the instrumentation under development through Pisgah Astronomical Research and Education Center (PARSEC) for the 26m meter telescopes at PARI. This work was carried out through the 2006 PARSEC Internship Program, and was supported by NASA Award NNG05GQ66, the North Carolina Space Grant, and the Glaxo-Wellcome Endowment at UNCA.


GROWTH OF CRYSTAL SCINTILLATORS: A LESSON IN FAILURE

Crystal Alfaro, Arnold Burger, Utpol Roy, Adjunta, Battacharjie

With the war on terrorism being prevalent in the minds of Homeland Security, many projects are being conducted to help with the detection of foreign tactical weaponry; in particular detection of radiation exposure from nuclear attack. Much machinery is necessary for the detection of radiation exposure; however, without the existence of one small object this machinery would prove most ineffective. This object is a single-crystal scintillator. At Fisk University, it is the sole objective of the material science lab to grow a crystal scintillator that proves to be cost-effective in manufacturing, but performs as well as, if not better, than present detection devices on the market. The purpose of this lab experiment was to produce single-crystals with scintillating properties, and was later tested for good detectors of radiation from gamma, x-ray, and beta particles. These single-crystals would consist of specific compounds that contain scintillating elements, BaI2 and KPb2Cl5. A Raman Spectrometer and oscilloscope was used to visualize and record the readings from the characterization process. The graphs from the readings of both single-crystals were later compared. The two single crystals produced were ineffective in detection of radiation, however, the study of the process led to improvements on the part of the production process.


QUENCH ANTENNA ANALYSIS OF HGQ MAGNETS

Eugenia Rakhno (Michael A. Tartaglia) Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Magnet Systems Department, Batavia, IL 60510

Superconducting quadrupole magnets are being built and tested at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory for installation at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Interaction Regions. Several of these magnets did not reach the target operating current of 12208A. A systematic study of the available quench data has been performed in order to localize the problem region and understand the reason behind the current limitations. The quench antenna seems to give a consistent location for the quenches in the limited magnets, where there are few voltage taps to do this. However, it has not yet been shown whether the antenna can distinguish quenches that originate in the Inner coil from those starting in the Outer coil. As a result, we turned to existing data from the High Gradient Quadrupole (HGQ) model magnet program and used information provided from both voltage taps and quench antennas to determine the radial and angular quench positions. We studied three magnets to specifically evaluate the antenna results for Inner versus Outer quenches. The data led to the conclusion that quenches originating in the Inner coil cannot be distinguished using the quench antenna from those starting in the Outer coil. It has been observed that the calculated radius for Outer coil quenches points to the Inner coil region. Moreover, angle measurements don't appear to be consistent with expectations for all three antenna sections. Home institution: Department of Physics, North Central College, 30 N. Brainard St., Naperville, IL 60540.


SOCIO-CULTURAL SEMIOTICS AND THE FEMALE CLASSICAL MUSIC COMPOSER OF COLOR (MINORITY)

Beryl-Denise Aitana Aguilera, (Richard E. Ward, Ph.D) Department of Liberal Arts Department of Liberal Arts, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, IUPUI, Indianapolis, IN 46202

Social and cultural events influence our lives on a daily bases, but how do these same events influence the creative process in classical music and those who create it. This research begins the process of looking at semiotics, semiotics signifiers, and how these signifiers inspire the works of female composers of color (minority) in classical music. Moreover, it addresses and confirms that coding within socio-cultural settings can and does often translate and transformed into other forms of communication, signs, and symbols beyond the linguistic use of the spoken word. There is substantial evidence that socio-cultural experiences and their meanings can in fact be decoded and then recoded into other forms of communication, conveying the same if not similar meanings. However, classical music composers unlike their popular music counterparts are often well versed in the theoretical aspects of music, along with clearly defined training in assessment and structural analysis. The central aim of my research thesis is to analyze one such case by using composer Tania Leon and her compositional works Ritual and Mystica as examples of how semiotics in classical music, mirror its counterpart popular music whose social and cultural dynamics have been studied extensively.


MOLECULAR DYNAMICS STUDIES OF THE HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS REV-RRE COMPLEX UNDER VARYING SALT CONCENTRATIONS

Billy Miller III, Ananth Sezyiyan, Joel Brune, Jessica Chenault (Maria Nagan) Division of Science, Truman State University, 100 East Normal Street, Kirksville, MO 63501

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the virus that causes the disease, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), have been responsible for millions of deaths around the world. An essential step in the HIV life cycle (and a possible target for therapeutics) is the recognition of the Rev Responsive Element (RRE) by the Rev protein. Rev-RRE binding signals a cascade of events that eventually allows unspliced and partially spliced viral RNA to exit the host nucleus. A medium resolution NMR structure of a minimal Rev-RRE complex has been solved. The minimal Rev construct is a 23 amino acid, arginine-rich peptide that recognizes a 34-nucleotide stem-loop region of RRE. From other NMR studies, it is known that increasing salt concentrations has an effect on the arginine side chain dynamics and binding of the Rev-RRE complex. Molecular dynamics simulations of the complex were collected and examined under various NaCl concentrations (50 mM, 150 mM, 200 mM, and 500 mM) in a truncated octahedron box of TIP3P water. All trajectories were propagated for 10.0 ns with the program AMBER 8.0 employing the Cornell et al. force field and particle mesh Ewald treatment for electrostatics. Root Mean Square (RMS) fluctuations in positions on all protein side chains were determined and correlated to biological studies of Rev-RRE binding. These analyses combined with characterization of electrostatics and hydrogen bonds between Rev and RRE under increasing salt concentrations may lead to a better understanding of the role of arginines in Rev-RRE recognition. Further analysis will include characterization of salt effects on the free energy of binding.


AFFINELY SELF-GENERATING SETS AND MORPHISMS

Adam Gouge (Dr. David Garth) Division of Mathematics and Computer Science, Truman State University, 100 E. Normal, Kirksville, MO 63501

Kimberling defined a self-generating set S of integers as follows. Assume 1 is a member of S; if x is in S, then 2x and 4x-1 are also in S; and nothing else is in S. Kimberling noticed that when the elements of S are arranged in increasing order, the corresponding sequence (reduced modulo 2 and beginning at the second term) is the Fibonacci word, which is generated by a morphism. We study similar self-generating sets of integers whose generating functions come from a class of affine functions for which the coefficients on x are powers of a fixed base. We prove that for any positive integer m, the resulting sequence, reduced modulo m, is the image of an infinite word that is the fixed point of a morphism over a finite alphabet. We also prove that the resulting characteristic sequence of S is the image of the fixed point of a morphism of constant length, and is therefore automatic. We then give several examples of self-generating sets whose digit expansions in a certain base are characterized by sequences of integers with missing blocks of digits. This expands upon earlier work by Allouche, Shallit, and Skordev. Finally, we give another possible generalization of the original set of Kimberling.


DETERMINING PROTON-TRANSFER REACTION RATE CONSTANTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING SELECTED ION CHEMICAL IONIZATION QUADRUPOLE ION TRAP MASS SPECTROMETRY

Jeremy A. Felton, Karen S. Wendling, and Gary L. Glish, Department of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Reaction rate constants describing the protonation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by the hydronium ion reagent have been calculated previously to facilitate proton-transfer mass spectrometry (PTR-MS). The benefit of Selected Ion Chemical Ionization Quadrupole Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry (SICI-QITMS) over other techniques is that reaction times can be controlled, which simplifies reaction rate constant calculations. The goals of this work are, first, to compare proton-transfer reaction rate constants obtained using SICI-QITMS with calculated theoretical values and second, to determine proton-transfer rate constants that have not been previously determined using other methods. Hydrodium ions and protonated acetone ions were used as the reagent in different experiments to ionize the VOC's via proton transfer. Reagent ions were generated using glow discharge ionization (GDI) of water vapor and acetone vapor, respectively, in the source region of the quadrupole ion trap. The headspace above the neutral VOC analyte was sampled directly into the trapping volume of the QITMS. The concentration of VOC was determined from the pressure of the analyte in the trapping volume of the quadrupole ion trap. After the pressure of the VOC was recorded, reagent ions were introduced into the ion trap from the GDI source, where they reacted for a specified time period. The decrease in the intensity of the reagent ion signal during successively longer reaction times was used to determine the proton-transfer rate constant in the QITMS. Preliminary results were determined for the VOC's isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone, and methacrolein using the hydronium ion reagent. Results have also been determined for isoprene using the protonated acetone reagent which are about one-third of its hydronium proton-transfer reaction rate. Future work will focus on determining the proton-transfer rate of methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein using the protonated acetone reagent.


THE INDIGENISTA NOVEL AND NATIONALISM IN 20TH CENTURY PERU: TOWARD A RE-DEFINITION AND RE-PRESENTATION OF PERUVIAN NATIONAL IDENTITY

Oscar O. Figueredo (beth Olivares, John Barker, and Beth Jorgensen) Department of Modern Languages and Cultures, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627

Peru, like other post-colonial countries with significant indigenous populations, has experienced a particularly difficult struggle in distinguishing itself as an independent state and forming a national identity, while reconciling its conflicting heritages – specifically those of the Spanish and indigenous population. The indigenista novel of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century functions as a particular cultural form that expresses a preoccupation with defining an authentic national and cultural identity – la peruanidad – during the period of history in which nationalism was on the rise globally. Three novels of this particular literary movement – Clorinda Matto de Turner's Aves sin nido (1889), Ciro Alegría's Los perros hambrientos (1942) and José María Arguedas's Los ríos profundos (1958) – are representative of indigenismo's significance in the development of nationalist sentiments and theories in Peru. In its historical development, the indigenista novel has followed its own path toward a desired, but ultimately unachievable reconciliation with the conflicting – but not necessarily incompatible – Spanish and indigenous heritages. The implications of the indigenista novel in the parallel development of a Peruvian national identity are substantial and significant not only to a study of nationalism in Peru, but also to the understanding of nationalist developments in Latin America and other post-colonial nations.


PEACE AT ANY PRICE: THE LORD'S RESISTANCE ARMY OF JOSEPH KONY

Heath DeJean (Frances Flannery-Dailey) Department of Religion, Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032

The Lord's Resistance Army, led by the self-proclaimed spirit medium Joseph Kony, has been waging war in Northern Uganda for the past 20 years. Kony's war crimes include the abduction of young children for use as soldiers or sex slaves, the brutal amputation of limbs and facial features, and the merciless murder of newborn children. Each of these actions comes in response to Kony's conviction that he has been called by God to wage war on war itself. Through his unique interpretation of the Ten Commandments and desire to set up a theocracy in Uganda based on millennial thought, Kony has somehow managed to justify in his mind the past twenty years of terror. This paper seeks to shed some light onto exactly how this became possible. By looking at three major ideas—-the introduction of Christianity to Africa through the work of missionaries, the problems of translation and religious syncretism in Christianity as it relates to African Traditional Religions, and the actions of Alice Auma along with her Holy Spirit Movement-—I provide a view into the intricate system of justification and legitimacy that Kony's army has maintained for such a long time. Finally, I compare the LRA's procedures with the actions and organizational framework of an apocalyptic cult. Through this analysis, a personal profile of Kony and his peculiar interpretation of Christian law emerges, through which one might be better able to understand the power of religious conviction in the world—-especially when combined with a political agenda-—and how it has the power to compel a person to act in a way that entirely goes against the teachings of the very religion he claims to follow.


IMMINENT ASSIMILATION: A NEW INTERPRETATION OF ETRUSCAN CULTURAL MATERIAL

Lisa M. Mayer (Alisa Eimen), Department of Art, Minnesota State University, 325 Wigley Administration Center, Mankato, MN 56001

Anthropologists and historians posit that cultural material can be used as a tool to measure geo-political stress on civilizations. I apply this theory to an ancient Italian culture known as the Etruscans (9th century BC to 1st century BC). Study of artistic production during years of increasing Roman contact makes it possible to identify common themes in Etruscan art, which symbolize the social concerns of a waning culture. Analysis of the effects of geo-political stress on artistic representation can determine to what extent an existing artistic practice assimilates ideas and motifs of a colonial power. In particular, this project determines the degree to which Etruscan art reflects social and political changes prior to its cultural decline engendered by increasing Roman dominance. By identifying the motifs used in artistic production during periods of historical conflict, it is possible to pinpoint socio-political events that likely affected artistic choices in subject matter. Using the Etruscan objects collected at Chicago's Field Museum, I conducted a thorough investigation to determine if Etruscan artists employed specific imagery to express changes in regional autonomy. Placing the museum's collection into this geo-political context provides a new perspective, emphasizing intrinsic artistic reaction to external pressures. By isolating objects that display concepts related to cultural identity, I reconsider the rate of Roman assimilation (260 BC to 88 BC). This new approach to Etruscan research contributes to a broader sociological understanding of cultural assimilation and its effect on material production. This method contrasts with conventional art-historical scholarship, which generally favors Greco-Roman culture. The existence of an artistic record of assimilation that focuses on the Etruscans and documents an increasing shift in imagery confirms a social awareness of imminent assimilation. In addition it suggests another method of art-historical research, confirming that cultural material is a viable tool in identifying geo-political stress on ancient civilizations.


THE EFFECT OF AN "ENERGY DRINK" ON CARDIOVASCULAR AND METABOLIC PARAMETERS

Leah Steinke, Prabha Dhanapal, Elaine Manlongat, Nellie Berlie, James S. Kalus Department of Pharmacy Practice, Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Allied Health Sciences, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201

The purpose of the study was to determine whether the energy drink Red Bull® effects heart rate, blood pressure, the EKG and blood glucose metabolism. Study participants were asked to avoid foods and drinks containing caffeine for 10 days. On the first day of the study (D0), participants had baseline blood sugar measured following an 8 hour fast, and then drank 500mL of Coca Cola Classic. Blood sugar was then measured 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours following Coca Cola ingestion. On the second day of the study (D1), following an 8 hour fast, participants again had baseline blood sugar measured, as well as baseline blood pressure, heart rate, and EKG measurements. Participants then drank two cans (500mL) of Red Bull®. Blood sugar was measured 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours following Red Bull® ingestion. Blood pressure, heart rate and EKG parameters were all measured 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and 4 hours following Red Bull® ingestion. Participants were then given 10 cans of Red Bull® each, and were asked to drink 2 cans each day over the next five days. On the eighth and final day of the study (D7), the exact same procedure was followed as on D1. Upon analyzing results to determine effects from both acute (D1) and repeated (D7) ingestion of Red Bull®, it was concluded that the ingestion of Red Bull® did not affect glucose metabolism. There was an increase in systolic blood pressure and a reduction in diastolic blood pressure with Red Bull® ingestion. Repeated Red Bull® ingestion caused an increase in heart rate. There were no clinically significant effects of Red Bull® on EKG parameters.


PATRIARCHAL DISSIDENCE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND THE INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY UNTIL 1989

Christopher P. Peterson (Thomas Zoumaras) McNair Program, Social Sciences Division, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

During the Cold War period from 1945 to 1989, the International Atomic Energy Agency represented the first and only measure of international control against the spread of nuclear weapons and the use of nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. Despite the existence of this agency, the threat of nuclear war and concerns of nuclear proliferation increased dramatically as access to technology grew throughout this period. The United States was the catalyst in creating the IAEA, but on numerous occasions and for a variety of reasons, the government undermined the independence and effectiveness of the agency in many ways. Despite the advantages of participating in a strong international nuclear community arbitrated by an independent agency, the United States continually pursued its own independent programs for control and trade of nuclear materials, and there exists a significant gap in historical literature studying the relationship between these two bodies. This study seeks to understand and explain the reasons behind the United States' actions concerning nuclear technology and materials during the Cold War and how they affected the course and effectiveness of the IAEA while filling an important place in understanding international nuclear policy development.


ALGORITHM FOR FINDING HUMANS WITH A ROBOT-MOUNTED CAMERA

Ian Hill Advisor: Dr. Gabriel Ferrer Hendrix College Computer Science Department 1600 Washington Avenue

An algorithm for finding humans in a video stream is described. The algorithm first attempts to segment areas of the video that possibly contain humans by using visual filters (e.g. motion detection, color blob). It then tries to match the segmented areas to template images, bitmaps which represent the average intensity and importance of pixels over many pictures of a specific feature (e.g. face templates, body templates). The template images go through affine transformations (scaling, translation and rotation) as well as color transformations (equalization of intensity values) in an attempt to fit them to the segmented areas. The algorithm then creates a heuristic value for the ‘human content' of the segmented area—based on the difference in intensity at every pixel as well as the pixel's corresponding weight—and judges the presence or absence of a human by it. This algorithm is intended to find humans with a robot-mounted camera for the purpose of delivering messages. The robot is employed on a particular floor of a university building consisting primarily of hallways and offices. The algorithm assumes many of the conditions of the specific task and environment: lighting values, faces of residents and the ability to stop for observation. The algorithm is thus primarily engineered for these particular conditions, but with the intent of incrementally evolving it for more general use in other tasks and environments.


HOMONEGATIVITY IN CONTEMPORARY PRINT NEWS MEDIA

Noah N. Gillespie (Dr. Benjamin S. Pryor) Department of Law and Social Thought, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606

Since the Stonewall Riots of 1969 in New York City, the Gay Rights Movement has received much attention in the press as a resistance movement experienced by gay and lesbian individuals and the nation as a whole. As a group of media relying on its consumer base, print news has had an ongoing influence on how the story of this movement has been told and has itself been influenced by the social expectations of its readers. In my presentation, I will look at ways in which the print news has reinforced cultural (mis)conceptions of gay and lesbian persons through the use of avoidance, denial, and victim blaming. I will focus on a textual analysis of articles from mainstream sources such as The New York Times, Time Magazine, and The Washington Times and alternative sources such as The Advocate Magazine, The Christian Science Monitor and the American Spectator. These articles revolve around three significant events: the “victory" in the lawsuit Jamie Nabozny filed against his school district in 1996 for failing to prevent grievous and longstanding harassment; the brutal murder of Matthew Shepard, a University of Wyoming student, in 1998; and the “defeat" represented by the defrocking of Elizabeth Stroud, a lesbian Methodist minister, in 2005. My analysis reveals that the print news media rarely illuminates the social environment that allowed for acts of homophobia, violence, and disenfranchisement to occur, and tends to discourage the reader from interpreting the event as a call to create social change. I offer several suggestions for how these media can more clearly and sensitively represent the situations they are seeking to communicate to the public, so they can more comprehensively and effectively cover these important topics.


PORTRAYING CONFIDENCE THROUGH VOCALICS: A CASE STUDY OF COMPETITIVE HORSE JUDGING

Laura E. Drews ( Lynn Cockett), Department of Communications, Juniata College, 1700 Moore Street, Huntingdon PA, 16652

Confidence is something that we all try to display, though we are hard pressed to define what the term entails. Often non verbal cues such as stance, facial expression, pitch, speed of speech and manipulators are monitored in order to find a way to accurately display confidence, especially in high stress situations such as job interviews and competitions. This study seeks to deconstruct vocalic paralanguage with specific attention to portraying confidence using the arena of competitive horse judging to provide a case study. The presentation of oral reasons in Horse Judging is a perfect place to study the vocalics of confidence portrayal, as there are limited other means by which the competitor can convince the judge of their placing. This situation provides for a unique look at vocalics because other variables are monitored through the training of the competitor or the situation. Through the study of thirteen sets of reasons transcribed from competitions in recent years, this study illustrates that vocalics that occur during an error made within a set of reasons are predictable to certain types of errors. This study also delineates the use of vocalics and ‘fall-back' phrases that help a competitor to regain confidence. The conclusions drawn from this study shed light onto the way that vocalics are used in any situation and how the interpretation of vocalics can lead to the interpretation of confidence.


THE PSYCHOANALYTIC EXPERIENCE OF CREATION IN PARADISE LOST

Jennifer Veilleux, Dr. Mimi Fenton, Department of English, Western Carolina University, Coulter Building, University Drive, Cullowhee, NC 28723

This paper presents a psychoanalytic analysis of John Milton's Paradise Lost. Through application of the theories of Sigmund Freud and Jacques Lacan (primarily “The Mirror Stage as Formative of the Function of the I as Revealed in Psychoanalytic Experience"), I explore the psyches and sub-conscious motivations of Milton's Satan, Adam, Eve. Building on Freud and Lacan's studies, close explication of the epic, and recent Milton scholarship, I show how the formulation of the self directly impacts these characters' relationships with and their understanding of God and the Son. My approach extends the psychoanalytical arguments about Paradise Lost presented by Walter Kerrigan's important study, The Sacred Complex: The Psychogenesis of Paradise Lost, to argue that Milton presents the self as a more holistic construct than Kerrigan's analysis allows. My analysis will concentrate on the multiple creation scenes in Paradise Lost, first through examining Satan's response to his creation in Book 2 where he questions the source of his own existence. Freud's theory of the ego and narcissism usefully illuminates Satan's internal sense of self, and can be used to track Satan's eventual self-destruction in Book 10. Adam and Eve's description of their own creations in Book 8 can be elucidated through Lacan's theory of the development of self. Because these characters immediately acknowledge a divine creator, they demonstrate an integrated and holistic awareness of themselves and their relationship to God. After the fall in Book 9, Freud's theory remains useful in clarifying how Adam and Eve understand mortality and their fractured relationship with the divine.


CLARIFYING THE MECHANISTIC BASIS OF FUNCTIONAL DIVERGENCE AMONG INO ORTHOLOGS

Jennifer Dwyer (Robert Kuzoff) Department of Biological Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI 53190

Our research exploits a well-characterized transition in ovule morphology to gain insights into the evolution of developmental programs in plants. Although a majority of angiosperm ovules have two integuments that surround and protect the nucellus, asterid species generally have only one. In the double-integumented ovules of Arabidopsis, a rosid species, asymmetric outgrowth of the outer integument requires INNER NO OUTER (INO), a putative transcription factor. Ovules of tomato (Solanum esculentum), an asterid species, have only a single integument. We have cloned an ortholog of INO from this species (TomINO) and expressed its protein-coding region under control of a truncated version of the INO promoter (P-INO) in ino mutants. Whereas a P-INO::INO construct is sufficient to restore normal outer integument development in ino mutants, transformants containing P-INO::TomINO showed no evidence of outer integument outgrowth, indicating that TomINO is not functionally equivalent to INO. Sequence comparisons of INO orthologs from diverse higher eudicots reveal that among bitegmic species, the putative DNA binding domain of INO is highly conserved. In contrast, the putative DNA binding domains of INO orthologs from unitegmic species show greater sequence variation. Based on these results, we suspect that the functional differences in INO and TomINO can be traced to amino acid substitutions near the carboxy-end of the putative DNA binding domain (amino acids # 203 – 232). Partial domain-swap experiments are underway to test this hypothesis. We are transforming ino mutants with chimeric constructs in which P-INO is fused to: (1) INO (a positive control); (2) TomINO (a negative control); (3) chimeric TomINO, in which amino acids 203-232 have been replaced with the corresponding residues from INO; and (4) chimeric INO, in which amino acids 203-232 have been replaced with the corresponding residues from TomINO. The results should clarify whether mutations in this cluster of amino acids caused the functional divergence between INO and TomINO and, more generally, may provide insights into the origin of single-integumented ovules in the asterids.


THE CRITICAL ROLE OF THE GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DIMER INTERFACE: PROTEOLYTIC STUDIES

Hana Goldschmidt (Dr. Chris Craney) Department of Biochemistry, Occidental College, Los Angeles, CA 90041

Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) catalyzes the first and rate-determining step in the pentose phosphate pathway, a secondary pathway for glucose metabolism in animal cells. G6PDH oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate to 6-phosphoglucono-δ-lactone while it reduces NADP+ to NADPH. The human enzyme is known to be functional when it is in its dimer conformation, and the crystal structure suggests the interface between the two subunits is important to the control function. By observing the conformation of G6PDH as it functions, it is possible to determine the interactions taking place between the subunits. G6PDH exists in an equilibrium between its three conformations: monomer, dimer, and tetramer. A model system from Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was used to develop a procedure for the proteolytic degradation of G6PDH. The yeast G6PDH dimer was isolated and visualized using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Degradation of the yeast G6PDH dimer with thrombin and proteinase k produced two recognizable fragmentation patterns visualized with SDS-PAGE. A change in conformation was predicted to yield a new pattern. This was confirmed from the degradation of the G6PDH tetramer and monomer with both endoproteinases, producing two distinct fragmentation patterns. Human G6PDH replaced the yeast G6PDH and was treated with each of its substrates in an attempt to transform its conformation. To detect this conformational change, the substrate-treated dimer was reacted with each endoproteinase. The human G6PDH dimer treated with NADP+ and degraded with proteinase k produced a fragmentation pattern different from the native dimer. This confirms that G6PDH changes its conformation in response to substrate binding. Control experiments are being performed to verify this hypothesis. Recent studies suggest subtilisin may be more effective at detecting conformational changes in the G6PDH subunits. Studies using this protease to detect a conformational change of the substrate-treated dimer are in progress. A change in conformation of the G6PDH dimer will provide support for the critical role of the interface in controlling G6PDH activity.


CREATING A CULTURE OF HEALTH AND WELLNESS ON A COLLEGE CAMPUS: A LITERATURE REVIEW

Lindsay Leveille, Tad Sears; Student Center for Health and Well-Being, Kathleen Cargill; The McNair Scholars Program, The College of St. Scholastica, 1200 Kenwood Ave, Duluth, MN, 55811

The premise for the current research is that the health of both faculty and students is essential for the well-being of any college community. A review of current research was the initial step in this applied research which will be used in Healthy Campus 2010 - a part of Healthy People 2010, a comprehensive, nationwide health promotion and disease prevention agenda set by the US Department of Health and Human Services. Data from the review of relevant and appropriate research has begun to enhance the development of the program at The College of St. Scholastica. More than 100 studies were accessed, reviewed and categorized to investigate the physical, mental and spiritual health of college students and faculty with a focus on how health affects their academic and work performance. These studies demonstrated there is a strong connection between students' sleeping habits, exercise level, mental state and academic performance. Other related studies indicated there is a correlation between health and work performance. A power point presentation of the findings introduced the literature and the program to the college community. The next phase has been implemented: data is being used to inform the Healthy Campus 2010 Committee, who will initiate the program for students and faculty.


SEXUAL COMMUNICATION AMONG LATINO PARENTS AND THEIR YOUTH

Krystal Robinson (Viviana Rojas, Department of Communication) Lancy Scholars Program, Honors College, University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249

Information on how Latino parents communicate about sexual issues with their children is scarce. The lack of information is even more problematic when it comes to understanding the role of the Latino male parents in the sexual education of their children. There is also little information about the knowledge, attitude, behaviors and factors that influence Latino adolescents' sexual decision-making. Thus, this study examined Latino parents and adolescents in Bexar County, Texas to address these gaps in the literature. Study I consisted of nine focus groups with Latino teenagers, ages 12 to 18, aimed at discovering their main sources of sexual information. It found that media and friends were the main source of sexual information, followed by older siblings or closer relatives and neighbors. In general, parents ranked last in their lists, and fathers were virtually absent from the lists. Study II consisted of a self- administered questionnaire given to 207 male parents in one zip code with high teenage pregnancy rates. The aim of this exploratory study was to understand the involvement of Latino male parents in the sexual education of their children. The questionnaire assessed opinions about the sources and places where children should learn about sex, the level of comfort parents have in talking about sex with their children, and the sexual topics discussed with their children. The majority (93.1 %) reported being proactive in talking to kids about sex and considered it their role to talk about sexual topics with their children. Yet only one-third had ever talked to their children about sex. Male parents' interest in the topic was not reflected in their actual participation in the sex education of their children. The study suggests that more research is needed to understand the dynamic of communication about sex within Latino families and the role that cultural factors, such as the migration experience and acculturation, play in parents' involvement in the sexual education of their children.


AMERICANS IN THE COLD WAR: THE SHIFT IN ATTITUDES FROM AMERICAN SUPERIORITY TO CULTURAL SENSITIVITY

Racheal Smith (Linda VanIngen) History, University of Nebraska at Kearney, Kearney,Nebraska 68849

After WWII America was no longer isolationist. In fact, by the 1960s, over 1.5 million Americans were living overseas serving in a variety of ways, including in the military, in government, business and non-profit organizations. As a result of the residency of American citizens abroad during the Cold War, there was a gradual change in the attitudes of Americans towards the world from one of American superiority to cultural sensitivity. One of the biggest indicators of this shift in thought is mirrored in the advice literature from this time period. Many advice and training manuals published during the Cold War by popular trade presses as well as personal memoirs and reflections written by those who lived overseas reveal the growing awareness of Americans for cultural tolerance. Research for this study is drawn from these primary sources, with a particular emphasis given to those publications that had a cultural approach to the question of Americans overseas. The shift in attitude revealed in these sources continues to be important today as over 4.1 million Americans live overseas. A growing appreciation of cultural differences can contribute to the success of Americans' efforts overseas.


HISPANIC ORAL TRADITION IN SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN

Yazmin Cano (Pilar Melero) Department of Languages and Literature University of Wisconsin-Whitewater, 800 W. Main Street, Whitewater, WI 53190

This study seeks to recover the oral traditions of Hispanics in Southeastern Wisconsin. Many of these traditions are forgotten and/or lost over time by families due to the dynamics involved in their transition to the United States, such as loss of language or intergenerational contact. The study involves interviews of 6 to 8 Spanish-speaking storytellers selected from different communities in southeastern Wisconsin. The storytellers were asked to share stories that they heard as children. Upon attaining written permission from the storytellers, the stories are recorded, written down, translated, and illustrated. The finished project will allow more Wisconsin residents, Hispanic and non-Hispanic, to better understand and appreciate Hispanic traditions. This study intends to create history through story. Throughout history, storytelling has served as a form of creativity, fantasy and imagination, transmitting the past through spoken words to current and future generations. Oral tradition, memories, myths, and beliefs are essential to the memories of Hispanic families, and as a part of our lives. Unfortunately, oral tradition within the Hispanic community in Southern Wisconsin is being lost through generations. One of the main reasons is because of the cultural transition to the United States. Another reason is that, as new generations lose contact with the Spanish language, they may lose contact with their Spanish-speaking ancestors. The selected Spanish-speaking storytellers will have the critical role or transmitting the past in an oral fashion to present and future generations. These storytellers are a major weapon in fighting the loss of cultural memory and transmitting the collective knowledge of the Hispanic culture. Many oral traditions and stories are buried in the cultural landscape of Wisconsin. They need to be uncovered in order to be preserved. By using the weapon of storytelling, some oral traditions will be recovered, which will help others to have a better understanding of Hispanic myths, legends, and folk tales.


FATIGUE COUNTERMEASURE POLICIES WITHIN CITY, COUNTY AND STATE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN FOUR WESTERN STATES: ANALYSES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

Karla Johanna Dhungana, Scott Senjo, Michelle Heward (National Science Foundation) Department of Criminal Justice, Weber State University, 1206 University Circle, Ogden, UT 94408-1206; Loyola Marymount University, 1 LMU Drive, Los Angeles, CA 90045

Studies have consistently shown concern for fatigued law enforcement officers and asserted the need to control and limit work hours, overtime hours, court schedules, time off and shift assignments. This study investigated the impact and efficacy of administratively controllable factors of officer fatigue in three tiers of law enforcement agencies. Participants included 4 Police departments, 3 Sheriffs departments and 3 Highway patrol agencies across 4 Western States. Officers (N=321) were administered the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index and a factual questionnaire on sleep and shift-work. Additionally, semi-structured interviews were conducted with administrative heads (N=10) regarding protocols/regulations on shift work. There was a unanimous agreement among all administrators that fatigue is a concern. Significant differences in levels of fatigue exist among various shifts and schedules. Overtime deteriorated sleep quantity, secondary employment, however, did not. Furthermore, 60% of officers claimed that departmental protocols/regulations do not help fight fatigue. Analyses of current and existing policies and its possible impact on officer fatigue are discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for developing scheduling procedures to increase officer satisfaction and decrease officer fatigue.


THE RADICAL NEXT DOOR: THE LOS ANGELES CATHOLIC WORKER DURING THE COLD WAR

Leonardo Covis, author Dr. Zuoyue Wang, research sponsor Histoey Department Cal Poly Pomona 3801 W. Temple Ave Pomona, CA 91768

The historiography of American Cold War issues focuses almost entirely on the broad features of the era. Presidents such as Nixon and Reagan dominate discourses on the arms race, deterrence and disarmament. Many opposition groups also fill volumes concerning anti-war and anti-nuclear movements. But literature regarding opposition concerns itself almost entirely on one of two paradigms, either the philosophical debate about weapons and war, or the biographical histories of outspoken leaders or proponents of disarmament movements. One such leader was Dorothy Day, founder of the Catholic Worker. But movements are not made of only philosophies and leaders. People hear leaders, adhere to philosophies, and with their lives shape history. Then who were the people of America's Cold War opposition, and what were their personal motivations, goals, and experiences in working against policies they deemed immoral? In my research I focused on the Los Angeles Catholic Worker, a branch of Dorothy Day's pacifist organization. By examining the LACW's newspaper, The Catholic Agitator, reading the personal testimonials therein contained, and comparing these sources to national mainstream newspapers, I was able to ascertain that Cold War opposition transcended platitudes of brotherhood and naïve notions of world peace. Instead, for the people whose protests led to prison, and who volunteered to feed homeless people everyday on Skid Row, and whose compensation was sometimes nothing less than incarceration, opposition to the arms race meant opposition to a greater, pervasive injustice that included not only the belief that no war could be a moral endeavor and therefore the arms race and deterrence were immoral, but also the incongruity of spending millions of dollars on nuclear warheads while Americans lived in severe poverty.


IDENTIFYING EMOTION AND ACTIONS THROUGH OPERATIC VOICE INFLECTION: A STUDY OF NONVERBAL PARALANGUAGE

Jessica Ocampo, Dr. Lyn Cockett, Communications Department, Juniata College 1700 Moore St. Huntingdon PA, 16652

Paralanguage is an important part of nonverbal communication. It includes any sort of utterance that is not specifically a word. Through paralanguage many people gain emotional understanding. This study tested how well undergraduate liberal arts college students could identify emotions through voice inflection. Results found that, as a whole, students had an above 50% chance of recognizing the correct set of emotions. The percentage of having the correct description of what was taking place based on the same voice inflection fluctuated greatly. However, participants were found to be able to read deeper than the initial emotion to understand the situation's background. In other words, paralanguage holds a wealth of information that people can understand. Results showed gender differences as females having a slightly better chance of identifying the correct emotion over males. Additionally, the emotional vocabulary of females was greater then that of males. Academic major was shown to be related to ability to recognize emotion. Those who had studied a humanity subject such as English, Communication, and Psychology were found to have a higher number of right answers over those who had more technical backgrounds.


SYNTHESIS OF THIENYL-CONTAINING ASYMMETRIC ARYLDIKETONES USING THE SONOGASHIRA REACTION

Jorge de Freitas, CBIA/Pfizer fellowship Grant, Chemistry, CCSU, 1615 Stanley Street New Britain, CT 06050

A multi-step organic synthesis of asymmetric diarylalkynes and diketones involving thiophenes was performed. The first reaction in the multi-step synthesis involved an air and water sensitive Sonogashira coupling that formed asymmetric diarylalkynes. Alkynes were later oxidized with KMnO4 to form asymmetric diketones that can be studied then used to form 2,3-diarylquinoxalines and tetraarylcyclopentadieneones. The Crundwell lab is interested in potential (N,S) bidentate binding behaviors of thienylquinoxalines with soft metals and the production of asymmetric 2,3-diarylquinoxalines is a novel approach to the goal. X-ray crystal structures have been found for two catalytic intermediates formed during the Sonogashira coupling and one intermediate shows disorder around the central Palladium atom. Reactions are currently being studied to determine the catalytic mechanism involved in the formation of the intermediates as well as to create a more efficient reaction for the formation of the asymmetric diarylalkynes.


APPROACHES TO ETHICS IN EXISTENTIAL THOUGHT

Sara Francisco, (Dr. Michael Almeida), Department of English, Classics, and Philosophy, Honors College, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antoni, TX 78249

Twentieth Century philosophical thought in popular culture has been dominated by the views of existentialism. However, most laymen have an incoherent view of the beliefs of existentialism. My personal approach to existential thought involves an interest in the influence of fiction in the development of existential beliefs. The realm of fiction applies itself readily to the philosophical arguments for existentialism due to the subjective nature of fictive narration. Fyodor Dostoevsky's novel The Brothers Karamazov offers an argument for existentialism along with a distinctly moral tale expressing an individualistic example of the function of morality in men. Dostoevsky's ideas regarding freedom and morality were revolutionary for their day and inspire current generations of philosophers and lovers of fiction. In contrast to Dostoevsky, Jean-Paul Sartre and Simone de Beauvoir touted existential views in the mid-twentieth century. Sartre and Beauvoir's influence in continental philosophy arises from both their works of fiction and philosophy. Because of Simone de Beauvoir's work to reevaluate existential thought, I have chosen to focus specifically on her writings regarding existentialism. With her work The Ethics of Ambiguity, Beauvoir attempts to define her own view of action theory and its implications on morality. Using the works of Fyodor Dostoevsky and Simone de Beauvoir, I explore the development and growth of existential views from the nineteenth to the twentieth century with a particular focus on how ideas of existentialism have captured popular culture despite the dismissal of existentialism within the philosophical realm. Man coming to terms with his existence spiritually, mentally, and physically has never been addressed as clearly as existentialists have done. Both Dostoevsky and Beauvoir try to come to terms with man's personal experience within a moral realm. What results are two very different views of man's nature and the reality of existence.


INDUCTION AND STABILITY OF BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR PROTEIN IN MOUSE HIPPOCAMPUS WITH EXERCISE

Nicholas A. Castello (Nicole C. Berchtold, Carl W. Cotman) The Institute for Brain Aging and Dementia, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697

Voluntary exercise increases hippocampal concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA and protein, a neurotrophin critical to the processes of learning and memory as well as neuron survival. In this study we examined the effects of various exercise regimens on BDNF protein levels in the mouse hippocampus. BDNF protein levels were significantly elevated over baseline after as little as 2 days of exercise, and were further significantly increased after an additional 19 days. Moreover, BDNF protein levels remained significantly elevated over baseline for as long as 2 weeks after exercise was stopped, and showed no signs of decay at this time-point. These results contrast with previous findings in rats, where BDNF protein was stable for several days, but decayed to nearly baseline levels 2 weeks after exercise ended. These findings confirm that BDNF protein remains increased in mice after exercise has ended, and suggest that the protein remains stably elevated for longer duration in mice compared to rats. The sustained elevation of BDNF protein levels in mice could be influenced by the natural tendency for mice to remain more active than rats when a running wheel is not available. A better understanding of the mechanisms of BDNF protein induction by exercise may important for optimizing exercise regimens to prevent or reduce the severity of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.


APPLICATION OF THE TWANG TUBEâ AS A SUPPLEMENTAL MUSIC EDUCATIONAL TOOL

Mike Lang (Tom Bourcier), Music and Education, Luther College, Decorah, IA 52101

The Twang Tubeâ is a single-stringed instrument developed by Tom Bourcier and Mike Lang in the summer of 2006 through a Student/Faculty Collaborative Research Grant from Luther College. The Twang Tubeâ is a single-stringed instrument (monocord) constructed from PVC pipe, piano string, and an internal electronic transducer pick-up, and functions as a performance instrument as well as an innovative music education tool, especially effective with young music students and the teaching of rhythm and improvisation. Early research results are quite promising in the grades 3-5 and 6-8 age groups. Through various games using simple rhythm and sound, and basic music with movement activities, the Twang Tube® is showing much promise as an interesting educational and technological alternative or supplement to the conventional music education format. The creators of the tube and its curriculum are aware of national standards in music in public education, and attempt to explore the standards through this invention. Although the Twang Tubeâ is a primitive instrument, electronic transducer pick-ups are installed, making the Twang Tubeâ extremely versatile as a performance instrument. In mobile and site-specific installations the tube is activated by stationary and moving performers, fed through a series of mixing boards, effects processors and loop stations, the effect is quite captivating. Available upon request are DVDs and an audio CD recording demonstrating both the performance and educational capabilities of the Twang Tubeâ. The DVD features the Twang Tube® in a site specific, or installed, environment, as well as its effective use in a third grade classroom. The audio CD demonstrates the Twang Tube'sâ versatile performance use positioned above a grand piano keyboard.


EFFECTS OF BACTERIAL BIOFILMS ON POROUS MEDIA HYDRODYNAMICS

Logan Schultz, Al Cunningham, Robin Gerlach (Zero Emissions Research Technology, Undergraduate Scholars Program) Center for Biofilm Engineering, Montana State University, 366 EPS Building, Bozeman, MT 59717

The ability of bacterial biofilms to influence fluid flow in porous media is a phenomenon with relevance in many industrial and environmental endeavors. Bacterial biofilms produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), which provide protection for the cells and can span the interstitial pore space in porous media. Beneficially, biofilms can be used in water and wastewater treatment, mining, and in situ bioremediation. As a liability, biofilms can wreak havoc in piping, tubing, and in particular, in-line filters. Quintessential to managing the use of biofilms in porous media is the understanding of their effect on hydraulic conductivity, head-loss, dispersion, and diffusion. To simulate both constant flow and constant head conditions, experimental studies were conducted in 3.8cm x 8.5cm flat plate reactors filled with 1mm diamond-shaped porous media elements. Piezometers and injection/extraction ports were constructed at the inlet and outlet of each reactor. Systems were inoculated with Cellulomonas sp. (strain ES6), a fermentative biofilm-producing bacterium commonly found in soil. Biofilms were grown in tryptic soy broth with an initial flow rate of approximately 0.7ml/min. Studies were conducted over several months. Photographic and tracer curve analyses showed that dynamically-changing channels are formed under constant head and flow conditions. These channels form and re-form, causing sinusoidal spikes of pressure drop across reactors and altering diffusion and dispersion. Biofilms produced in constant flow systems were more prolific in occupying space and forming channels. Food dye tracers broke through rapidly before releasing slowly, showing effects of diffusion and dispersion of fluid from channels to and from the EPS. When subjected to chlorine (bleach), the overall volume occupied by biofilm in the reactor was affected very little, though pressure drop was drastically decreased. The biofilm matrix did not fully recover for 4 weeks after exposure to chlorine. Further studies will expose the biofilms to various anti-microbials as well as test the bacterium's ability to simultaneously degrade toxic materials involved in real-world bioremediation situations.


SPONTANEOUS CLUSTERING OF PHRASES IN AN ARTIFICIAL LANGUAGE LEARNING PARADIGM

Carrie Miller Professor Susan Thompson Department of Psychology Hobart and William Smith Colleges 300 Pultney St Geneva, NY 14456

A central question of interest in language acquisition research involves the relative contributions of nurture (features of the input or linguistic environment) and nature (innate predispositions of the human learner) in the learning process. Previous research has shown that knowing where the phrases are in a stream of words is a necessary step in the acquisition of grammar or syntax. Phrases are important in the language learning process because they are an intermediate level of structure in a language—words, ordered in specific ways, form phrases, and phrases, ordered in specific ways, form sentences. The two present experiments demonstrated that adult monolingual English speakers spontaneously cluster six-word sentences into phrase-like units in the absence of any cues (pauses, intonation variations, differences in syllable duration or pitch contour, etc.) to signal the existence of phrasal groupings. A total of 24 participants listened to computer-generated sentences from a miniature, artificial language for 20-minutes on each of five consecutive days. All sentences had an ABCDEF structure, where A, B, C, etc. were classes of words, analogous to the word classes noun and verb. Three monosyllabic consonant-vowel-consonant words (examples include SEM, LUM and CAV) were assigned to each class. On day five, participants were given a two-alternative, forced-choice test consisting of legal word pairs from the language. Results showed that participants spontaneously clustered the words into phrase-like units by chunking the sentence two words at a time; they significantly preferred (AB), (CD), and (EF) pairs over (BC) and (DE) pairs. In Experiment 2, participants were exposed to a control language using the same words, but reassigned to different classes, such that phrasal pairs were now non-phrasal pairs, and vice versa (an FABCDE re-assignment). Participants in this condition still showed a significant preference for (AB), (CD), and (EF) pairs, demonstrating that it was not the specific words, but rather a spontaneous tendency to form phrase-like groupings driving the effect in Experiment 1. These results suggest a role for innate tendencies in the formation of phrase structure during the process of language learning.


GIVING VOICE TO THE BANLIEUES

Laura Sims, International Affairs Department and French Department Lafayette College 1 Markle Hall Easton, PA 18042

The November 2005 riots in the French suburbs brought to the attention of many French people the severity of a problem that has been growing since the 1950's. Second and third generation North African immigrants have still not been successfully integrated into French society. These “Maghrébin-Muslims" make up a significant (10%?) proportion of the population in France, with most of them coming from poor economic and educational backgrounds. The resulting social tensions have produced an “us versus them" mentality, in which the inhabitants of the banlieues feel that they are up against the rest of the French people, the French state, and especially the French police. Since minorities are underrepresented in the media and politics, coverage of this issue can often be one-sided and tends to portray these inhabitants only as violent delinquents. This difficult situation is compounded by the fact that some aspects of Maghrébin culture conflict with French values and traditions. Two obvious and substantial conflicts stem from religious/civilizational differences compounded by different colonial experiences. My thesis project analyzes a number of works of autobiographical fiction that have been written by the children of North African immigrants about the challenges of life in the banlieues, in order to examine their mentality and how they perceive their role in French society. This analysis will lead to a more complete understanding of an issue that is only growing in importance, particularly with respect to the appropriateness of the traditional French republican model of universalist integration, in the face of an increasingly multicultural France. The treatment of this problem will certainly play a large part in the upcoming French presidential and legislative elections in the late spring of 2007, which should present an additional interesting context for my conclusions. More importantly, some satisfactory means of coping with France's still expanding Maghrébin/Muslim population is essential for the nation's well-being and stability.


SKILLS USED BY ACCOUNTING PROFESSIONALS TO DETECT FRAUD

Adetutu Adeniran (Kim Capriotti) Davis College of Business, Jacksonville University, 2800 University Blvd., N., Jacksonville, FL 32211.

The accounting profession and the general public often disagree over the auditor's responsibility in performing an audit, especially in regards to detecting fraud. In recent years, this expectation gap has resulted in auditors being blamed for not detecting fraudulent financial activity that at times resulted in corporate failure, as in the case of Enron, World Com, and Adelphia. The public outcry resulted in the passing of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, which made significant changes to how the audit is conducted. In addressing this Act, the Auditing Standards Board of the AICPA issued Statement on Auditing Standards No.99, Consideration of Fraud in a Financial Statement Audit, which promulgates updated guidance on the auditor's role in detecting fraud. Several years after the implementation of this new regulation, the expectation gap still exists. A possible cause for the expectation gap could be a lack of uniformity in the skills set and duties of the accounting professionals responsible for detecting fraud. These accounting professionals include the fraud examiner, forensic accountant and financial statement auditor. By using a survey, this study compared the skills and resources used to detect fraud to those recommended by accounting oversight boards and professional accounting organizations. The results of this survey could be useful for determining if accounting professionals are adequately prepared to detect fraud.


EXPANDING THE REPORTER'S PRIVILEGE TO PROTECT A JOURNALIST'S WORK PRODUCT

Matthew D. Lutz (Faith O'Reilly) Department of Legal Studies, Hamline University, 1536 Hewitt Avenue, St. Paul, MN 55104

Thirty-one states, the District of Columbia and all but one of the federal circuit courts recognize some form of reporter's privilege that protects a journalist from revealing to a court of law the source of gathered information. However, journalists have no federal statutory privilege. Such a privilege should be passed. In addition, the current privileges should be expanded to protect a journalist's thoughts and mental impressions, their work product. By expanding these privileges, San Francisco Chronicle journalists Mark Fainaru-Wada and Lance Williams would not be held in contempt of court for their refusal to reveal their source in the Bay Area Laboratory Co-Operative investigation. A reporter's privilege that incorporates protections for a journalist's work product is developed by drawing analogies between a journalist's work product and attorney's work product. Excluding a journalist's work product from evidence is similar to the discovery exception afforded to an attorney's work product. Both privileges exclude mental impressions, conclusions, opinions and theories generated in preparation for an end result. For attorneys, this end is litigation, and for journalists, the end is publication. In his dissent of Herbert v. Lando, U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice William Brennan draws an analogy between a journalist's editorial privilege and that of the President's executive privilege. In United States v. Nixon, the U.S. Supreme Court justified executive privilege by writing that the public disclosure of the policy-making process would undermine the end product, for those who expect public dissemination of their thoughts may be tempted to offer less-than-candid commentary. The same principle should apply to journalists. If prepublication editorial judgments become subject to judicial review, those decisions will negatively affect the First Amendment's goal of free flow of information to the public. Therefore, a journalist's work product should be privileged.


EFFECTS OF STUDY ABROAD ON STUDENTS' NATIONAL IDENTITY

Alana M. Dunn (Laura Roselle), Department of International Studies, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244

Colleges and universities across the nation are increasingly encouraging students to include a study abroad as part of their academic experience. Because nearly 200,000 undergraduates studied abroad during the 2003-2004 academic year, it is important to determine how students are affected by their experiences. Though much current research exists in international education on certain benefits of study abroad (Hadis 2005; Kitsantas 2004; Pellegrino 1998; Rundstrom Williams 2005), the research on the effects of study abroad on students' national identity is limited. This study uses literature on the politics of identity and focuses on students' views of America and Americans, and how, if at all, these views change as a result of studying abroad. Three hypotheses were formulated. The first was threefold: a) students' views or opinions of America will have changed after studying abroad; b) if students had primarily positive feelings about America before they left for study abroad, then their experience in the host country would lead them to see both positives and negatives about America; and c) if students had primarily negative feelings about America before they left for study abroad, then their experience in the host country would reinforce those feelings. The second hypothesis was that students would pay more attention to the news/current events and U.S. foreign policy after studying abroad. The third hypothesis was that studying abroad would lead students to be more open to other cultures. To test these hypotheses, 22 Elon University undergraduates who studied abroad during summer 2006 completed pre-departure, in-progress, and post-experience surveys. The data indicate some support for the first hypothesis, but there was no statistically significant change for the second or third hypotheses. As for the first hypothesis, approximately half of the students said that their view of America had changed. After analyzing the data and consulting other literature, the research suggests that the students' experiences are greatly affected by how much interaction they have with the host culture, how much non-academic, independent travel they do in their free time, and the overall structure of their study abroad program.


THE EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND LIGHT EXPOSURE ON SLEEP QUALITY IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN ELDERS

Jonathan D. Williams (Ellen Buckner), University of Alabama School of Nursing, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-1210.

Elders have many challenges that occur with aging and they deserve attention for the complex problems that occur. As people age, sleep quality oftentimes deteriorates. This study will focus on how physical activity and light exposure affect sleep quality. Participants in this IRB approved study were three English-speaking African-Americans of both genders, aged 65-80. Data covered the span of seven consecutive 24-hour days. One participant is working, another is retired, and the third is home-bound. Since this was a comparison study, differing amounts of activity and light exposure were compared to determine relationships among the independent variables and the dependent variable of sleep quality. Objective and subjective data were obtained from the participants by using four different tools. The tools were actigraphy watches (Mini Mitter Co.®), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (Buysse, 1989), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (Johns, 1991) and an investigator-designed Natural Daylight Assessment Tool. The Natural Daylight Assessment Tool was reviewed for content validity by a panel of experts. Participants wore the actigraphy watches day and night. There were distinct differences among the three participants. The working individual had the most predictable schedule of sleeping, most light exposure, best sleep, a normal sleep efficiency of 88%, and a low sleepiness score. The retired and home-bound individuals reported variable sleep and fewer hours of light exposure. The worst sleep was reported by the retired individual, whose sleep was rated very bad, whose daytime sleepiness was extremely high, sleep efficiency low (64%) and activity lowest of the three. There was a statistically significant correlation (r= - .997, p<.05) between the self-reported Epworth Sleepiness Scale and actual sleep in minutes with each participant. With decreasing amounts of sleep the participants received, the poorer they rated their quality of sleep, and the more sleepiness they reported. Nursing implications include developing individualized plans for enhancing sleep to support improved overall function.


HURRICANES AND POLITICS--A STORMY RELATIONSHIP

Holly E. Robbins (Dr. Jay Barth) Department of Politics, Hendrix College, 1600 Washington Avenue, Conway, Arkansas 72032.

There are several factors that make hurricanes a particularly interesting phenomenon to examine, especially in terms of the political consequences they produce. While there is abundant data on hurricanes and some of their effects, there is little information on how such large-scale disasters affect local, state, and federal politics within the affected regions. The “blameless" nature of hurricanes creates an interesting source of study since neither individuals nor political parties are responsible for the disaster or its destruction. However, an analysis of voting patterns in hurricane-affected areas may make it possible to understand how citizens feel about the responsibility of each level of government. The primary objective of this research is to determine within which level of government voters hold politicians accountable for preparation and recovery efforts in severely affected areas. A statistical analysis of four elections in Orleans Parish, Louisiana and their fluctuations in Hurricane Katrina's aftermath serves as a case study that sheds light on at least some of the voting patterns associated with highly damaged areas. Using precinct-level data, this analysis also takes into account the level of flooding within each precinct as well as the racial composition of each. In order to better assess whether these results are applicable to other hurricane-hit regions, further analysis will be conducted on four of the most devastating and costliest hurricanes in recent decades. This analysis will examine whether certain levels of government and incumbent candidates and parties suffer more than others. With this, there will be an examination of whether minority and write-in candidates fare better prior to or after a direct major hurricane. The goals of this research will be to determine why some incumbents benefit politically from natural disasters, while others are “punished" at the polls.


LATINO BASHING?: MODERN RACE-BAITING IN 2006 ARKANSAS ELECTIONS

Elizabeth Price (Dr. Jay Barth) Politics Department, Hendrix College, 1600 Washington Ave., Conway, AR, 72032

A widely accepted theory of racial threat is the ‘power threat' hypothesis which explains that a majority group becomes more racially hostile as any minority group challenges or threatens their economic or social privilege. Most of the literature on this subject deals with African-Americans in the South. Instead of the traditional racial dynamics, this project examines the political impact of a new and expanding group-Latinos. Since the population growth of Latinos in the South is a recent trend, there is not much electoral research on the subject of whether Latinos are being used as a new ‘threat' in the region. Borrowing from Mendelberg's (2001) work on race in political campaigns, research will be conducted to study how Arkansas political candidates for state constitutional offices have attempted to capitalize politically on the increased Latino presence by using messages in their campaigns that are implicitly racial or racist in nature. Specifically, campaign materials for the Democratic and Republican candidates for Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and Attorney General in the 2006 election will be examined for uses of implicit racism towards Latinos. Then, using multivariate analysis, county level electoral data will be examined to determine whether Latino “threat" drives an increased vote for candidates who employed such messages in high Latino-populated areas of the state. While the Latino population grows rapidly in Arkansas, it is also growing rapidly in the country, and this research will have implications for the success or failure of Latino racial messages in campaigns in the years ahead.


"THEIR QUAINT OPINIONS": EDUCATIONAL REFORM AND THE CONFLICT OF KNOWLEDGE IN PARADISE LOST

Joshua Wisebaker (Dr. Ty Buckman), English Department, Wittenberg University, P.O. Box 720, Springfield, OH, 45504.

In Book Eight of Paradise Lost, Adam, as The Argument tells us, “inquires concerning celestial Motions, is doubtfully answer'd and exhorted to search rather things more worthy of knowledg[sic]." The passage that follows is a curious one in that Raphael, the “Divine instructor," dissuades Adam from his pursuit of knowledge in ways that do not seem, at first glance, to fit with Milton's views on education. As Barbara Lewalski notes, “By thus declining to provide a definitive answer on his angelic authority, he removes astronomy from the province of revelation [. . .], placing it squarely in the realm of human speculation." In so doing, Raphael implicitly constructs a hierarchy of knowledge in which “human speculation" inhabits a lower rung than the revelatory divine knowledge that Raphael has been sent to impart. The questions that arise from Raphael's distinction are numerous and difficult. Is Milton suggesting that there are things unworthy to be known? To what extent is knowledge dangerous to humanity in both the pre- and post-lapsarian state? What is the “more worthy [. . .] knowledg" that Raphael so emphatically recommends? In investigating these and other questions it is useful to begin by examining the accepted educational practices of Milton's time, if only to understand the tenets against which educational reformers were arguing. As Milton himself complained, the seventeenth century curriculum was dominated by “the most intellective abstractions of Logick & metaphysics." To Milton and other notable reformers like Comenius, the predominance of “abstractions" led to the “fadomles and unquiet deeps of controversie." “Things," as Comenius observes, “are essential, words only accidental." In this sense, the material object becomes a species of the absolute, or at least a foundation for the discovery of the absolute, but the material world still resides on the lower end of the epistemological hierarchy. While Milton may assert that “our understanding cannot in this body found it selfe but on sensible things," the goal is to rise “to the knowledge of God and things invisible" through “orderly conning over the visible and inferior creature." The reformed educational program then becomes one in which the student progresses from worldly knowledge to that of the divine in ascendent steps toward similitude with the Creator. However, in Paradise Lost the tension between worldly and divine knowledge is central in that knowledge becomes the fulcrum upon which the fate of humanity balances. Divine knowledge leads to ascension and the absolute, worldly knowledge towards conflict, temptation, and the ultimate fall of humanity. In Paradise Lost, Milton firmly asserts the supremacy of divine wisdom. The ascendence of knowledge from the sensual to the divine is an organizing principle that has great bearing on the very structure of Milton's epic. Our first parents progress from the sensual paradisal state to the divine prophecy of Michael's instruction. Their Fall is precipitated by the unprincipled pursuit of worldly knowledge, the trial of which leads them to the “more worthy [. . .] knowledg" of love and obedience to the “Great Architect."


THE EVOLUTION OF SOCIAL ORDER: PERSONALLY AND NATIONALLY

Kinsey J. Roten (Dr. Brian Railsback) Department of English, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723

Authors V.S. Naipaul and J.M. Coetzee present characters in their novels, A House for Mr. Biswas and Disgrace, respectively, who represent times in history. The authors give readers a glimpse into the changes that Trinidad and South Africa have gone through. In A House for Mr. Biswas, Mohun Biswas symbolizes Trinidad at the time in history when it was becoming independent. Both Biswas and Trinidad struggle with overbearing queens, financial turmoil, and failure after failure in trying to gain their freedom. Like most colonies undergoing steps to evolve into independent countries, Trinidad and Biswas both achieve independence, but at a great cost. Disgrace illustrates the same evolution in social order, but from a contrasting perspective shown through the eyes of the oppressors. It portrays the strife experienced by the whites during the tearing down of the apartheid. David Lourie goes from being a member of the dominant race and gender to one who submits to the changes in his environment; he loses all hope of restoring himself and his family to their former status. Though the novels seem to be opposites, one in which a man gains his view of independence and the other a man coping with becoming dependent on a new class system, they both show the evolution of social order that occurred in the countries during these times and the willingness of men to fight for their social standing.


RELIGIOUS HERESY AND RADICAL REPUBLICANISM IN JOHN MILTON'S PARADISE LOST

Lisa Riva (Gregory Chaplin) Department of English, Bridgewater State College, Bridgewater, MA 02325

Critics have often suggested that John Milton's works reflect heretical religious views. Some have even categorized him as a follower of Arianism, a Christian heresy that rejects the orthodox trinity and embraces the idea that the Father and Son are two separate beings. In addition to his heretical religious beliefs, Milton was also well known as a political radical, an appropriate label when considering his political tracts. Although a few isolated critics have suggested a connection between Milton's Arianism and his radical political ideas, no one has fully explored the issue. Many interpret Milton's Arianism as a purely theological issue; therefore, few have delved deeply enough into the poem to produce a strong body of evidence in support of the claim that the portrayal of the Holy Trinity and other hierarchies in Paradise Lost are influenced by Milton's political thought. By conducting a thorough reading of Milton's political tracts, specifically The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, as well as his religious pieces, with a focus on The Christian Doctrine, one can begin to understand Milton's religious and political preferences. In Paradise Lost, however, these two seemingly separate spheres are united. This paper explores the connections between the fluid hierarchal relationship between the Father and Son and political ideas about merit and right. Arianism is based on the concept that the Father and Son are separate beings, and that the Son rose to glory through merit. This same principle of rising by merit can be applied to Milton's concerns about monarchy and unfit kings. The poem makes use of both Arian imagery (most apparent in Books III and VII) and political imagery (most apparent in Books XI and XII) in such a way that provides foreground to connect his radical theology and politics. This reading of Paradise Lost demonstrates the unity of Milton's radical perspectives in the poem.


IT'S A MAN'S WORLD: THE CREATION OF AN IDEAL MALE SOCIETY IN MARLOWE'S "HERO AND LEANDER"

MicKenzie E. Fasteland, (Dr. Marcela Kostihova), Department of English, Hamline University, 1536 Hewitt Avenue, Saint Paul, MN, 55104

For years, Americans have turned to Renaissance to determine the moral codes for everyday life. The ideas of the most celebrated writers from this time period, so often considered to be “transcendental," help support conventions of gender roles and sexuality within our society. Yet, after a more thorough examination, one must wonder if these texts truly maintain the heterosexual agenda. Christopher Marlowe's unfinished work, Hero and Leander, uses a classical tale that celebrates a heterosexual relationship and turns it into an epic romance that foregrounds sexual relationships between men. Despite Marlow's apparent reverence of the sanctity of the heterosexual relationship between Hero and Leander as well as of the characters themselves, the poem exemplifies how the literary praise of women may be actually be its inverse and suggest the inferiority of women. In addition, this paradox allows the poem to elevate male homosexual relationships, as well as male homosocial relationships, in comparison, which is furthered by the eroticism of Leander's form and Neptune's attempt to seduce Leander. Using an in-depth analysis of Hero and Leander in addition to Valerie Traub's Desire and Anxiety, I will explore how Hero and Leander undermines our concept of a Renaissance heterosexual sexuality as it creates its own ideal male homosocial world.


SYSTEMIC BANKING CRISIS RESOLUTION

Maria Mileva, Prof. Julie Smith, Economics and Business, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042

A systematic banking crisis is defined as a set of circumstances where the net worth of the banking system is almost or entirely exhausted as non-performing loans use up most or all of the capital in the banking system. The effects of such an event upon a country's economy are devastating: bank runs, flight of capital, loss of depositor and creditor confidence, industrial sector instability, recession, inflation, and currency fluctuations. Considering the severity of financial distress, we would expect that banking crises are rare events. Yet, World Bank researchers have compiled a list of 113 crises in 93 countries during the period of 1975-1999. They have also documented that in recent decades banking crises have become more frequent and increasingly expensive, devastating the economies of both industrialized and developing countries and turning bank crises resolution into a public policy issue of the first magnitude. My paper will examine several questions: how do countries get out of a banking crisis, which is the best set of resolution policy measures to use during a systemic banking crisis, which policy options are the most effective, the fastest and the least costly. To answer these questions, I study the effects of different policies upon the speed and cost of the recovery process in various countries since the late 1970s. Researchers have identified three distinct stages of resolution of systemic banking crises – the containment, the operational and the restructuring phase. So far, statistical research has concentrated on the first two resolution phases and has found that more accommodative policy measures and institutional and legislative inadequacy of countries tend to increase the fiscal and economic cost of crises. I intend to broaden the scope of the existing research by examining the effect of foreign bank entry and bankruptcy reforms utilized in the restructuring phase of crisis resolution upon the speed and cost of recovery. Regression analysis will determine whether a statistical relationship exists between this set of policies and financial performance indicators such as fiscal outlays and loss of economic output during the crisis period.


THE ROLE OF THE MASS MEDIA IN POLITICS: HOW IMAGES EMPOWER THE THREAT OF TERRORISM IN THE UNITED STATES

Jennifer M. Coon (Dr. M. Neil Browne) Philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403

Does the manipulation of political images contribute to the increased role of fear in modern elections? The introduction of mass media into political campaigns has spurred a new sort of information technology that can transmit ideas not only through the power of words, but also through the power of images. How are political campaigns affected by this new capability? This paper answers this question by using a three-part analysis. In part one, this paper uses numbers found in the Congressional Quarterly Almanac and The Washington Post to examine the party distributions and campaign platforms of the legislature from 1932 to 2006. These statistics show that at about the same time that television became a popular medium for following elections, so did the preferences of voters begin to become more superficial. In the second part, this paper investigates the significance of the shift in voting behavior by turning to Jean Baudrillard's Fatal Strategies that outlines the effects of the empowerment of these shallow types of ideas, mainly how it leads to an obsession with security and terrorism. Finally, this paper concludes by synthesizing Baudrillard's work with Richard Kearney's article, “Terror, Philosophy and the Sublime: Some Philosophical Reflections on 11 September," to better explain why the threat of terrorism is a superficial fear and why it should be rejected by voters.


INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS' ATTRIBUTIONS OF HOMELESSNESS

Lauren M. Appio (John S. Shaw III) Department of Psychology, Lafayette College, Easton, PA 18042

Attribution theory has shown that interpersonal attributions predict whether or not people provide help to others following a negative event (Weiner, 2000). The purpose of this study was to examine how college students' personal beliefs and attitudes might affect their attributions about the causes of homelessness. One hundred and twenty-seven undergraduate students read a scenario in which they were asked to imagine an encounter with a woman who became homeless after she lost her job. In half of the scenarios, the woman's unemployment was due to an internal cause (High Personal Blame), and in the other half, the woman's unemployment was due to an external cause (Low Personal Blame). After reading the scenario, the participants answered questions about their feelings of anger and sympathy, the controllability of this woman's homelessness, and their willingness to help, measured in dollars given. Participants also completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (Davis, 1980), which includes four subscales (Perspective Taking, Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, and Fantasy), and the Social Dominance Orientation Scale, version 6 (SDO; Sidanius & Pratto, 1999). A 3-way Analysis of Variance revealed main effects of both Personal Blame and Social Dominance Orientation, as well as several interesting interactions. For example, there was a Personal Blame by Perspective Taking interaction on the perceived controllability of the woman's homelessness. In the Low Personal Blame condition, participants who were low Perspective Taking (PT) believed that the woman had more control over her situation than High PT participants, while in the High Personal Blame condition, Low PT participants attributed less controllability than High PT participants. These findings have important implications for the way college students view homelessness, and the results can help delineate the conditions in which people are likely to provide aid to the homeless.


RELIGIOUS AFFILIATON AND CONGRESSIONAL VOTING ON STEM CELL RESEARCH

Courtney Swartwout (Dr. Christopher Cooper) Department of Political Science and Public Affairs, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina 28723

Congressional behavior is thought to be the product of a number of factors. These include party affiliation, constituent pressure, and personal characteristics like gender and ethnicity. Increasingly, research has also supported the inclusion of religion as one of the pertinent factors that influences voting in the United States Congress. Religion seems to be especially significant on cultural issues such as abortion, euthanasia, or gay marriage. As a relatively new hot-button political issue, stem cell research has not been subjected to the numerous studies that these other culturally sensitive issues have. The research presented in this paper addresses whether religion influences how members of Congress vote on stem cell legislation. For the purposes of this paper, I selected HR810, known as the “Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act of 2005", as the instrument to gauge and operationalize a member of Congress' support for stem cell research. The votes for the 433 voting members of the 109th Congress were recorded and coded “0" for a vote in opposition, “1" for a vote in favor. To operationalize religious affiliation, I collected the religious affiliation of each congressional member voting on HR810, using Congressional Quarterly's 2005 Fall Congressional Staff Directory: 109th Congress, First Session. The congressperson's religious affiliation was then coded according to the Fundamentalist-Liberal continuum classification scheme utilized by Wood (1970) to classify the major Protestant denominations and Catholicism. A linear regression was run which showed that a relationship does exist (p≤.001) between religious affiliation and how members of Congress voted on HR810, even controlling for factors such as party identification and sex.


IT'S ALL A GAME: NGO AND DONOR INTERACTIONS IN JORDAN

Mackenzie L. Smith (Lindsey Fauss, Winkie Williamson) "Jordan: Modernization and Social Change Program," School for International Training, P.O. Box 840062, Amman 11118 Jordan

Why have global efforts at poverty alleviation been so ineffective? This broad question is investigated within the context of Jordan, a lower-middle income country that receives large amounts of foreign development aid and yet experiences persistently high poverty rates. It is posited that the failures of poverty alleviation strategies in Jordan are related to a lack of communication between donors and the nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that implement development projects. Interviews with local, national (royally sponsored) and international NGOs are used to explore the relationships between NGOs and the donors who fund them. The paper includes an examination of the development process, from agenda and policy setting to the monitoring and evaluation stage. The findings confirm the theory that a lack of communication exists between actors on the funding and implementation sides of the process: donors hold the power and set the terms of the development ‘game,' but lack the will and resources to improve their understanding of local circumstances. However, it is further discovered that this is not where the tension in the system lies. Within the Jordanian NGO community, the rules of the ‘donor game' are considered fixed; according to the development practitioners interviewed in this study, the success or failure of poverty alleviation strategies depends on NGOs' ability to play the game. Determinants of this ability include NGO size, experience and resources, both political and financial. Even while they accept this reality, however, the NGOs studied have not developed fatalistic attitudes; therefore, the paper concludes with an exploration of potential methods for improving the relationship between NGOs and donors. (Home Institution: Hope College, Holland, MI)


WHY DO SOME PRODUCTS VARY MORE IN PRICE FROM PLACE TO PLACE THAN OTHERS?

Alexander J. Kazmierczak (James A. Kurre) 5101 Jordan Rd., Black School of Business, Penn State Erie, Erie PA 16563-1400

Nearly everyone is aware that gasoline prices vary from place to place, and that housing is much more expensive in some places than others. But it is likely that few people ask just how much these and other goods vary in price, and why. It appears that some goods vary in price through space only slightly while others have drastically different prices across space. What causes this? This project seeks to identify the factors that cause some types of goods to have low spatial price variability while others have great variability. This research makes use of a unique database of prices for 61 items covering a broad range of products that households buy, for about 300 American urban areas. The first step in this research is simply to measure each product's spatial price variability, for which the coefficient of variation (COV) is used. The data verify empirically that some goods have significantly more spatial price variation than others, with the COV of some products being nearly seven times as great as that of other products. But the key issue is to explain why some products' price variability is much greater than that of other products'. The model that results focuses on the transportability of the products, and the possibility of arbitrage through space when prices are different in different places. The hypothesis is that products that are transportable more easily and cheaply will have lower price variability across space. After identifying a suitable measure of transportability, a regression model is estimated for approximately three dozen products to measure the impact of transportability.


THE NATURE AND IMPLICATIONS OF EVIL IN J.R.R. TOLKIEN'S THE LORD OF THE RINGS

Andrew J. Dale (Russell Christensen, Marcela Kostihova) Departments of German and English, Hamline University, 1536 Hewitt Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55104

J.R.R. Tolkien's primary representations of evil in The Lord of the Rings forever circle around the denial of free will, the domination of others' actions and lives. In his narratives, this evil frequently exists in an enemy external to Tolkien's protagonists. However, some of the most trying struggles Tolkien's characters face are those they must endure within themselves. Beginning in the first chapter of his mythology, Tolkien poses evil not as a force independent of free will but as the direct result of repeatedly self-indulgent choices. Its key nature, then, is one of subtraction; it denies or takes by force that which it does not “rightly" deserve. This nature can manifest itself physically (through violence, the forced submission to another's will) or in other, subtler ways (such as intimidation, the goal of which being coercion of another into submission). I assert that one of the primary statements present throughout Tolkien's mythology is this: Evil is immune to its own nature. Responding to evil with such actions as violence or intimidation will not dissolve or prevent evil; in fact, this course of action frequently breeds more or new evil. However, Tolkien simultaneously presents a way in which free-willed beings may break this cycle. His stories suggest that avoiding and defeating evil is a matter of shunning the desire for control over others. Tolkien weaves several recurring themes into his narratives as the best defenses we have against our own hunger for power. These include Pity (the acknowledgment of and identification with others' suffering), Mercy (the refusal to harm another unless directly threatened), and varying forms of love (often containing a strong emphasis on devotion to those for whom one cares). These emotions can prevent descent into corruption and encourage actions that enhance life and nurture self-determination – causes for which Tolkien's heroes constantly strive.


EFFECTS OF IMMIGRATION EXPERIENCE, SCHOOL SUPPORT AND TEACHERS EXPECTATIONS ON THE ACADEMIC-SELF CONCEPT AND SUCCESS OF STUDENTS

Carolina Calvillo, Leda Nath, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Whitewater

Social scientists have documented the fact that Hispanic students have a low college retention rate and above average high school drop out rate. However, few researchers have examined the reasons behind these two issues that have negatively affected the Hispanic community. This study initially explored: how the immigration experience, affects academic self-concept and student retention; barriers that hindered this group from completing high school and college. Other issues that were examined and taken into consideration include: high school graduation rates; differential college graduations rates by gender; fraternization in the college environment; different generational expectations from parents. The initial study is extended an examination of how school support and teachers' expectations impact the academic self concept of students. Strategies that high achieving schools across the country have developed to help Latino student succeed are also explored. In addition, the study will investigate the methods that teachers have used to make the students feel welcome and comfortable in the classroom setting. This study utilized in-person interviews as part of a qualitative study that includes both open and closed-ended questions. The closed-ended questions will be quantified for later statistical analysis in the quantitative portion of the study. Interviews are used to explore student retention and key obstacles to graduation in the Hispanic community in the qualitative part of the study.


CONFLATED REPRESENTATIONS: BIOGRAPHICAL PICTURES AND POSTMODERNISM

Summer Romasco, Greta Niu, Department of English, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0451.

“Conflated Representations" argues that biographical pictures are inherently unable to convey postmodern intentions. The research first defines postmodernism, its form and intentions, in contemporary cinema and then defines how biographical films function in conveying representations of historical individuals. The formal overlaps between postmodern filmmaking and biographical filmmaking have lead some critics to claim that the two opposing types of representation may co-exist in a single film, yet the conflicts between these two modes of representation make them ultimately inconstant with one another. As biographical pictures seek to mold a historical life into a film, by imbuing the representation with a narrative and signification, they fulfill a “biographical imperative" thereby eliminating the possibility of postmodern understandings. After defining the postmodern concerns and forms manifest in contemporary cinema, as developed in writings on postmodernism and in films themselves, including the films of Wong Kar-wai, the research traces how they play out in several biopics. Using Stanley Kwan's Center Stage as an example of a biopic that features seemingly postmodern forms, including self-reflexive shots, incoherent narratives, and traces of history, such as archival photographs and footage, the paper defines the unbridgeable gap between filmic postmodernism and biography. The former primarily revolves around a presentation of the image in absence of signification, while the later conversely relies on conveying a coherent notion of a person's life or character.


REALIZING KEPLERIAN ORBITS AS GEODESICS ON A SURFACE OF REVOLUTION

Brandon Barrette and Alexander Smith, Department of Mathematics, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, 105 Garfield Ave. Eau Claire WI, 54702

It is well known that in Newtonian physics, the gravitational trajectories in a central gravitational field are conic sections with one focus at the central mass. This is known as Kepler's First Law. We consider those gravitational trajectories that lie in a fixed plane P (perhaps thought of as an ecliptic plane), and investigate this question: To what extent can P be embedded as a surface of revolution S inside an abstract three-dimensional Euclidean space E in such a way that gravitational trajectories are mapped to geodesics on S subset of E? To do this, we see that the coordinates of our surface of revolution can be described by a Clairaut patch, which is a special type of coordinate system that often arises in differential geometry. This reduces the original problem, which consists of a system of two second-order differential equations , to a single first -order differential equation. Comparing this with the general equation for trajectories in the ecliptic plane leads to the first fundamental form. We can then construct our surface of revolution and find it to be a hyperboloid of two-sheets and a hyperboloid of one-sheet. Our surface of revolution is a homogeneous isotropic space embedded in a Euclidean space with an indefinite metric. As such it has constant curvature and the isometry group O(2, 1) of the Minkowski three-space acts on S and takes geodesics to geodesics. There is a interesting correspondence between trajectories in the ecliptic plane and linear sections of our surface of revolution. A plot of the surface of revolution S and a geodesic is shown below. The plot on the left is a trajectory in the ecliptic plane P. The right plot shows that trajectory as a geodesic on the surface of revolution S.


PROPERTIES OF THE MITTAG-LEFFLER FUNCTION

Stephan T. Spencer, Trenton R. Ensley, John Hanneken, B.N. Narahari Achar, (John Hanneken, B.N. Narahari Achar) Department of Physics, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152.

Fractional Calculus is an area of Mathematics that is used to better describe physical systems using, not only integer order differential and integral equations, but also rational, irrational, real, and complex order differential and integral equations. The Mittag-Leffler function Eα,β(z), which is a generalization of the exponential function, exp(x), arises frequently in the solutions of differential and integral equations of fractional order, in much the same way that the exponential function, exp(x), arises frequently as solutions of ordinary and partial differential equations. If the properties of the exponential function, exp(x), were not well understood, it would be difficult to understand the systems that ordinary and partial differential equations represent. In order to better understand the physical systems described by fractional order differential and integral equations, it is not only important, but also necessary to understand the basic properties of the Mittag-Leffler function. This paper focuses on the Mittag-Leffler function of the form Eα,α(z), the location and distribution of its zeros, and its inverse which we will be denoting by Lnα,α(z).


BENEATH OUR VEILS: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS OF FEMALE COVERING

Meghan E. Falter (Abdul Karim Bangura), School of International Service, American University, 4400 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, D.C. 20016

The dichotomy of women's oppression as perceived by women of different cultural backgrounds often proves contradictory. Western women claim the veil Muslim women wear is oppressive, whereas Muslim women consider the Western practice of applying make-up equally stifling. However, females of both societies feel empowered by their different methods of “covering." Franz Boas's understanding of culture and Melville Herzkovitz's definition of cultural relativism as judgments made within one's own cultural paradigms highlight the differing cultural perspectives of the two groups of women. Thus, it is hypothesized that women's false perceptions of the oppression of females in other cultures results from their misappropriation of cultural symbols into their own antithetical social constructs, within which the symbols are misinterpreted. Through qualitative approaches, this study investigates the socio-cultural paradigms of the hijab and cosmetics within Muslim and Western contexts, respectively, and the false conceptions of both modes of “covering" in their opposing cultures to challenge the validity of accusations of the oppression of women. Personal interviews and document analysis of historical and contemporary texts, as well as the Qur'an, were used for data collection. Research findings confirm the misinterpretation of women's oppression as a result of the perceived meaning of symbols out of their socio-cultural contexts.


NO PLACE LIKE HOME: *IMAGINARY HOMELANDS* AND THEIR ROLE IN THE RECONSTRUCTION OF IDENTITY.

Carolina I. Pflaumer (Kristina Deffenbacher), Department of English, Hamline University, Saint Paul, MN 55104

Today, there are many voices of cultural hybridity in literature; writers such as Salman Rushdie, Zadie Smith, Eva Hoffman and Hanif Kureishi, among many others, have contributed to the internationalization of English literature and to establish a tradition of writing that derives from different cultural and historical contexts. My paper analyzes how the novels *White Teeth* (Smith), *Lost in Translation* (Hoffman) and *The Buddha of Suburbia* (Kureishi) represent immigrants re-imagining homeland and history in order to construct or sustain an identity in a new country. Because it is impossible to recover the past, which Rushdie compares to *a country from which we have all emigrated,* these authors create fictional representations of the far away home landscape, using memory and imagination to reconstruct the fragments of the past. By method of close reading and comparative analysis, and working within the framework of post colonial theory, I will address the significance of these novelists' different imaginings of history, homeland, and identity, both across the novels themselves and in relation to the broader, global culture inhabited by the authors and readers.


VEILED COMMENTARIES: AUTHORITY, EDUCATION AND FEMININITY IN EARLY QING DYNASTY SCHOLAR-PAINTING AND FICTION

Veronika Totos (David Robinson), Department of Asian Studies, Colgate University 13 Oak Drive Hamilton, NY 13346

This project examined the relationship of learning and power in two of the most important novels of the Qing period, The Scholars by Wu Jingzi and Dream of Red Mansions by Cao Xueqin, as well as the works of painters Hong Ren, Gong Xian and Wang Yuanqi. Although they represent a range of ways to cope with the changes in society, they largely agree that the ideals stemming from the time of the Song or Yuan dynasties are barely feasible in their time. Education does not guarantee the status it used to, studying the Confucian classics (which was considered to be the road to sound moral principles) seemed less compelling. Dissent and criticism were silenced and creative work was stymied by state censorship more active and much more effective than in previous centuries. Many did encounter frustration in the pursuit of the desired roles of the intelligentsia. The depiction of woman scholars, educated women and effeminate men add more detail to the picture, partly because assuming a woman's voice has been historically a literary tool expressing the frustration of the neglected, oppressed scholar. The scholars of the age saw the relationship between learning and officialdom as paradoxical: since learning fosters morality and morality matters above all in governance, therefore political power should be in the hands of the most educated. But they also go to great lengths to show that once in office, it is exceedingly difficult to maintain one's integrity in the face of established network of connections, customs of gift-giving and the economic reality and downward mobility of the day. Therefore many concluded that in order to maintain their integrity and purity of the creative mind, the most learned ones should stay away from office regardless of their qualifications.


SPECIES DISPLACEMENT AMONG ORCONECTES CRAYFISHES OF BURT LAKE, MICHIGAN: THE ROLE OF THE TAIL-FLIP ESCAPE RESPONSE

Elizabeth M. Orr, Paul A. Moore (UMBS REU (funded by the National Science Foundation), directed by Knute Nadelhoffer Mary Anne Carroll and David Karowe) Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Department, University of Michigan Biological Station, 9008 Biological Road, Pellston, Michigan 49769 USA

The invasive crayfish Orconectes rusticus has displaced local species O. virilis and O. propinquus in northern Wisconsin, and Illinois freshwater ecosystems. Currently, Burt Lake, Michigan is in a transition state with all three species coexisting in unknown abundances. Relative ability to avoid predation contributes to species displacement and the prevalent escape strategy employed by crayfish is the tail-flip. Tail-flip strength was evaluated in the lab using a horizontally suspended spring scale to measure exerted force of harnessed crayfish. We used O. rusticus and O. virilis in our tail-flip trials; 9-12 of each species were recorded. We found virtually no variation between species when comparing average tail-flip force. Considering these findings, other mechanisms must be considered in explaining the superior predator evasion of O. rusticus such as out-competing for shelter space and displaying more cryptic behavior in the presence of fish and crayfish congeners. When comparing crayfish intraspecifically with tail-flip trials, it was found that female O. virilis have significantly stronger tail-flip force than their male counterparts. Morphologically, female crayfish have wider abdominal segments, which might be contributing to the noted difference between the sexes. Possible behavioral implications for female O. virilis having stronger tail-flips than males include the ability of females to choose mates, population ratios being skewed by males being preyed upon more heavily than females, and female advantage in accessing resources utilizing tail-flips for foraging. These proposed morphological and behavioral correlations with increased O. virilis female tail-flip strength have yet to be determined.


THE INTEGRATION AND FEASIBILITY OF RFID, GPS, AND GIS USAGE IN THE PAVING/GRAVEL INDUSTRY

Jason J. Keen, Dr. Brian Janz Department of Management Information Systems, University of Memphis 365 Innovation Drive, Suite 201 Memmphis, Tennessee, 38152-3115

RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), GPS (Global Positioning Systems), and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) represent technologies where applications are continually emerging. Application contexts where these technologies might be integrated to provide synergistic benefits are especially interesting and promising, and typically include environments where real-time tracking, route optimization, and geographic characteristics come into play. For example, in the paving and gravel industry, a significant challenge lies in correlating the quality control data related to the manufacturing of concrete or asphalt mixes with the specific area of the pavement that is composed of the respective mixes that have been used in the paving process. Another issue is the ability to track the location of trucks that carry pavement from one location to another and determine the length of travel time from the loading point to the paving site. Also, the need to optimize the routes of the trucks and better control how many trucks are directed to which location in accordance to the needs of the paving sites would be beneficial. The goal of this research is to determine how RFID, GIS, and GPS can be integrated to create a system that improves the correlation of data and tracking capabilities of paving companies. The potential benefits and challenges of this integration effort will be determined by a literature review in both academic and trade outlets, as well as observations, interviews, and interaction with paving industry professionals.


THE SACRAMENTAL ANTIDOTE TO KIERKEGAARDIAN DESPAIR

Mark Koschmann, Christ College (Honors College), Valparaiso University, Valparasio, IN 46383

In *Sickness unto Death* Kierkegaard describes sin as the intensification of despair before God to either “not will to be oneself" or in despair before God “to will to be oneself." Kierkegaard desires to awaken us to our despair and proposes faith as an antidote to this condition. He further asserts that one of the most decisive definitions of Christianity is that “the opposite of sin is not virtue, but faith." Prompted by Kierkegaard's diagnosis, this essay argues that unlike the ethical answer, which is precarious and self-aggrandizing, the sacramental answer leads one closer to God. Moreover, the sacramental focuses on prayer and worship as countermeasures to despair. Thus, the person of faith enters into a doxological relationship with God, that is, the self's highest desire is to glorify God. The sacramental enables this transparency before God by trusting in the promise of the forgiveness of sins and by participating with God in the atonement through repetition and re-enactment. Kierkegaard's emphasis on faith as the antidote to despair is significant not only for Christians, but for anyone who desires to be oneself wholly and completely before God.


THE EFFECT OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT EMISSIONS AND FLY ASH ON A REGIONAL WATERSHED

Amanda Carey, Zoe Harrold, Thomas Darrah, Robert Poreda, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Rochester, 227 Hutchison Hall, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627

The use of coal as a source for power generation is amplified, as global energy demands continue to increase. Extensive coal reserves in localized regions of the U.S. have attracted large scale power plants; these areas often remain riddled with abandoned and unreclaimed mines from previous mining. The combination of nearby coal reserves and accessible low-cost abandoned mines provides an ideal location for power generation and fly ash disposal. Fly ash, the waste product of coal combustion, concentrates inorganic non-combustibles such as heavy and trace metals. This increases the potential for localized environmental damage if emissions and fly ash reach the environment in appreciable amounts. In order to assess the impact of coal power production on local watersheds, we determined the major element, trace metal and isotopic chemistry of a regional reservoir located in the anthracite coal fields of eastern PA. The focus of the study involved quantifying the effects of wet and dry deposition of fly ash and inorganic aerosols from power plant emissions and mine reclamation by observing spatial variations in precipitation, surface sediments and water chemistry. Major cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and anions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42-) were determined by ion chromatography while trace metal analysis (Cr, Mo, Zn, Cd, Se, Hg, Pb, Th, U, etc.) was completed using standard ICP-MS techniques for waters and sediments. Because of the high distribution coefficients of heavy metals (KD), sediments provide more information about metal deposition resulting from natural and anthropogenic sources. The role of each source was investigated using the spatial distributions of metals relative to the power plants, highways and other pollution sources. Sampling and analysis is ongoing. Two sediment cores from within the reservoir were analyzed to observe whether any changes in metal chemistry have occurred in recent decades, and did indicate higher levels of trace metals in younger sediments. Initial results indicate a measurable (but relatively low) anthropogenic input of trace metals in the watershed sediments; however Kd and pH control these trace metal concentrations and mitigate impact to drinking water.


THE ROLE OF IRON IN OXIDATIVE STRESS INDUCED BY 3-HYDROXYANTHRANILIC ACID AND 3-HYDROXYKYNURENIC ACID

Christine Hauther, (Dr. King-Thom Chung) Department of Biology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152

Tryptophan's metabolites such as 3-hydroxykynurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid have been implicated in the genesis of cancers. Implanted pellets of the metabolites in rat bladders were shown to produce tumors. Previous work with the Salmonella typhimurium/microsome mutagencity assay with tester strain TA102 indicated that 3-hydroxykynurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid were mutagenic in the presence of rat liver S9 mix. It was found the number of revertants due to mutation decreased significantly when catalase or superoxide dismutatase were included in the assay. It was suggested that the oxidative DNA damage might be due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 3-hydroxykynurenic acid and 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid. A lipid peroxidation assay is proposed to be conducted in the presence and absence of iron with these two compounds in order to test whether trace amounts of iron would be a factor in the formation of ROS. The presence of iron would stimulate the Fenton reaction that creates highly damaging hydroxyl free radicals when hydrogen peroxide is available in the system. If hydrogen peroxide is not available in the system due to these compounds, further study would be needed to detect which other ROS are causing the oxidative stress.


ACCELERATED ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN LUPUS MAY BE RELATED TO CHOLESTEROL METABOLISM, BUT NOT OXIDANT STRESS

Peter A. Wirkowski1, Michael E. Vagell2, Hongwei Zhang2, Steven Carsons2, Allison B Reiss2, 1Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 and 2Vascular Biology Institute Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY 11501

Premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a common and devastating complication of the autoimmune disorder systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus). It is likely that immunologic derangements contribute to premature ASCVD in these patients, possibly by disrupting homeostatic mechanisms that orchestrate cholesterol balance in the vessel wall. Monocytes/macrophages play a crucial role in the atherosclerotic process. Based on the known pro-atherogenic properties of lupus plasma, we determined whether exposure to plasma from lupus patients affects oxidant stress and cholesterol balance in the THP-1 human monocytoid cell line. THP-1 human monocytoid cells were grown to a density of 106 cells per ml, then incubated in medium containing 50% lupus plasma or normal human plasma. Cellular mRNA was isolated, then reverse transcribed. The resulting cDNA was subjected to PCR using human 27-hydroxylase- and GAPDH- specific primers. Cholesterol 27-hydroxylase is an anti-atherogenic enzyme that metabolizes cholesterol to form oxysterol products easily transported out of the cell. Lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress were measured using the TBARS assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by trypan blue and LDH methods. Lupus patient plasma decreased 27-hydroxylase mRNA by 47%8% (n=5, p<0.008) below 50% normal human plasma. THP-1 cells pre-incubated with IFN-γ receptor blocking antibody, then exposed to SLE patient plasma for 3hr exhibited no significant decrease in 27-hydroxylase message (2.7±0.7%). Thus, the elevated level of IFN-γ present in SLE patient plasma might be directly involved in modulating expression of 27-hydroxylase. The TBARS assay showed that the level of oxidative stress to the cells was not significant. This result is surprising because low-grade inflammation, enhanced oxidant stress and lipid peroxidation have been shown in association with increased cardiovascular risk. Demonstration of disrupted cholesterol homeostasis in this select group of patients provides further evidence of the involvement of the immune system in atherogenesis. The isolated finding of no added oxidant stress in this study requires further evaluation.


FINDING FAUST: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE MUSICAL AND WRITTEN LITERATURE ON THE FAUST LEGEND

Melissa Castelvetre, (Sidney Boquiren, Ph.D.), Department of Music, Adelphi University, 1 South Avenue, Garden City, NY 11530

Ever since God cast out his beloved Angel, that Fallen Angel in return has tried (sometimes succeeding) tainting other souls to be damned. The concept stems as far back as the serpent in the Garden of Eden, to the present. One of the more famous stories (or possible truths) is that of Faust. The legend of Faust, a man who desired greatness at any cost, is one of the most enduring legends in Western literature. It is also the subject for numerous pieces all very well known in standard musical repertoire. Hector Berlioz (1803-1869), Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), and Franz Liszt (1811-1886) have all written major musical compositions regarding Faust. Characters of the Faust legend in the works by Thomas Mann, Christopher Marlowe, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe are so distinct that they are represented in musical literature to varying degrees, from leitmotivs to fully developed characters. For example, in Ferruccio Busoni's opera, Doktor Faust, portions of the standard [Catholic] mass are incorporated into the opera itself. Faust is usually portrayed to be studying theology in university. The mass is presented inside the opera to show this study and also to present irony, sacred music and a pact with the devil side by side. I will study and analyze scores and recordings composed by Hector Berlioz (The Damnation of Faust), Ferruccio Busoni (Doktor Faust), and Franz Liszt (Faust-Symphony) in order to explore the relationship that exists between select Faust literature (Thomas Mann, Christopher Marlowe, and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe) and its musical manifestations.


THE STATUS OF FARMERS IN CONTEMPORARY CHINA

Yaxuan Shao College of Business The University of Toledo 2801 West Brancroft Street Toledo, Ohio, 43606

Over the past twenty years, China has embarked on a course of rapid modernization. This development has had a significant impact on the rural population of China. Many rural farmers having had a long history of miserable economic conditions are now moving into urban areas in search of work and an improvement in their economic status. Today, the number of farm workers in China, as estimated by the Chinese Department of Social Security, is approximately 120 million, or about 10 percent of the country's total population. Increasingly, over the next decade, more of these farmers are expected to move into urban areas placing a great strain on the nation's ability to provide for their economic and social needs. Currently, many of these newly arrived workers lack sufficient health care, old-age pension, and even the guarantee of fulltime employment. This situation is likely to be a major source of problems for China as the country continues its industrialization process. To better understand the problems facing these rural farmers as they join the ranks of the urban workforce, I have closely studied 357 farm workers who have recently arrived in Hangzhou, one of China's top ten industrial cities. A questionnaire was given to these former farm workers who are now employed as shop assistants, street vendors, and construction workers. My research analyzes the living standards, education background, and the crime statistics of this group as they have gone through the transition of moving to the city. In addition, questions explored their attitudes about educating their children, knowledge of their labor rights, overall satisfaction with their living conditions, and problems with assimilation into urban life. My findings indicate that these newcomers still face many problems, but overall most have experienced a positive impact on their socio-economic conditions due to their relocation.


HISTORICAL AND PRESENT DAY STEREOTYPES OF AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN: THE EFFECT ON AFRICAN AMERICAN WOMEN IN LAW ENFORCEMENT.

Shanitra A. Bowman Ronald E. McNair Program Siena Heights University 1247 East Siena Heights Drive Adrian, MI 49221

This research examines the effects of three stereotypes of African American women; the mammy, the jezebel and the single mother, and their effects on African American women in law enforcement. Much of the research on women in law enforcement has looked at women as a whole and not divided them into categories. Research shows that the number of African American women in power in law enforcement are very low and also their retention rates are low. The information gained from the research on the stereotypes will be presented to past and present police officers in the state of Michigan. The goal is to determine if these stereotypes have affected the respect African American women get from their male and female counterparts as well as the effects of these stereotypes on their quest to move up the ladder within law enforcement. This research will attempt to gain insight as to why the numbers are so low for African American women in policing. This research will also allow current and past officers to give ideas of programs that would increase the retention rate and support among their fellow officers.


ISLAMIC REPUBLICS AND HISTORICAL HICCUPS: IRAN'S STRUGGLE WITH SECULARISM AND ISLAM, 1500-1979

Jeremiah H. Dost, Department of History, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383

Since its creation in 1979, the Islamic Republic of Iran has remained high on the United States' hostile nations list and even received the distinction in 2002 of being listed alongside North Korea and Iraq as part of President Bush's Axis of Evil. It is surprising therefore that President Jimmy Carter, mere months before the 1978-79 Iranian Revolution began, praised Iran as an “island of stability" in a tumultuous, anti-Western Middle East. In reality, he had every reason to believe this. Iran enjoyed a pro-Western regime that, although oppressive, did not seem to be faltering in any way, one of the most powerful military forces in the region, and the highest GNP growth rate in the world. The presentation questions current historical perceptions of Iran as a merely anti-Western, anti-secular power and offers the alternative interpretation that Iran, like other Middle Eastern nations, has a long history of gradual secularization, or movement away from religious dominance, despite its strong religious tradition. Following this trend towards secularization, the presentation will cover Iranian history from the 16th century Safavid dynasty up through secularism's climax under the Pahlavi dynasty in the years following World War I up until the Iranian Revolution in 1979. This will show Iran to be a nation struggling to find a balance between modern political ideologies and its own religious heritage and comes to the controversial conclusion that the Islamic Republic is a historical hiccup and that, due to current moderating sentiments among the Iranian population and newer youth movements, a secular state may be on the horizon in the near future for Iran after all.


PERCEIVED COMMUNAL STRENGTH AND WILLINGNESS TO EXPRESS EMOTION WITHIN RELATIONSHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES AND EGYPT

Catharine E. Hebdon (Westminster College), Safia Fathelbab (South Valley University, Egypt), and Sherri P. Pataki (Westminster College)

The communal strength of a relationship refers to how strongly an individual feels his or her responsibility is toward meeting the needs of the other person in the relationship (Mills, Clark, Ford, & Johnson, 2004). Previous research in the United States indicates that communal strength varies with the type of relationship (Clark & Brissette, 2004; Clark, Fitness & Brissette, 2001; Clark & Pataki, 1995; Mills et. al., 2004). For example, communal strength tends to be higher in relationships with a spouse or a child, whereas communal strength tends to be lower in relationships with more distant relatives and friends. Research has also established that higher communal strength in a relationship is related to more emotional expression in that relationship (Clark & Finkel, 2005; Clark & Taraban, 1991). Our study measured differences in perceived communal strength between relationships with a spouse, parent, and best friend for male and female participants both in the United States and Egypt. We also examined the willingness to express specific emotions within each of these relationship types. Results indicated that in the United States, relationships with a parent and spouse were perceived to be higher in communal strength than relationships with best friends for both male and female participants. In Egypt, females expressed higher communal strength for a relationship with a parent and a spouse than with a best friend. Male participants expressed higher communal strength for a relationship with a parent than a relationship with a spouse or best friend. In both the United States and Egypt, the willingness to express specific emotions was significantly related to both relationship type and sex of the participants.


MULTI-PULSE CONVERTERS AND PASSIVE FILTERING TO IMPROVE POWER HARMONICS IN AN INTEGRATED POWER SYSTEM

Daniel Ku (John Ciezki) Electrical Engineering Department, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402

Integrated electric ship propulsion can provide the United States Navy with new war-fighting capabilities and ship design opportunities. An Integrated Power System (IPS) is one in which a common electric bus delivers power to both the ship's propulsion system and ship service electric system. One of the main challenges to the IPS/all-electric ship is the introduction of significant harmonic distortion into the main AC distribution bus caused by power electronic equipment. Power electronic equipment is necessary to implement the variable speed motor drive for propulsion and for power conversion associated with distribution. The harmonic distortion leads to de-rating distribution equipment and degrading the performance of various system loads. As a result, every system attached to the main distribution bus must be able to accommodate the harmonics. The project's objective was to compare competing strategies that seek to reduce bus voltage harmonics in a naval warship IPS. The subsidiary benefit of this task was to improve the efficiency and minimize the derating factor for engines, generators, and transformers. The method of reducing harmonics was a system based on multi-pulse rectifiers and passive filtering. A multi-pulse rectifier is a power electronic device that converts AC power into DC power. Six and twelve-pulse rectifier systems were simulated and evaluated, as well as constructed and tested in the laboratory on a reduced scale. The effect of adding passive filtering was also analyzed. Size, weight, and acquisition cost estimates were derived from vendor data and assessed for feasibility of implementation on an actual destroyer-class warship. This project demonstrates the feasibility of improving power harmonics in an IPS using a system of multi-pulse converters and filtering.


DANCING AT LUGHNASA: A DRAMATURG'S CASEBOOK

Laura G. Kocher English Department, Westminster College, Market St., New Wilmington, PA, 16172

Many people do not know what a dramaturg is, or that this job even exists. The role of a dramaturg in a historical theatrical production is often, however, very much needed. A dramaturg takes on the role of play historian and researcher, spending hours making sure that every aspect of the play is as accurate as possible and helping the actors and actresses ‘get into character' and prepare for their roles. For the 2005 production of Brian Friel's ‘Dancing at Lughnasa' which was performed at Westminster College, I took on the role of dramaturg, the first time at this college that a student was given this responsibility. To help the actors and actresses relive Ireland of the 1940's, I provided them with handouts each week of rehearsal. Each handout was tailored to their specific character, and consisted of some history or background on their character as well as photographs that would help them visualize what they were recreating on stage. I also worked to provide them with Irish music and films that were either filmed or took place in Ireland during the 1940's. Collaborating with the director, I also brought in an Irish dance instructor to help choreograph the climactic dance scene. Part of my job was also to research props, sets, and any other aspects that the director, Miss Eileen Hendrickson, needed to help make the play as accurate as possible. All of the work I did was compiled into a casebook which was sent to the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts 2005 festival.


ASSESSMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE OCCUPATIONAL RISK FACTORS OF TAMPA LATINO POPULATIONS

Jonathan Meadows, (Dr. Wayne Westhoff, Dr. Jamie Corvin, & Tara Trudnak) Department of Global Health, College of Pubic Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Stroke and heart disease is third and the first leading cause of death in Florida (Florida Department of Health, 2003). For high risk populations, it is imperative for the risk factors to be identified. Parallel to the US population, CVD is the number one cause of death in the Latino population (National Center for Health Statistics, 1994). Current research states that Latinos are less probable to adhere to CVD treatments. There is little understanding of how lifestyle and behavior impact CVD (Alcalay et. al, 1999). Jobs with high levels of stress are correlated to high incidences of CVD (Kivimaki et al., 2006). Lower socio-economical groups are at higher exposure to high levels of occupational stress (Kristensen et al., 1998) and Latinos are employed in extremely hazardous jobs (Brunette, 2005). Assessment of these risk factors can identify future educational targets that will assist in the significant reduction in CVD. This study identifies the occupational risk factors that are correlated to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Metro Tampa Latino population. A standardized survey is employed to asses the occupational risk factors related to CVD. The analysis will be specifically aimed (1) at determining the impact of occupational health hazards on the rates of cardiovascular disease, (2) at identifying significant physiological and occupational risk factors of CVD exhibited by the Latino population, and (3) at increasing the awareness of risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease in the Latino population. Patients are with self-referred or referred by a clinician. One major requirement to participate is that the major risk factors are clinically established, such as blood pressure. The survey, Job Content Questionnaire, collects demographics, occupational information, and anthropological measurements. The administration methods will be face-to-face with a Field Administrator or a health educator. Finally, the dissemination of health education, individual counseling, and health education class referrals are administered for those with high occupational risk. Data collection will use Microsoft Access database and data analysis will use SPSS statistical software.


ROLE OF THE VIL-10 PROTEIN OF EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS IN ESTABLISHING VIRAL LATENCY IN A MOUSE MODEL

Kimberly A. Green (Dr. Gary Lindquester, Dr. Jeff Sample) Biology Department, Rhodes College, Memphis, TN 38112; Biochemistry Department, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) causes mononucleosis during the lytic infection of humans, but it is its ability to establish long-term latency that makes it a potential oncogenic pathogen. Some viruses, including EBV, express proteins that are homologous to those involved in regulating the immune system within the host. EBV encodes a homolog to the human interleukin 10 (IL-10) called vIL-10. The role of this viral protein in establishing latency is not certain, as the limited range of viral hosts has hindered previous studies. In this study the vIL-10 gene from EBV has been isolated and inserted into a murine gammaherpesvirus (MHV) via cotransfection. By infecting mice with the recombinant MHV (rMHV), we are aiming to explicate the role of vIL-10 in viral infection, pathogenesis, and latency in vivo. In the preliminary study, 36 mice were evenly divided into 4 groups, the non-infected, MHV-68 (the pathogenic wild type strain), MHV-76 (a less pathogenic deletion mutant), and rMHV-76 infected mice. Spleen and lung samples were taken from three mice of each group at 5 days, 11 days, and 15 days post-infection. Splenocytes from each group were isolated and counted and an assay to quantify latent virus was performed. Initial results indicate little or no effect of the vIL-10 gene with regard to splenomegaly, splenocyte counts, or latent virus titer. However, three of six mice infected with rMHV for 10 days or more died, presumably as a result of infection. Studies are underway to confirm the initial findings and determine the cause of mortality in rMHV infected mice.


"TROUBLE IN MIND, I'M BLUE, BUT I WON'T BE BLUE ALWAYS": THE ROLE OF BLUES MUSIC THROUGHOUT GAYL JONES' NOVEL, CORREGIDORA.

Melissa A. Hamilton (Teresa Gilliams) Department of English Studies Albright College Reading, PA 19612

Since the early 1900s, blues music has served as an expressive and influential force in the African American community. Originally evolving from slave laments, blues music offered slaves a way of relieving their pain by enabling it to be shared by a community. However, this genre of music continued beyond the abolition of slavery and crept into many individuals lives as a stabilizing medium that allowed them to express their inner-most frustrations with a harsh reality. Gayl Jones' 1975 novel, Corregidora, illustrates the intense desire, as well as need, for music as an expressive outlet through the novel's protagonist, Ursa Corregidora. Not only does Jones illuminate the interconnectedness of the African American woman and the community through blues music and the images that surround it, but she also portrays the music as an avenue for Ursa to define her sense of self and position in the community, as well as continue to “make generations." My project has brought me to a greater understanding of how hate and angst can be relieved through the arts, and also how creative outlets ultimately strengthen not only one's own sense of self, but also the community.


THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MATERNAL PERCEPTION OF WEIGHT AND MONITORING PRACTICES OF CHILD EATING BEHAVIOR

Emily K. Steinbaugh, Emily C. Adams and Mark G. Horn (Amy T. Galloway), Department of Psychology, Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina 28608

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal perceptions of mother and child weight and maternal monitoring of child eating behavior. Prior research has not examined the relationship between weight status and monitoring of eating habits. We collected data from 66 mother-child dyads living in the mountains of northwest North Carolina. Children in this study were 6 to 12 years of age. Mothers were given the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) to collect information about maternal perceptions of weight and monitoring behavior. The CFQ is a previously validated measure that taps parental approaches and attitudes of child feeding practices. In addition, research assistants collected actual height and weight data to assess Body Mass Index (BMI). One-tailed Pearson correlations were used to examine the relationships between maternal perceptions and monitoring. Results indicated that there was no significant correlation between monitoring and mothers' own perceived weight (r = -.03, ns) or monitoring and the perceived weight of her child (r = .20, ns). However, there were significant positive correlations between mothers' actual BMI and their reports of monitoring (r = .71, p < .01) and between the children's actual BMI scores and maternal monitoring (r = .29, p < .05). These results suggest that BMIs of mother and child are more strongly associated with monitoring than the mothers' perceptions of weight for both herself and her child. Perhaps these outcomes are the result of a maternal bias to report an underestimated weight for herself and her child. Interestingly, the mothers' BMI scores were more strongly positively associated with monitoring than with her child's actual weight. These data imply that if mothers have a high BMI they are more likely to use monitoring practices, but they do not necessarily monitor based on their reported weight perceptions of self and child.


DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN INTERACTION OF ERD-14 USING SULFO-SBED

Cody L. Williams and Stephen K. Randall Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis Sophomore, BA Chemistry Mentor: Dr. Stephen K. Randall, Department of Biology

Some plants are able to adapt and survive environmental stresses such as cold and drought. Contributing to this ability are proteins called dehydrins. The goal of this work is to begin to understand how they work by studying the protein Erd14 and determining with what other proteins it can interact. The Sulfo-SBED Biotin Label Transfer Kit (Pierce, Inc.) is a method that can be used to discover a protein: protein interaction. Sulfo-SBED contains a covalent cross-linker used to attach to the “bait" protein, a photo-reactive aryl azide moiety to react with the interacting protein, and a disulfide bond when reduced causes the biotin portion of Sulfo-SBED to be located to the interactive target protein. Biotin can be recognized by reacting with streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate. The first step in my project was to optimize the conditions for reaction of the Erd14 protein with Sulfo-SBED. Next, because Erd14 is known to be phosphorylated in vivo, it is to phosphorylate the Sulfo-SBED-Erd14 protein with casein kinase II. So far we have shown that Erd14 can be modified with Sulfo-SBED and we are now analyzing whether it can also be phosphorylated. If successful, we will next test whether Sulfo-SBED (phospho)-Erd14 can interact with proteins.


BOOM BUST: FISCAL POLICIES OF RESOURCE DEPENDENT STATES

Ryan N Holtan, (Steve Holmgren), Department of Political Science, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715

The objective of this research project is to discover a trend in fiscal policies following periods of high surplus or deficit in resource dependent states. Several states will be examined as models including, Alaska, Montana and Wyoming. The historical data suggests there is trend of irresponsible fiscal management in states that experience dramatic economic swings as a result of fluctuations in the market values of their natural resources. The data suggests that revenue from natural resources is reinvested in the infrastructure and development of that resource, rather than existing state services. By analyzing how states have historically dealt with extreme budget shifts due to the increase in price of natural resources I hope to advise future officials on how to avoid these pitfalls. By using state revenue figures I can identify periods of surplus or deficit and relate those to policies enacted during those periods. In comparing natural resource revenue data to the corresponding spending policy in following years I can find periods of gratuitous earmarking. There is an assumption that rather than reinvesting excess revenue in existing programs the government should redistribute the surplus to taxpayers or developers in the form of tax cuts. If this research can enlighten the public on the historical consequences of current spending trends then elected officials would face a new political pressure to reinvest in government infrastructure.


THE NEVER WALL: THE BOUNDARY ERECTED BETWEEN THE FANTASTIC AND THE REAL AND ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR THE ADULT READER

Christine R. Sonder (Dr. Sally Goade) Department of English and Modern Languages, Russell Sage College, 45 Ferry Street, Troy, New York 12180

In recent years, there has been a growing and renewed interest in the literature created for children. In addition, a common thread connecting a large proportion of this literature includes the juxtaposition of the fantastic realm and the real world. Adults, as well as children, are demonstrating an intense curiosity in worlds only accessible through the pages of fictional works. Through a study of reader response essays, as well as literary and psychological criticism, this project demonstrates that one cause for such an interest concerns the way in which the journey taken by the reader often mirrors the journey taken by the character, typically a child. One literary critic, writing in response to Alice in Wonderland, discusses that it is the innocence and lack of responsibility associated with these stories that attract the adult reader. By returning to this world, one filled with magic and endless possibilities, the reader is able to escape a life consisting of the mundane and the stressful. Though these fantastic worlds may be filled with danger and potential destruction, they offer a welcome respite from a world that lacks the mystery and adventure often found in fantasy. J. M. Barrie's Peter Pan, in particular, is a text that clearly illustrates the divide between the world of the child and the world of the adult. Upon entering Neverland, it is the uninhibited world of Peter and his lost boys with which even the adult reader identifies rather than the rule-bound world of the pirates, the only adults to appear in this realm.


SAN ANTONIO ROYALS: RITUAL JUSTIFICATION IN THE CORONATION OF THE ORDER OF THE ALAMO

Jessica L. Craig (K. Jill Fleuriet) Dept. of Anthropology and the Honors College, The University of Texas at San Antonio. One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249

This paper addresses a long-standing, social event in San Antonio, the Coronation of the Queen of the Order of the Alamo. The goal of this paper was to use an anthropological framework to explain: 1) why Coronation continues to be held, despite public criticism of elitism and irrelevancy; and 2) what the event means for the participants of this well-established ritual that has become less recognized by the public in recent years. The Order's Coronation ceremony was established as a debutante ball to introduce young women related to Order members as eligible marriage partners and to officially crown the incoming queen of a local, week-long and city wide celebration. This paper argues that, despite maintaining its basic ritual characteristics, Coronation changed greatly from a public ritual validating elite individuals' social and economic positions to an insular rite of passage for a specific group of economically elite, regional families and their associates. Coronation today has less to do with outside, public validation than with historical and familial traditions. To test this argument, I conducted interviews with individuals from the three primary participant groups of Coronation: event participants, audience members, and organizers from the Order of the Alamo. These interviews supplemented my own observations of the Coronation ceremony. I analyzed interview data from Coronation and observations of Coronation for themes and processes associated with ritual, specifically rites of passage and meaning, in anthropological literature. Finally, I placed these analyses within regional histories of political, ethnic, and economic identities as well as the unique history of Coronation and its sponsoring organization, the Order of the Alamo.


ONLINE HARD NEWS: THE PULSE OF SOCIETY

Kate Curtis (Dr. David Tewksbury), Department of Speech Communication, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 244 Lincoln Hall, 702 S. Wright St. Urbana, IL 61801

The Internet allows society a novel choice of news retrieval. Previous studies examined specific ways in which online news influences other media, civic duty, and political thought, but have not looked specifically at online hard news reading. It is unknown how the Internet influences hard news reading and the present study will help us to understand this influence. The study examines how people view hard news (i.e. national and world news, politics, business, science, and technology) through a test pool of Champaign-Urbana, Illinois residents. These individuals completed a survey of pertinent questions and then used a major Internet-based news site to read the news content of their choice. The subsequent analysis examines the correlation between certain societal factors (education level, primary media use, a tendency to follow hard news, political knowledge, and opinion of civic obligation) and the tendency to read hard news online. Results show that Internet use, education level, civic duty, and political knowledge correlated with their frequency of viewing hard news topics online. A reliance on television was associated with less frequent hard news viewing online, and newspaper reliance had no significant correlations. The implications of these findings are discussed.


"WHAT THE HELL DO I CARE ABOUT FALLING?": FEMALE IDENTITY ON THE MARGINS IN MORRISON'S SULA

Nicolle Matthews, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Avenue, Stockon, California 95211

Toni Morrison's Sula is a novel set in the “Bottom," a black community in a small midwestern town in the half century leading up to the culmination of civil rights activism in 1964. The social activism that shook the country is, however, nowhere apparent in the Bottom. Instead, Sula focuses on the relationship between two African American girls—Sula and Nel—who grow up and become adult women in this segregated neighborhood of Medallion, Ohio. The novel is interested in how these protagonists respond to their African American community's gender expectations. In contrast to the conservative Nel, Sula actively resists her community's codes of acceptable female behavior and sexuality. In doing so, Sula develops an androgynous identity that openly opposes the Bottom's construction of the black male subject as the object to which black female identity should address itself. Sula's resistance to her community's mores mobilize it to reject and ostracize her. The solidarity created by having a scapegoat in common allows the residents of the Bottom to deny their own racial oppression—and it is only after her death that they begin to confront it. For her part, Sula, who lives according to her own terms, predicts that a day will come when her life will become comprehensible to history and that then she will be loved. My analysis will focus on the question of why this black community needs to view Sula as degraded, and the measures it takes to make her a pariah. My paper will also be interested in providing a historical framework for the action of the novel, which barely refers to the great social changes going on outside its borders. Judith Butler's theories of the performativity of gender will be important to my analysis of Sula's refusal to comply with the “regulatory practices of gender coherence." René Girard's notion of the function of the scapegoat will inform my analysis of how marginalizing this African American woman serves a social and psychological function for her community.


DETECTION AND ANALYSIS OF COSMIC RAY SHOWERS

Jordan Webster, (Kevin McFarland, Robert Bradford, NSF), Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester; Bausch & Lomb Hall, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627

Cosmic rays originating beyond our planet constantly collide with the Earth's atmosphere. Some of these high-energy particles—most often protons—can create swarms of muons by smashing into matter within our atmosphere. This type of behavior results in a phenomenon called a cosmic ray shower. Using large scintillator panels from Fermilab's MINERvA experiment, muons can be detected at ground level at a frequency of approximately 1000Hz. With these detectors, and through the collaboration of the PARTICLE Program, cosmic ray shower data was collected in various positions around the University of Rochester campus. By running multiple detectors simultaneously at different distances from each other, a measurement of the diameter of a cosmic ray shower was determined. The data collected using this type of setup also reinforces what we know about the frequency of cosmic ray showers, and the directions from which they come. Finally, it points towards a possible conclusion that there is no correlation between the diameter of a cosmic ray shower, and its incoming angle.


LAY MOTIVATIONS FOR THE FIRST CRUSADE: POPE URBAN'S CALL FOR THE FIRST CRUSADE AND RHETORICAL INFLUENCES IN MACCABEES AND REVELATION

John Kalas (Lynn Huber) Department of Religious Studies, Elon University, Alamance Building 318E, Campus Box 2129, Elon, NC 27244

The motivations for the First Crusade are numerous, including financial gain and the desire for land. Although downplayed until recently in some modern critical discussions of the Crusades, religious convictions also helped to inspire the embarkation of much of Europe's male population on this quest. Prompted by the words of Pope Urban II at Clermont in 1095, many of Western Europe's fighting age men stopped fighting each other in feudal land squabbles and turned their attention to expelling a common enemy, the “infidel" Muslims from the Holy Land. While recorded by different hands, Urban's call for a crusade utilized many canonical and apocryphal works to describe and justify his endeavor. Two books in particular that he utilized extensively, according to the texts of the earliest versions of Urban's speech, were Maccabees 1 and 2 and the Revelation of John of Patmos. These books, with their vision of the dichotomy of good and evil, an emphasis on the righteousness of good, and a focus on the city of Jerusalem, were perfectly suited for inspiring men to leave their families and possessions behind in Europe in order to retake Jerusalem for Christianity. Urban's references to these two books were essential for rhetorically convincing lay people to embark on the First Crusade. This paper illuminates the points where Urban uses or mimics the rhetorical strategies of these books to gain a better sense of how Urban convinces potential crusaders to join this expensive and arduous adventure. Through thorough examination of the texts and the prevailing views of the time, this paper asserts that both of these books were essential to Urban's plea to the clergy and lay people for the organization and embarkation of the First Crusade. In so doing, this paper contributes to our knowledge about the motivations behind the First Crusade specifically and crusading generally.


DETERMINATION OF A SPECIFICITY ELEMENT FOR MT-SP1 SPECIFIC CHEMICAL PROBES

Geoffrey M. Lynn,# (Mark D. Lim, Charles S. Craik), Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143

Proteins upregulated and expressed on the surfaces of cancer cells provide a chemical means for imaging probes to distinguish between cancerous cells and healthy cells of the same tissue type. These differential levels of protein expression can be exploited by novel cancer imaging techniques that use synthetic chemical probes to target proteins associated with cancer. However, for this technique to work, the chemical probes must contain a so-called specificity element that allows the probe to selectively target the cancer-associated protein. Here, we report the systematic identification of an optimized peptide specificity element that can be used to specifically and selectively target the cancer-associated protease, membrane type-serine protease 1 (MT-SP1, or matriptase). MT-SP1 is an ideal target for a synthetic chemical probe scheme because it displays upregulated levels of expression in breast and ovarian cancer cells, and is localized and active on the surfaces of those cells. To identify a specificity element, six peptide sequences were identified on the basis of MT-SP1's natural substrates and a substrate profile based on a synthetic tetrapeptide positional scanning library. These peptides were synthesized with a C-terminal ACC fluorophore located adjacent to the cleavage site (P1). Cleavage of the substrates by MT-SP1 results in the release of ACC which can be measured in a fluorimeter. As such, steady-state kinetics of MT-SP1 vs. the ACC-substrates was measured using a fluorimetric technique. A comparison of kcat/Km for the different substrates was used to assess the relative specificities of the substrates for MT-SP1. Upon identifying an optimal peptide specificity element, a synthetic chemical probe, that can target MT-SP1, was constructed and functionalized with fluorescent nanoparticles. These functionalized probes were then introduced to colon cancer (HT-29, (+) MT-SP1)), and cervical cancer (HeLa S3 (-) MT-SP1)) cells, and those cells were imaged using a fluorescence microscope. # Department of Chemistry, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244


VISUAL MANIFESTATIONS OF CATHOLIC MULTICULTURALISM IN THE ETHNIC PARISHES OF SAINT PAUL AND MINNEAPOLIS

Paul G. Monson, Young Scholars Research Grant, Department of Catholic Studies, University of Saint Thomas, 2115 Summit Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105

In the late nineteenth century, the city of St. Paul, Minnesota, stood as a hopeful beacon for European immigrants seeking a new home where they might preserve their cultural heritage through faith. Five ethnic communities came to dominate the cultural diversity of the new archdiocese. The Irish, French, German, Slavic, and Italian Catholic immigrant communities formed individual parishes, building church structures and communities reflecting their European heritage. Many national parishes in St. Paul and Minneapolis still attest to their ethnic history through a unique preservation of visual manifestations of faith within a cultural context, observed in church's architecture and religious art. Today we face the challenge to integrate new Catholic immigrants into the archdiocesan family, especially the Hmong, Vietnamese, Korean, African and Hispanic communities. It is imperative that the unique cultural identity of an ethnic community is not sacrificed through mere assimilation. If, therefore, we are to continue a rich unity of worldviews, we must learn from the faith and fruits of our forbearers. Through a comprehensive research of older ethnic parish architecture, religious art, and history in St. Paul and Minneapolis, I have sought to form a sound, applicable vision for incorporating the cultural identity of new Catholic immigrants into the greater context of the archdiocesan faith community. My research observed that over the course of time, an ethnic community builds a liturgical structure incorporating saints, architecture, and language in the form of art. The common motif in both established and emerging ethnic groups is a visual enculturation of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Each ethnic parish adopts a national representation of Mary which becomes its own and molds its Catholic identity in America.


NIETZSCHE TALKING AT CROSS-PURPOSES: WHY PHILOSOPHY CAN'T SEEM TO GET OFF THE GROUND

George Corbett, Dr. John Whitmire, Philosophy and Religion, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, NC 28723

Nietzsche gives us a very interesting theory of truth, but one which is difficult to understand, much less to embrace. This paper argues that the difficulty and apparent self-contradiction of Nietzsche's theory stems primarily from his fundamental misunderstanding of the philosophical enterprise. However, this misunderstanding is not unique to Nietzsche in any sense but is exhibited by the vast majority of philosophical writings; Nietzsche simply happens to give us one of the most glaring yet cogent examples of this confusion. Philosophy, I argue, can be reasonably organized into at least four separate and unrelated activities: definitive discussions, factual discussions, theoretical discussions, and veracious discussions. Each of these modes of discussion rests squarely upon assumptions which cannot be questioned for philosophical discourse within the mode to proceed. These assumptions are mutually exclusive, but in a non-opposing fashion; strictly speaking, each mode lies along a skewed linguistic line that never approaches, intersects, or parallels any other mode. Intractable problems such as Nietzsche's theory of truth are the natural consequence of engaging in more than one of these philosophical activities simultaneously; Nietzsche, I believe, engages in all four of the modes I have identified to arrive at his position. I trace the roots of our propensity to incorrectly mix modes of discussion to language itself and our frequent confusion and delight in mixing our modes in everyday speech. I finally conclude that philosophers should be more careful about mixing these modes of discussion if they desire to have meaningful and productive conversations about much of anything philosophically relevant.


SEPARATIST RHETORIC AND GOVERNMENT CONCESSION: THE CASES OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY AND QUEBEC

Amie Ritchie (Dr. Laura Roselle) Department of International Studies, Elon University, 100 Campus Drive, Elon, NC 27244

The study of government responses to separatist movements' ambitions is important as separatist and nationalist movements challenge governments worldwide. Though not all use violence, they have the ability to disrupt governments and populations. Understanding which factors are most conducive to government concessions and peaceful interactions is therefore invaluable. Some scholars have concluded that movements whose demands are accommodated by their governments result in less violence (Rudolph and Thompson). This study asks under what conditions nationalist demands are accommodated by conciliatory governments in the cases of the Basque Country and Quebec. Specifically, this study explores the rhetoric and language used by separatist movements in presenting themselves and their demands and how this affects concession. The theoretical framework guiding this analysis is centered on three specific works: Levinger and Lytle, Barthos and Wehr, and Fierke. A focused, structured, case study methodology (George) was used to identify concessions within each movement's separatist history and analyze the rhetoric around each, assessing the role of 1) arming versus disarming language, 2) appeals to the glorious past/degraded present/utopian future, and 3) explicit declaration of a demand, as a successful or unsuccessful form of separatist rhetoric. Contrary to what was hypothesized, this study has found that arming language rather than disarming language is most successful in gaining concessions. Furthermore, allusions to the degraded present and glorious past, as opposed to the utopian future, were found to be most useful in achieving concessions, a result which is in agreement with a second hypothesis. Finally, the explicit declaration of a demand was not found to have a significant effect on government response, as the desires of the movement are often already known. Due to the contexts of the cases, certain differences arose between them. Although rhetoric was found to play a role, further factors, such as popular support for the movement, concrete actions taken by the separatists, and party politics, also proved to be important in influencing government concession.


USE OF VIRTUAL REALITY FOR TELEOPERATION OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES

Michael A Steffen (Dr. Jeffrey Will, Dr. Noriyuki Murakami), Electrical and Computer Engineering, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indiana 46383

Though off-road equipment is moving more and more towards autonomous control, practical implementation does not fully eliminate human interaction. Teleoperation is a promising compromise between manual control and fully autonomous operation. An especially compelling solution to teleoperation is the use of virtual reality to create a simulated yet realistic environment in which the operator can feel immersed, as if at the site, while still being located at a distance. Our research presents a collaboration between Japan's National Agriculture Research Center (NARC) and Valparaiso University's Scientific Visualization Laboratory (SVL) to improve control of a remotely operated farm vehicle. Located in Hokkaido, Japan, the NARC semi-autonomous off-road vehicle utilizes GPS and heading sensors with a wireless network for data transfer. The vehicle has actuators for control of throttle, transmission, and auxiliary controls; all computer-controlled. The vehicle sends sensor status and receives actuation commands over the Internet. The SVL's stereoscopic 3-D virtual reality display system located in Valparaiso, Indiana, receives this information over the Internet in real-time and allows the user in the SVL to visualize and control the operation of the vehicle in Japan. A 3-D model of the terrain and buildings is pre-programmed into the system and the vehicle is rendered at its real-time position. The system allows the user to have several views, such as cockpit, bird's-eye, and aerial. Using a handheld controller, the user is able to start the engine, sound the horn, activate the blinkers, control auxiliary hydraulics, and control the speed of the left and right tracks of the vehicle. This research has demonstrated the feasibility of real-time teleoperation of a semi-autonomous vehicle utilizing standard network protocols at a distance over 9,000 km while the user is immersed in a virtual reality environment.


VOICES OF CONFRONTATION: EMERGENCE OF MARGINAL CULTURE IN BRAZILIAN LITERATURE AND ART

Eliseo J. Jacob, (Sonia Roncador), Department of Spanish and Portuguese, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station B3700 Austin, TX 78712.

A social phenomenon currently unfolding within the Brazilian urban periphery is a movement known in Portuguese as Literatura Marginal, or Marginal Literature. This marginal intellectual community is led by the writer known by his pen name Ferréz. My research will spotlight his writings and music since his work I consider to be the most innovative and more widely published. I particularly want to research Ferréz's work and that of his contemporaries because of the unique discourse present in their music, art, and writings concerning polemic issues such as violence, drug trafficking, socio-economic impoverishment, and racial discrimination within their communities known as favelas, or urban slums. Since those living in these slums are a historically marginalized population, this narrative's power resides in its ability to transmit to Brazilian society the stark reality they experience that is frequently silenced or distorted by mainstream society. I intend to analyze this unique narrative drawing mostly upon primary sources that include Ferréz's four novels centering on life in the favela, works of other writers from the urban periphery in an anthology titled Literatura Marginal, a rap album produced by Ferréz titled Determinação, and the production of a DVD titled 100% Favela that all deal with issues of social marginalization and community empowerment through creativity. These direct sources positioned within a social setting utilizing anthropological and historical texts that focus on socio-economic polarizations that emerged between the Brazilian urban periphery and the ruling class during the twentieth century will provide a better understanding for Ferréz's confrontational voice that demonstrates the crucial role literature and art employ as tools of cultural expression and social activism. I will also implement other strategies that include analyzing the stark contrast between the emergence of marginal literature and the historical dominance of the Brazilian intellectual elite's hegemonic literature concerning peripheral communities that minimized or misconstrued the polemics of race, class, and education within Brazilian society.


THE EVOLUTION OF THE PIANO TRIO: EFFECTIVE STYLISTIC INTERPRETATION THROUGH COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Hikari Maekawa, Dr. Valerie Cisler, Department of Music and Performing Arts,University of Nebraska at Kearney, 2506 12th Avenue Kearney, NE 68849

This study is designed to provide a comparative analysis of four contrasting works for piano trio (piano, violin, and cello) that will serve to enhance an understanding of the style characteristics that effect performance interpretation. The works studied and performed are Piano Trio in C Major, K. 548, by W. A. Mozart; Piano Trio in C Minor, Op. 1, No. 3, by Ludwig van Beethoven; Piano Trio in G Major, by Claude Debussy; and Piano Trio in E Minor, Op. 67, by Dmitri Shostakovich. Each work is examined through Contextual Analysis (including musical, social, historical, and cultural influences), Theoretical Analysis (including fundamental musical elements and compositional techniques related to form and structure), and Style Analysis (including range, pedal, harmonic color, expressive indications, and idiomatic use of the instruments) and their implications on effective performance interpretation. The works selected are from among the standard piano trio repertoire, representing the evolution of the genre from its relatively early stages of development in late eighteenth century Germany through the French Impressionistic period and mid-twentieth century Russia. The study concludes with sample performance clips that highlight the stylistic differences between the works. Elements such as the evolving roles of the three instruments in relationship to one another and the expansion of harmonic, dynamic, and expressive compositional content will provide the main focus of musical examples.


AN OBITUARY FOR DEAD METAPHOR

Erin M. Maloney Philosophy Department of Valparaiso University Huegli Hall 1409 Chapel Drive Valparaiso, IN 46383

What happens when a metaphor is no longer recognized as a metaphor by both speakers and hearers? Philosophers call such an expression a 'dead metaphor'. For example, when one talks about the 'mouth of a river', no one begins to think about the orifice used for eating and speaking, attributing it in a metaphorical sense to a river. We simply know the geographical feature to which this phrase refers, and no further cognitive activity takes place. There are many examples of dead metaphors in language; in examining different theories of accounts of active metaphors, I analyze how an active metaphor comes to ‘die', and explain the relationship dead metaphors have with both current causal and pragmatic theories of metaphor. In active metaphors, most theorists agree that there is no change of meaning, because the literal falsity of a metaphor triggers us to recognize it as active. For locuters to cease to recognize metaphors, a change MUST occur in meaning. Ultimately, I give three different characterizations of dead metaphors: some metaphors become definite descriptions, as shown in my initial example, which name objects. Others remain conduit metaphors, through which we express ideas and understanding, and still others are not even recognizable dead metaphors after their metaphorical meaning becomes lost in translation—-these have truly passed on into another realm. I outline the role that these three kinds of dead metaphors play in our everyday language and the effects they have on theories of meaning and truth. Finally, I discuss the implications of the idea that dead metaphors have become so prolific in our thought and speech patterns that they shape how we think and our structure of society as a whole.


THE SALIENCE OF PEER GROUPS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN MIDDLE SCHOOL AND HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

Risa C. Dubow (David Cotter and Ken DeBono) Departments of Sociology and Psychology, Union College, Schenectady, NY 12308

Numerous studies of high school and middle school peer groups have been conducted, but there is a lack of comparative research between the two age groups. This project compares attitudes toward peer groups among middle school students and high school students. A sample of 300 seventh and tenth grade students in two suburban New York public schools, in one district, was surveyed for this study. The questionnaire measured students' perceptions of their general placement in the established social order, peer group salience, fluidity between peer groups, and self esteem (using Rosenberg's Likert scale). The survey also assessed the importance of other adolescent issues such as family responsibility, receiving good grades, extracurricular involvement and students' overall satisfaction with their school experience. The correlation of students' self esteem with their position in the social order (status) and with the emphasis they place on peer groups and crowds was explored in this study. Perceptions of peer group salience, as well as importance of and satisfaction with group affiliation were further correlated with status, grade level and gender. Additionally, results provide insight regarding developmental differences between early and middle adolescence.


LIFE IN KUSCHWANTZ: A TOLEDO POLISH ETHNIC ENCLAVE

William W. Samiec (University of Toledo Honors Program) University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft St., Toledo, Ohio 43606-3390

The initial influx of immigrants of Polish descent, who came to the United States between the years of 1870 and 1900, came from the Prussian-controlled district of Poznan. The majority were landless peasants with no skills and very little education who settled in major urban cities. They survived in this land of a strange language and customs by living together in neighborhoods that offered them the opportunity to adapt and eventually assimilate into the culture of this new country. One of two such enclaves in Toledo, Ohio - Kuschwantz, was home to thousands of Poles for over a century. They they built four churches and the parish schools, of which all were staffed with Polish nuns. They shopped in locally owned stores, met with their neighbors who spoke in their native tongue and worked in the nearby factories. For a perios of time a deisagreement arose on how quickly the Poles were expected to assimilate into American culture and competing organizations, including a Polish National Catholic Church, were established that resulted in a long term discord between neighbors and even family members. Utilizing historical documents, church records, and both Polish and English newpapers, a chronicle of this neighborhood is brought to life. Many of the tales of "Live in Kuschwantz" were gathered by personal interviews with past residents of the neighborhood who were willing to share their stories.


THE EFFECTS OF OIL DISPERSANTS ON MORTALITY, DEVELOPMENT, AND ATPASE ACTIVITY IN ARTEMIA FRANCISCANA

Damon F. Ogburn, Linda M. Niedziela Department of Biology, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244

Crude oil spills in aquatic environments are ameliorated using dispersants. Surfactant-based dispersants, while safer than earlier formulations, have the potential to increase mortality and disrupt cell membrane integrity of aquatic organisms. Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) are aquatic crustaceans used as test models for environmental toxicity. They were used to assess the effects of two oil dispersants on mortality, development, and ATPase activity. Mortality studies were performed on pooled samples of 50 shrimp treated with a concentration range of 0 - 10,000 ppb with Dispersit SPC-1000™ and 0 - 1,000 ppm with Sea-Brat™. Results of these studies determined sub-lethal treatment ranges of 500 - 10,000 ppb (Dispersit™) and 10 - 1,000 ppm (Sea-Brat™) for developmental assays. Using a micrometer, 25 randomly chosen shrimp were measured at 100X magnification after 24 and 48 hour treatments with both dispersants. Neither dispersant caused significant differences in developmental rate or success. ATPases are membrane-bound enzymes involved in the transport of electrolytes across the membranes of marine organisms and can be affected by a variety of contaminants. Mg++ and Na+/K+ ATPase activities were measured using the EnzChek® Phosphate Assay following 24 and 48 hr treatments. Results showed that Sea-Brat™ altered Na+/K+ ATPase activity and may suggest that the enzyme was struggling to maintain osmotic balance across the plasma membrane. While oil dispersants lessen negative effects of crude oil, this study illustrates that dispersants themselves carry risks and should be used carefully.


FREE DETROIT

Lauren H Henrikson (Office of Undergraduate Research) Office of Undergraduate Research, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

Despite Detroit's storied social and economic challenges, there are many people who are working to improve the city through the development of non-profits and community-building programs. At the culmination of my freshman year at Wayne State University, I began The Free Store, a non-profit geared toward providing basic necessities to those in need. After having worked with other non-profits for a number of years, I wanted to start a sustainable organization that was directly connected to the community and that would encourage people to give, communicate, and connect. Through the utilization of volunteers and grassroots organizing, The Free Store has been able to collect donations of clothing, food, and household items to offer up to the public for free on a monthly basis since 2005. Free Detroit is a short ethnographic film documenting my experience with the Free Store. The film covers the Free Store's purpose, progression, and methods in addition to providing insight into the future programs we hope to initiate. Free Detroit also captures the experiences of others that have been active with this non-profit and within the city of Detroit.


THE SMELL OF MENDACITY: ROLE OF THE NO SISSY-STUFF INJUNCTION IN CAT ON A HOT TIN ROOF

Kayce Leigh Hubbard (Paula Lay, Dr. Gordon Lee) Department of English and Communication, Lee College, Baytown, TX 77520

William Pollack, in his book Real Boys: Rescuing Our Sons from the Myths of Boyhood, demonstrates the necessity of reevaluating the assumptions and myths regarding masculinity, expectations held by society that dictate the often dangerous behaviors and foreshortening of emotional development experienced by boys and men. He portrays men as prisoners of the Boy Code, a series of four injunctions that place boys within a state of emotional and moral paralysis. The final injunction, “no sissy-stuff," causes the most damage in the lives of men, forcing them to repress all human characteristics deemed mistakenly as feminine. As a result, men live in a state of perpetual loneliness, removed from all others including themselves, wearing a heroic mask of lies in order to avoid shame at all cost. In one of his most celebrated plays, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1954), Tennessee Williams explores the detached and dysfunctional lives of the men of the Pollitt family, Big Daddy and Brick, both of whom try desperately to fit within the confines of their gender at the expense of their true selves. In order to avoid the shame of failure, the men live in the continual presence and influence of what Brick names mendacity, lying and liars, that leave the men in a state of disgust with themselves and society as a whole; however, as the “no sissy-stuff" injunction dictates that dependency equals femininity and weakness, the three family members can turn only to their own manufactured lies to cope with the world, shut out from the possibility of personal connection with each other or their wives. Williams demonstrates the dangers of Pollack's “no sissy-stuff" injunction through examining the role of mendacity in the lives of Big Daddy and Brick, a commandment that forces men to rely upon various crutches to dull the pain of existence in a world of lies, leading them into a life of self-induced isolation.


USING SHARED BELIEFS AND RELIGIOUS SIMILARITES TO PROMOTE PEACE AND UNDERSTANDING: A TRIANGULATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE ABRAHAMIC RELIGIONS

Anthony Teke Quickel (Abdul Karim Bangura), School of International Service, American University, Washington, DC 20016

Diverged from a common background, the three Abrahamic religions – Islam, Judaism, and Christianity – share common values, religious themes, understandings on life and lifestyles, and other basic morals. By focusing on shared similarities, backgrounds and beliefs, one can hope that an ambience of peace, brotherhood, egalitarianism and understanding may be created. According to the Durkheimian Theory, religion is a construct of society, and one is inexplicably connected to the other. Thus, it is hypothesized that by creating an environment of thoughtfulness and learning in the three Abrahamic faiths, an ambience of peace and understanding in society may be reached. Further, this hypothesis may be specifically applied to misconceptions and prejudices in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. By teaching each faith about its similarities and shared ideals with the others, an abolition of disharmony and disjoint perception may take place and thus, peace and understanding may be achieved. Data analysis occurred triangulatively. Quantitatively, a survey analysis of Christians, Jews, and Muslims to discover the current understandings which members of each faith hold was conducted. In addition, qualitative analysis was done using the scriptures of the three faiths: the Torah, The Bible, and the Qur'an. Scriptural analysis was done to show shared ideas as they are expressed. Historiographical analysis was utilized to illustrate the faiths' common backgrounds using the diachronic method. Also, interviews with experts and clergy were performed in order to gain an understanding of how society may move forward and promote brotherhood, unity and peace.


"WHEN WE DO ACTIVITIES WITH THEM IT MAKES THEM SO HAPPY": FOURTH GRADERS' REFLECTIONS ON INTERGENERATIONAL SERVICE-LEARNING

Ashley Davis, (Cynthia Fair) Department of Human Services, Elon University, Elon, NC, 27244

Intergenerational service-learning aims to connect the older and younger generations through meaningful interactions within the community. Research indicates that the elderly who interact with the younger generation experience a greater sense of belongingness and a boost in self-esteem, self-respect, and sense of responsibility. However, there is limited literature on the effects that intergenerational service-learning has on the younger participants. This qualitative study examines elementary-aged children and their perceptions of the elderly after nine monthly visits to a near-by nursing home. Seventeen fourth graders completed written assignments and were involved in a class discussion regarding their experiences with and attitudes towards the elderly. The class discussion was transcribed. Essays and the discussion were coded for themes. The majority of responses to the essay question regarding what these students learned about themselves during the nursing home visits suggested that the students felt comfortable when interacting with the elderly. When asked ‘what did you learn about older people', the majority of fourth graders found that the elderly not only love their artwork but also enjoy talking about their childhood. The essays also suggested some fourth graders were uncertain how to respond when their older companions became disoriented or forgetful. Class discussions revealed the majority of students were able to learn from their discomfort and offer practical advice to the upcoming class such as, “If someone says something random, just go with the flow." The fourth graders benefited greatly from their experience. Students were able to articulate lessons learned about the elderly and themselves. The findings support the call for more intergenerational service-learning programs and stress the importance of reflection.


THE EFFECTS OF MEN'S BODY IMAGE ON THEIR SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS

Justin M. Mann (Maurice J. Levesque), Department of Psychology, Elon University, Elon, NC 27244

The majority of research on body image concerns women. Thus, researchers know less about the causes and consequences of men's body image (Pope, Phillips, & Olivardia, 2000). Perhaps this oversight is because men are assumed to be relatively happy with their bodies. However, recent research has shown that men do have body image concerns (Cash & Pruzinsky, 2002), and that their concerns may affect psychological functioning (e.g., Olivardia, 2001). One consequence of body image dissatisfaction that has been largely ignored is social functioning. Thus, the present study examines male body image concerns and how those concerns may influence qualities of close relationships with opposite-sex and same-sex friends and with romantic partners. Participants completed a pre-survey (N = 38 ) consisting of measures of self-esteem, depression, body image, and relationship relevant characteristics (e.g., avoidance and anxiety in relationships). Following the pre-survey, participants were instructed about completing a social interaction journal, similar to one used by Nezlek (1999). For seven days, participants recorded aspects of their interactions with five individuals (2 same-sex friends; 2 opposite-sex friends; romantic partner). Daily ratings included self-disclosure and satisfaction. The results revealed that higher preoccupation with weight was related to greater anxiety (r = .49, p < .01) in close relationships, as well as lower self-esteem (r = .32, p = .05). Moreover, the less dissatisfied men were with their bodies, the more anxiety they experienced in their close relationships (r = -.40, p < .05), the lower their self-esteems (r = -.65, p < .001), and the higher their levels of depression (r = -.40, p < .05). Preliminary analysis indicates that greater body image satisfaction and less weight preoccupation were related to greater satisfaction in opposite-sex friendships and greater self-disclosure in both opposite-sex and same-sex friendships. Surprisingly, for romantic relationships, greater body satisfaction was associated with lower satisfaction with the relationship, but higher self-disclosure.


A COMPARISON OF MOTHERS' AND FATHERS' BELIEFS AND PLAY BEHAVIORS

Caitlin L. Brilhart (Dr. Maureen Vandermaas-Peeler), Department of Psychology, Elon University, Elon, North Carolina 27244

During play, parents act as teachers in assisting children with learning about everyday objects and social situations (Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978). It is therefore important to examine parental behaviors and beliefs during parent-child play. The purpose of this study was to examine the ways mothers and fathers played with their three year-old children. Ten 3 year-olds were observed with their mother and on a separate occasion with their father (order counterbalanced), and were asked to play for 15 minutes with specific toys. Parents also completed questionnaires about their enjoyment of and beliefs about literacy and play. Each interview was videotaped and coded for types of play (pretend, physical, numeracy, exploratory, literacy), and the focus of the play (teaching, playful or asynchronous). Results of paired sample t-tests showed no significant differences in the toys the dyads played with or in the focus of the play due to parent gender. Dyads played most frequently with the grocery store and engaged most often in pretend play, followed by exploratory play, numeracy play, and physical play. When looking at the focus of the play episodes, results showed that both mothers and fathers predominantly interacted with their child in a playful manner. However, mothers were twice as likely to engage in teaching during play compared to fathers. When asked to rank the most important reasons for reading to a young child, mothers were more likely to say it was important “to encourage love of reading" than fathers, and less likely to say “to develop the child's reading skills." In addition, when asked to rank the importance of play partners for their child, mothers and fathers both ranked parents as the child's most important play partner, but mothers were more likely to view peers as important play partners than fathers. Further results will be presented with implications for parental beliefs and interactions with their preschoolers.


POLITICAL IMPLICATIONS OF ISLAM IN LEBANON: A HOBBESIAN HISTORICAL ANALYSIS

Marlena A. Badway (Abdul Karim Bangura), School of International Service, American University, Washington, DC 20016

Ongoing internal conflicts in Lebanon have long been observed by the West, but not fully understood. In order to understand the causes and nature of internal struggles in Lebanon, one must first understand the history of its people and of its political system. Islam plays a pivotal role in Lebanese politics, as nearly all Lebanese affiliate with a political party based on their religious sects. Moreover, national identity in Lebanon is often overlooked in favor of religious identity. This study seeks to determine the contemporary role of Islam in Lebanese society, by examining the history and importance of the various Muslim sects coexisting in the country. It is hypothesized that conflict in Lebanon is cultivated by the intrinsic relevance of religion to political membership and loyalty within the country. In Hobbes' political theory, there should be a clear separation between politics and religion so that religious divides do not affect political legitimacy. In Lebanon, politics are institutionally linked to religion; therefore, conflict is inevitable, considering the various religious sects who share power in the country. Data were collected for this study by using the document analysis technique. Information for the qualitative analysis was gathered from books, scholarly journal articles, and Lebanese media. Personal interviews with experts on the subject were also used to expand upon the other data.


THE ELIZABETHAN THEATRE IN GDANSK -HISTORY UNEARTHED

Anna Dobosz, Wayne State University Undergraduate Research Grant and the Sterne-Lion Award, Department of History, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202

Typically, when one discusses locations of ‘Elizabethan' theatres, England comes to mind as the place for them. In the presentation I will present my findings on the recently discovered ‘Elizabethan' theatre in Gdansk, Poland, around eight hundred miles from London, England. The theatre was constructed in the early to mid 1600's. It was one of the first permanent theatres in Europe. While there is still some controversy as to the construction and last days of the theatre, its life provides valuable details into the social environment of Gdansk, as well as the cultural movement of ideas across Europe. The theatre can be traced to others in London and it hosted many English acting troupes. Those acting troupes, as well as others, had to conform to the intricate system of rules that were developed due to the presence of the theatrical atmosphere in Gdansk, which ranged from what kind of performances were given to how much money was paid to the city in exchange for permission to perform. In the course of the theatre's two hundred year history it allowed for the expression of the theatrical arts in Gdansk to an unprecedented zenith. It helped usher in a great love for the theatre in Gdansk that only grew with time. The presentation will explore the different interpretations on the theatre, its history, impact, and legacy.


THE HOOKUP CULTURE: REALITIES, REASONS, AND REPUTATIONS

Jessica B. Harner Vesna L. Jones (Dr. Danielle M. Currier) Department of Sociology and Anthropology Radford University PO Box 6948 Radford, VA 24142

The study addresses a growing normative trend among college students: the hookup. In general, hookups are a way that college students get their physical, emotional, and social needs met outside the parameters of historically defined “romantic relationships". Data were gathered from 1,123 surveys and 40 in-depth interviews with undergraduates at a mid-sized public university in the South. The authors examine the prevalence of casual sexual encounters and the myriad definitions of hookups. Our data show that hooking up has become a sexual norm. Despite the prevalence of this activity, there is little consensus on the exact definition of a hookup, and we discuss the potential reasons for this diversity. We examine the multitude of reasons why students engage in hookups and present data showing the similarities and differences between how women and men define and interpret hookups and the different strategies used by women and men to negotiate effects on their reputations. This includes the sexual “double standard" that continues to exist, disadvantaging women. This dynamic is a constant factor in both the hookup culture and in every aspect of the daily lives of college students, yet both women and men continue to consistently engage in this behavior. Our research sheds light on a prevalent form of social interaction among young people that affects their self-concepts and beliefs about sexual norms.


JOURNEY TO WORK VS. INDIVIDUAL HEALTH: AN EXAMINATION OF THE HEALTH OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE

Erika Lamanna, Nolan Wildfire, (Dr. Thomas Tiemann, and Dr. Paul Miller) Department of Economics and Department of Health and Human Performance, Elon University, 100 Campus Drive, Elon, NC 27244

Despite the established link between physical activity and health outcome, Americans are increasingly becoming less active, which is contributing to the growing obesity epidemic. Nearly 64.5% of the U.S. adult population is overweight and almost one in three is obese (Ewing et al., 2003). This obesity epidemic is responsible for more than 300,000 premature chronic disease deaths each year and direct health care costs of more than $70 billion per year (Jackson et al., 2001). Physical activity reduces the risk of chronic diseases, yet nearly 74% of Americans do not get enough physical activity (Ewing et al., 2003). One way to participate in physical activity is to exercise on the journey to work by biking, walking, or taking public transportation. This study seeks to determine if there is a significant relationship between an individual's journey to work and their health outcome. Past studies have examined the relationship between urban sprawl, physical activity, obesity, and morbidity (Ewing et al., 2003) as well as the impact of the built environment on public health (Jackson et al., 2001). The journey to work data, which was reported at the county level, was obtained from the 2000 Census Summary File 3. Information on health outcome, tobacco use, healthcare, and exercise were found on the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) website under the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. All data for the BRFSS was reported by Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) and further specified at the county level. Regressions were run with health outcome (body mass index) as the dependent variable and journey to work, tobacco use, healthcare, and exercise as independent variables. The regression results indicate that there is a significant relationship between journey to work and health outcome. This suggests that populations that get exercise on their journey to work are less likely to be obese.


INFINITESIMALS WITHOUT MATHEMATICAL LOGIC

Nicholas Gannon (L. Pedro Poitevin) Department of Mathematics, Salem State College, Salem, MA 01970

Gottfried Leibniz created the notation dx for the difference in successive values of a variable x, thinking of this difference as infinitely small or “less than any assignable quantity". Despite Leonhard Euler's subsequent enthusiastic use of infinitely large and infinitely small numbers, the idea of their existence became something of an anathema for quite a while in mathematics, particularly after Karl Weierstrass provided a rigorous development of calculus without any allusion to them. In the 1960s, Abraham Robinson introduced a logical foundation for the use of infinitely large and infinitely small quantities in analysis, vindicating in this way Leibniz's intuitions at the time of the invention of calculus. Robinson's nonstandard analysis relies on the deft manipulation of techniques from mathematical logic and model theory, which are usually absent from the undergraduate mathematics curriculum. In the mid 1970s, Edward Nelson introduced a simple axiomatic approach to nonstandard analysis that eschews the use of this logical machinery, but which demands careful attention to how sets are formed in mathematics. Following Nelson's approach, we learn how to describe real numbers as limited, unlimited, or infinitesimal, and investigate the basic properties of these different kinds of numbers. We also prove a few emblematic theorems from calculus by reasoning with infinitesimals, and very quickly reach some of the useful theorems of nonstandard analysis, including the Overspill Principle and Robinson's Lemma.


THE POLITICS OF BIRACIAL IDENTITY: AN EXPLORATION OF HOW INTERNALIZED OPPRESSION MANIFESTS IN BLACK/WHITE MIXED-RACE PEOPLE

Ashley Adams (Kerry Ann Rockquemore) Department of Sociology and African American Studies, University of Illinois Chicago, Chicago, IL 60607

Since the mid 1980’s research on racial identity development among mixed-race people has increasingly emphasized biracial identification over black identification. Psychologists have argued that it is problematic for mixed-race people to develop a black identity because it signifies an internalization of the white supremacy embedded within the One-Drop Rule. This paper challenges the notion that internalized oppression is linked directly and exclusively to black identity. Instead, I ask how internalized oppression manifests in mixed race people across several different racial identifications. By analyzing 20 in-depth interviews of mixed-race people who identify as Black, Biracial and White, I demonstrate the need to decouple internalized oppression from any specific racial identification. The findings help to clarify the therapeutic process by allowing therapists who work with mixed-race clients to focus more on the pathway an individual takes to racial self-understanding than on the racial label a client uses.


GOD, WYRD, AND BEOWULF: AN EXAMINATION OF THE SYNCRETISTIC SPIRITUAL REALM

Steven Bermudez, (Dr. Christine Harker) Division of Language and Literature, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

Despite the Danish pre-Christian setting of the epic poem Beowulf, the spiritual realm and value system within the text reflects a peculiar amalgamation of Christianity and an Anglo-Saxon sense of wyrd (fate) and honor. While this is likely due to the fact that the writer of the Cotton Vitellius manuscript may have inserted the anachronistic Christian themes and attitudes in order to make the story more theologically palatable for the readers of the day, the results manifest themselves in a spiritually conflicted universe. For example, the narrator of the story editorializes on how the characters in Beowulf are “heathens,” and the characters themselves reflect the values of personal achievement and pride, elements of the culture that existed before the Christianization of Britain. Yet at the same time, Beowulf bears himself as a humble, pious Christian hero, constantly referring to a single deity instead of the multitude of Norse gods. Likewise, his monstrous adversary, Grendel, while affiliated with mythical beasts such as giants and sea-monsters, is proclaimed to be a descendent of Cain, the cursed son of Adam and Eve. Throughout the story of Beowulf, these conflicting themes constantly contradict each other and create a spiritual realm, neither Pagan nor Christian, but unique combination of the two.


PHYTOREMEDIATION: STUDIES OF THE POTENTIAL OF PLANTS AND SOIL AMENDMENTS

Sarah Bloch (Barbara Kramer) Science Division, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

Phytoremediation is a proposed alternative to current soil remediation techniques and could decrease the cost and labor involved in remediating soil. The technique has promise but has not yet been put to widespread use. An important factor for phytoremediation of heavy metals is the use of a plant species that accumulates high amounts of metal in the shoot, which can then be harvested. In July of 2006, six plant species were collected from a shooting range in Tiffin, Iowa, where the soil was found to have a lead concentration of about 8000 ppm. These plants were then analyzed to determine the amount of lead accumulated by each. Rumex crispus (curly dock), Verbascum thapsus (common mullein), and Physalis heterophylla (clammy ground cherry) showed potential for future use in widespread phytoremediation based on high lead accumulation, high biomass, and other factors. Another important aspect of heavy metal phytoremediation is the use of soil amendments which enhance the transportation heavy metals from the soil to the shoot. EDTA has been the most effective amendment in many studies; however, it is not readily biodegradable and could cause the leaching of lead into groundwater. EDDS and humic acid have also been tested as soil amendments and could be used as a safer alternative to EDTA. However, these amendments have not yet been compared in a single study. To do so, soybean plants were grown for seven weeks in lead-contaminated soil from the aforementioned shooting range and were exposed to various amendment treatments for three days before being harvested. The amount of lead in the plants under each condition will be presented to determine the potential of each amendment to enhance lead phytoremediation.


WAR WITH ALI'S

Michael A. Bono (Hena Ahmad) Department of Language and Literature, Truman State University, Kirksville , MO 63501.

The modern Indian subcontinent has dealt with its share of violence during its history. The war between India and Pakistan that resulted from East Pakistan’s declaration of independence as Bangladesh deeply affected all three nations and their people. My thesis will focus on how Agha Shahid Ali's poem "A Wrong Turn" and Salman Rushdie's Midnight's Children deal with the far-reaching devastation and brutal inhumanity that were an integral part of the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971. Within Ali's "A Wrong Turn," the audience is led through a nameless massacred town in the aftermath of an atrocity, while Rushdie's Midnight's Children has the audience experience the terror of warfare first-hand as the text follows its protagonist, Saleem Sinai, through his time with a covert unit in Bangladesh during the 1971 war. While the works should not act as an accurate depiction of the war's significance to history or the Indian people as a whole, they capture a personal look into the powerful emotion and all-encompassing destruction that resulted from the war. By analyzing how the two works complement each other, a better understanding of the portrayal of modern warfare is found within the authors' treatment of physical warfare, its origins, and its terrible consequences.


IT DOESN'T QUITE TRANSLATE...THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AFRICANS AND AFRICAN AMERICANS ON TRUMAN STATE UNIVERSITY'S CAMPUS

Tiffany Caesar (Becky Becker) Fine Arts, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

The relationship between Africans and African Americans, in the United States, is under-researched. The researcher explores how the media stereotypical depiction of both groups affects their relationship with each other, with the thought that it causes a negative influence by creating a division. For this reason, this problem was explored through a performance ethnographic research project at Truman State University. A sample of five Africans and five African Americans -- student and faculty members within that campus community -- were interviewed and presented with open-ended responses format questions to assess the current relationship between these groups within the Truman State University community. Excerpts from the interviews were then used to develop ethnographic performance vignettes that were later presented to audiences to invoke a discussion on the topic. Following the collection of the qualitative data, the author created a one-woman performance piece comprised of the reactions of her interviewees. This process also included examining past studies, as well as film clips that portrayed stereotypical images along with the creation of the researcher’s live performance. Analysis of the results indicated that stereotypes were only a part of the problem that caused the division between Africans and African Americans on Truman State University campus. Results also suggested that divisiveness existing between both groups was reduced by the willingness of individuals to step outside their respective cultural boundaries and comfort zones.


MOLECULAR DYNAMICS ANALYSIS OF HYDROGEN BONDING IN HIV REV-RRE COMPLEX

Jessica A. Chenault (Maria C. Nagan), Science Division, Truman State University, 100 East Normal, Kirksville, MO 63501

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus, encoding its genome in the form of RNA, and hence can mutate easily making patients resistant to current drug cocktails. A potential therapeutic target in the HIV lifecycle is the binding of the viral protein Rev to the Rev response element (RRE), a sequence found in viral messenger ribonucleic acid. A minimal peptide-RNA complex containing 23 amino acids and 34 nucleotides (1533 total atoms) replicates in vitro Rev-RRE recognition. The 3-dimensional NMR structure of the minimal complex has been solved but specific interactions were not all resolved and did not directly correlate to biochemical assays. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three models (4, 8 and 14) of the minimal peptide-RNA complex in explicit water and Na+ ions were performed to characterize interactions between Rev and RRE on the chemical level. The MD simulations of HIV Rev-RRE complexes were performed employing the SANDER module of the AMBER 8.0 molecular dynamics suite and the Cheatham modifications to the Cornell et al. forcefield. Systems have been equilibrated for 2500 ps and production runs have been collected for at least 6.0 ns. All three models have differing amounts of hydrogen bonds with greater than fifty percent occupancy. Model 8 contains two arginine residues, R46 and R48, which have been shown to be important for non-specific recognition of RRE yet they have a number of hydrogen bonds between their side-chains and RRE. It is possible that these residues assist in keeping the complex together and may be more important than previously thought. To obtain a weighted average of the Rev-RRE interactions, trajectories from all three models were combined to produce an overall picture of the hydrogen bonding interactions. These results were compared with the hydrogen bonding results reported in the NMR structure and biochemical results. Overall simulations agree with the NMR data but a few significant differences are observed that help rationalize biochemical data.


STUDY ON THE REACTIONS OF 1,4-NAPTHOQUINONES WITH ALKANEDITHIOL

Tom Lam and Chain Lee (Tetsuo Otsuki) Department of Chemistry, Occidental College, 1600 Campus Road, Los Angeles, CA 90041

Here we studied the reactions between various 1,4-naphthoquinones and alkanedithiols, mostly 1,2-ethanedithiol and 1,3-propanedithiol. The 1,4-naphthoquinone derivatives examined were 1,4-naphthoquinone itself and certain derivatives with various substituents on the 2- and/or 3-postions. These are the 2-bromo-, 2,3-dibromo-, 2-chloro-, 2,3-dichloro, 2-bromo-3-methoxy-, 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinones. The 1,4-naphthoquinones used were expected to go through substitution reactions. We have identified two groups of products, which we have called the “cyclic product" and the “spiro product." In the reactions of our 1,4-naphtoquinones with 1,2-ehtanedithiol, for example, 2,3-dihydro-1,4-dithia-9,10-anthracenedione (“cyclic product") and 2-1',3'-dithiacyclopentane spiro 2'-2,3-dihydro-1,4-naphthoquinone (“spiro product"), along with its 3-halogeno-derivative, were isolated. The formation of these two groups of products were found to depend upon the substituents on the 2- and/or 3-positions of 1,4-naphthoquinones as well as the reaction medium, be it acidic, neutral, or basic. This observation strongly indicates the presence of different mechanisms involved in the substitution reactions.


CRANIAL SUTURE COMPLEXITY IN NEW WORLD MONKEYS

Moira Hutchings (Christopher Nicolay), Biology Department, The University of North Carolina at Asheville, Asheville, NC 28804

Cranial sutures, the irregular lines between adjacent bones of the skull, serve functional roles in skull growth and absorbing stresses on the skull. Increased suture complexity allows for improved stress absorption due to increased area for the attachment of collegen fibers, which anchor and interlock the bones of the skull together. This study compares Marmosets (Callathrix jacchus) and Tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis) to assess whether suture complexity is associated with biomechanical stress generated during feeding behaviors. Marmosets practice tree-gouging, scraping through bark with the lower incisors to obtain gum and sap. The Tamarins are similar to the Marmosets in body size, skull morphology, environment, behavior, and diet; however Tamarins do not tree-gouge to obtain sap, but rather eat it opportunistically. It is expected that Marmosets will have greater suture complexity due to the stress and pressure generated during tree-gouging. Complexity of the sagittal suture was examined for fifteen Callathrix jacchus (Common Marmoset) and fifteen Saguinus fuscicollis (Saddle-back Tamarin). Sutures were digitally photographed at the Smithsonian Museum, and the sutures were traced using Adobe Photoshop. The resulting tracing was then analyzed with Scion Image analysis software. To quantify complexity, the total length of the suture was divided by the minimum straight line distance between its starting and ending points to produce a ratio of complexity. The average suture complexity ratio in Callathrix (1.46 ± 0.13 SD) was significantly higher than in Saguinus (1.334 ± 0.13 SD) (t = 2.43, P= 0.02). This supports the hypothesis that strain produced during tree-gouging may be absorbed by the complexity of the cranial sutures. Linear measurements taken on dry skulls at the Smithsonian Museum show that Callathrix is slightly smaller in size than Saguinus, with a slightly wider head and shorter snout, which also may be adaptations for tree-gouging. This research into cranial suture biology is being expanded to include larger sample sizes, other skull sutures, and two additional species, Cebeulla pygmaea (Marmoset) and Leontopithecus rosalia (Tamarin).


WHERE'S THE OFF SWITCH: COLLEGE STUDENTS AND TECHNOLOGY DEPENDENCY

Samantha N. Mitchell, Communication Studies Major Melissa Hougland, Communication Studies Major (Dr. Mara Adelman) Communications Department Seattle University 901 12th Ave Seattle, Wa 98122

Abstract Technology dependency and addiction is an expanding problem among college students, with consequences for declining interpersonal relationships and personal development. A recent study by the PEW internet and American Life Project reported that “85% of college students considered the Internet an easy and convenient choice for communicating with friends." The access, while expanding social ties, also affects technology dependency and depression. A study of n = 39, students responded to the challenge and solutions of finding a “balance" in technological utilization and their personal well-being. Qualitative analysis indicates that over-stimulation and information overload is a major interference for college students. This article addresses the consequences for a generation so consumed with staying connected, that they perceive they have no control over the “off" switch. Paradoxically, they feel that technology advances their social status and professional career goals.


PHASE BEHAVIOR OF AN EFFICIENT SOLVENT-FREE MODEL OF LIPID BILAYERS

Joel Revalee, The Research Corporation, Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152

High-power computers have facilitated the study of lipid bilayer membranes and a variety of their properties. Any computational model used to simulate such membranes must account for their spontaneous self-assembly due to hydrophobic interactions between lipid tail groups and water. This is usually done by simulating a solution with explicit solvent and lipid molecules. However, most of the system is typically occupied by the solvent. It is therefore computationally desirable to develop a model that leads to self-assembly of lipids without explicit solvent. We have designed such a model, and propose that its use can lead to faster simulations and the study of larger membrane structures. This model utilizes a third-order polynomial potential to account for hydrophobic interactions (in place of the Lennard-Jones potential) and harmonic lipid-bonding potentials. Investigations of lipid diffusion coefficient, single-lipid order parameter, translational order parameter and internal energy as functions of temperature reveal a structural phase transition in the membrane from a gel phase to a fluid phase. The characterization of membrane elastic properties will also be presented. The applications of this model to the study of membrane-related topics like the extra-cellular matrix and the cytoskeleton will be shown as well.


READING THE MIND OF A RECONNAISSANCE IMAGE ANALYST

Dr. David Strayer and A. Eve Miller

In light of the intelligence failures associated with weapons of mass destruction (WMD's) in the lead up to the U.S. lead invasion on Iraq, DARPA funded several universities and private institutions, including the University of Utah, to come up with an effective way to study imagery analysts in order to find ways to improve performance. My study, at the University of Utah was designed to understand the neurophysiology underlying the visual processing of satellite reconnaissance in experts and novices. The project teamed with a group from the Idaho National Lab who had developed software to align and present images taken at two times using a change detection paradigm. I recorded both EOG and EEG measures as participants searched for meaningful changes in the reconnaissance images. We found that two ERP (event-related brain potential) components reliably discriminated between target and distracter image sets. The first was a parietal-maximal N170 component that increased in amplitude in proportion to the degree of change in the images. The second was a frontal-maximal slow wave component that discriminated between conditions over the course of the 10 second stimulus presentation interval. We also developed a discriminate function to classify single trials based on patterns in the EOG and EEG and were successful in classifying up 80% of the trials. In future studies, we plan to use fMRI measures to determine the specific brain regions responsible for these meaningful changes in the ERP.


POST-DICTATORIAL ARGENTINA: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ARGENTINE POLICY REFORMATION AND U.S. FOREIGN POLICY

Alicia C. Muzzi (Christine Nemcik, Rodney Clare) Department of International Studies, Elon University, 100 Campus Drive, Elon NC 27244

Throughout the 1980's Argentine policy-makers enacted numerous foreign and domestic reforms that began to emulate the foreign and domestic policy of the United States. Eventually these reforms led to a historically uncharacteristic alignment with the United States, which was a notable change for these countries who, in the past, had at best tolerated each other. The most significant reason for this unofficial alliance between the two countries stemmed from the U.S.'s transition of foreign policy objectives after the end of the Cold War. After the Cold War the U.S.'s main policy objectives gradually shifted from anti-communism to defeating terrorism, eliminating drug-trafficking, and promoting nuclear non-proliferation. The post-Dirty War establishment of democracy in Argentina almost directly coincided with the change in U.S. policy objectives, and thus created a formula for inevitable change in the relationship between the two countries. This was most clearly seen during Carlos Menem's presidency (1989-1999) whose administration aligned its own policies with those of the U.S. in virtually all respects. The drastic reforms in Argentine foreign policy in turn radically redefined Argentine international and domestic political, economic, and social relations. The purpose of this study is to analyze how U.S. foreign policy dictated, directly and indirectly, the foreign policy of Argentina, and what positive and negative repercussions this created for Argentine domestic policy.


THE AVATAR PROJECT

Aaron R. Guile

I present four poems for consideration. Each is derived from the following quote from J. Hillis Miller's On Literature: Reading is an incarnated as well as a spiritual act… and though reading is a material act, literature uses such physical embedment to create or reveal alternate realities" (20). An avatar is an alternate reality. The first poem, “Presponse" (200 words), examines the language of the quote and another assertion of Miller's where the current incarnation of literature is dying. The poem focuses on the texture of an embedded, subterranean reality connecting it to Hillis' predicted demise of the canon. The second poem, “Let it Grow" (2000 words), continues Hillis further inspired by Italo Calvino's If on a Winter's Night; A Traveler. Calvino examines the reader/narrator relationship by describing an adventure through a landscape of different literary genres. “Let it Grow" does this, but instead of literary genres, it examines the same relationship through two different fictional narrations in New York City and Provo, Utah revealing language's lack of credibility. The third poem, “Staedler triplus ball M" (500 words), does not create an alternate landscape like the two above poems, but explains Miller's comment. The poem was inspired by the following quote from a Gregory Dunne interview with Scott Cairns that appeared in Prairie Schooner vol. 79, no 1: “I'd say that poetic agency – the word made flesh – is the means by which I discover my religion, my faith" (45). My poem expands on the idea of a poem made flesh. This is the avatar experience and the poem's project. The poem explains the only way a poem can have flesh is through the reader/narrator's relationship based on ink, the physical text and on paper, the physical page. The forth, “Beans and Rice" (100 words), opposes the others by avoiding metaphoric language. It is a recipe. It expands on Gilles Delueze and Felix Gauttari's denial in their book Kafka; Toward a Minor Literature of Gregor Samsa's transformation in Franz Kafka's Metamorphosis is only metaphor. Its focus on non-metaphoric language creates the avatar experience and so remains a poem.


THE EFFECT OF NON-FOCAL ACTORS IN A TV COMMERCIAL ON CONSUMER CHOICE

Chris Hansen, Chris Buckley, Haiden Smith, Scott Radke, and Brent Baloun, Marketing Department, Univeristy of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069

While consumers often remember a focal actor in a TV commercial, non-focal actors in a commercial can play a key role in consumer choice. For example, Verizon Wireless features a large group of people behind a black glasses focal actor in order to show that it is the most reliable and largest network of all cell phone companies. We tested why a TV commercial showing a large number of non-focal actors could be effective. According to network effects, a service becomes more valuable as more people use it. Building on network effects, we predicted that consumer choice would be more likely to be influenced by a large number of non-focal actors, rather than a focal actor, in a cell phone advertisement. We surveyed 49 homogeneous college students. We measured their subscription to a cell phone company, their perception of an advertisement campaign of a Verizon TV commercial in terms of a main actor, background non-focal actors, and headlines, key determinants of their purchase decision, and their choice of a future cell phone company. To test a hypothesis, we ran a logistic regression. The independent variables were a perception of a main actor wearing black glasses, a large group of non-focal actors, and headlines in the commercial while the dependent variable was choice of Verizon Wireless as a future cell phone company. Consistent with network effects, we found that current and potential customers were more likely to choose or stay with Verizon Wireless rather than switching to a new network not because of a focal actor or headlines but because of non-focal actors in the commercial. We observed the same significant finding even after we controlled for consumers' initial subscription to Verizon Wireless. Theoretical and managerial implications of this research will be discussed.


OF GESTURES AND GENERATIONS: PHYSICALLY SPEAKING IN ASIAN AMERICA

Stadolnik, Joseph

Amongst families and communities in which a common native language is not a given and generational divides are potentially deep, individuals look outside of language in order to find a substitute for words. Physical dialogue naturally functions as a practical, effective mode of communication. In their texts, Maxine Hong Kingston, Hisaye Yamamoto, and Chang-rae Lee both explore this dynamic at work in the homes and on the streets of Asian America. Their first-generation American narrators use physical dialogue as part of a greater process of adaptation and reconciliation between their foreign upbringing and American environment. At school and at home, a different rubric of exclusion separates them from others based upon outwardly apparent characteristics. To their American classmates, young Asian Americans are primarily physically foreign, and as such culturally-dictated concepts of the body (such as beauty and sexuality) anchor their socially-constructed differences. On the other hand, to their own families young Asian Americans are instead culturally set apart, as they are considered almost spoiled by American culture, and face enormous pressure not to lose their Asian identity (manifest in language and behavior). Patterns of verbal and physical communication between Asian American immigrant generations play crucial roles in illustrating the dynamics of family and acculturation.


A GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF SEXUAL MINORITY RIGHTS ABUSE

Jonathan Ring, Dr. Rich Braunstein, Department of Political Science, University of South 414 E Clark St Vermillion, SD 57069

The right to non-discrimination is a universal human right outlined in Article 2 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Sexual Minority Rights, also known as LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender) rights, are a relatively unstudied component of international human rights research. This cross-national study seeks to explain variation among governments in the repression of the basic human rights of sexual minorities. Data were collected on the 191 member States of the United Nations. The data were drawn from Amnesty International, the International Lesbian and Gay Association, Human Rights Watch, as well as the United States Department of State. In addition to analyzing the data, the current study contributes insight into some of the problems associated with conducting research in this area (e.g. reliability of state repression measures, measures of rights violations, etc.). The working hypotheses are: 1) increased economic development is negatively correlated with repression of sexual minorities, 2) higher levels of democracy are negatively correlated with repression of sexual minorities, 3) more freedom of the press is negatively correlated with repression of sexual minorities, and 4) the increased prevalence of AIDS is positively correlated with repression of sexual minorities.


ESCALATION OR DEESCALATION: ARMS TRANSFERS AND CONFLICT SEVERITY

Kurt Waywood, Dr. James Scott, Political Science, Indiana State University, 301 Holmstedt Hall

Escalation or De-escalation: Arms Transfers and Conflict Severity Kurt E. Waywood (Dr. James Scott) Department of Political Science Indiana State University Terre Haute, IN 47809 Since the end of the Cold War, massive amounts of weapons produced have found their way to Developing nations. For the past few decades these nations have fought bloody wars with each other. Have these weapons sales led to the increase of violence we have seen between these states? This paper examines the effect international arms sales on the severity of international conflict since the Cold War, while controlling for the impact of t democratization on conflict severity. I use data from the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and Polity IV data and employ a multivariate regression while controlling for the side a nation takes, length of the conflict, and which nation originated the conflict. I measure conflict severity in military casualties and arms sales by the Trend Indicator Value or TIV provided by the SIPRI data. While my results show that democracy level has little to no impact on the severity of interstate conflict, they do show that arms sales increase have a limited impact on the severity of conflict, which support my central hypothesis.


DIGGING A HOLE TO CHINA: IMPROVING DISCOURSE ABOUT WRITING WITH INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS IN THE UNIVERSITY WRITING CENTER

Jennifer Coolidge, (Dr. Elizabeth Delmonico) Zhou Zho Number One Middle School, Hunan Province, China.

This case study sought to better understand the difficulties inherent in conducting writing conferences with international students in the Truman State University Writing Center. These difficulties are generally defined as listening, speaking, writing and reading, components which encompass nearly every aspect of second language (L2) communication. In its effort to better understand the specific challenges of talking about writing in the client’s L2, this project attempted to ascertain trends in proficiency favoring either writing or speaking among Chinese English students. Samples of written and spoken English were collected from each student and evaluated to determine which form of communication was stronger for each student, then for the group as a whole. In each sample, the students wrote with relative clarity about their respective topics but lost that clarity of expression when asked to speak about them. Students come to the Writing Center hoping to make their work more grammatically standard in order to receive high marks on their work but often do not seem to be able to follow when recommendations are offered from the consultant. This study has indicated that it is possible that the difficulty experienced regarding speaking about writing is the result of great training in a native country in grammar and vocabulary, but less attention given to conversation and verbal skills. By better understanding how Chinese students learn English, tutors will be able to recognize verbal challenges in international students and accommodate them with goal of making tutoring sessions as effective as possible.


THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO: NATO, RUSSIA, AND HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION

Daniel DuBois (Thomas Zoumaras) History Department, Truman State University, Kirksville, Mo. 63501

On 13 October 1998, responding to deteriorating political and social conditions within the Yugoslavian region of Kosovo, officials of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) announced that they would begin an air campaign within 96 hours lest Serbian President, Slobodan Milosevic, withdraw his forces from Kosovo and end the systematic persecution of Kosovar Albanians within the region. Criticism against NATO’s actions emerged instantly. Among several nations, Russia in particular complained that NATO’s use of military force only veiled American foreign policy aimed at augmenting U.S. influence in the Balkans, and thus in Europe. In the aftermath of the bombings and Milosevic’s subsequent compliance with peace demands (thanks to Russian mediation), other critics, including those from the U.S. and other NATO countries, rallied behind Russia’s claim that they had been excluded from operations due to America’s insistence that the war be executed primarily by U.S. officials and equipment – thus ensuring the safety of American interests in the region. This essay looks to explore the legitimacy of NATO military action in Kosovo, the potentiality of Russian cooperation or participation in the broader military framework, and articulated U.S. interests in both Balkan and European security. The emerging thesis contends that short-minded policy decisions on the part of Russian officials, not American, dictated NATO’s engagement in Kosovo. Beginning in the early 1990s, a steady and explicit process of expansion developed within NATO’s security strategies for both Central and Eastern Europe, indicating to non-NATO powers that the Alliance was legitimizing its role as an interventionist. In light of military precedents dating back to 1991, enough validation on the part of the United Nations existed to convince NATO that resolutions passed prior to its use of air power on Serb forces sanctioned the Alliance to proceed with its military operations. Russia, on the other hand, surrendered the seminal role it could have played in early negotiations – choosing instead to condemn what it saw as further Russian containment on the part of the United States.


LA DOULEUR DE L’AMOUR: RESEARCH INTO THE EXPRESSION OF FRENCH POETRY THROUGH MUSICAL COMPOSITION

Melanie Dunn (Dr. Gregg Siewert, Division of Language and Literature, and Dr. Warren Gooch, Division of Fine Arts) Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

The music and poetry within any given language draws out deeper meanings of the words in that language and verbally connects with its readers or hearers on a much different plane than the mere vernacular can provide. As a French major and one who deeply loves the French language, I am using my project to make that meaningful and complex connection with this language and to help hearers understand that connection whether or not they speak French. I have chosen three poems by French writers--one from Paul Verlaine and two from Jacques Prévert--and set these poems to music of my own composition in the form of three art songs which I will then publicly perform. This process involves studying French poems to choose those best suited for being set to music, studying other French composers and their art songs to better understand their works, translating the texts of the poems and finding their underlying meanings in order to express these meanings through song, and composing the vocal melody and piano accompaniment which I will then, with an accompanist, perform. I will also explain the tradition in which I am continuing--that is, the French art song--and give the audience insight into my compositional process and its growth throughout the project.


SUFISM AS A MODEL FOR RUSHDIE’S MIGRANT CONDITION IN GRIMUS AND THE SATANIC VERSES

John E. Fausz (Dr. Hena Ahmad) English Department, Truman State University 100 E Normal, Kirksville MO 63501

The study of Salman Rushdie’s Satanic Verses has been linked so concretely with the controversy that has surrounded it, that in most cases a deeper examination of its influences and spiritual core is precluded. There is, however, enmeshed in the novel, what can be seen as a marked influence of Sufism, the mystical branch of Islam, from which the novel derives an ambivalent spirituality that undermines the main arguments of its controversy. One of the keys to understanding the mystical aspects of the problematic Satanic Verses is Grimus, the author’s first novel, in which we find metaphysical concerns that are developed further in The Satanic Verses. By reading the novel through this lens, the main characters, Gibreel Farishta and Saladin Chamcha, should be seen as a composite migrant everyman and represent, in their divergent mutations into an angel and a demon, a mystical manifestation of the complementary forces of good and evil. This paper will illuminate, then, the ways in which the elements of Sufism that pervade Grimus are used as motifs in the Satanic Verses. Additionally, the Sufi dimension of both novels, as this paper will argue, allows the reader to come closer to fully understanding the complex spirituality of the Satanic Verses.


PHOTOELECTRIC PHOTOMETRY OF MIRA-TYPE VARIABLE STARS

Oleksiy Golovin (Dr. Matthew Beaky) Division of Science, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

Mira-type variable stars are pulsating red giant stars that are in the later stages of stellar evolution. Over sixty-six thousand stars are variable stars: of these, over six thousand are Mira-type variable stars, and about two thousand are suspected of being Mira-type stars. By studying this class of stars, we can gain a clearer insight into the physical processes that take place in Sun-like stars as they approach the end of their lives. We are engaged in a long-term project to measure the light curves of suspected Mira-type stars using differential photoelectric photometry, and to use these light curves to correctly classify the stars under study. Our choice of photoelectric photometer is the Optec SSP-3A, one of the SSP line of photometers from Optec, Inc. that is widely used by amateur and professional astronomers. The software provided with these devices has proven to be unreliable and lacking a number of desirable functions for photometry. To improve the quality and efficiency of data acquisition, we have developed a new software package to control the photoelectric photometer. This new software, dubbed POPPER, is currently undergoing beta testing by several professional and amateur astronomers. The design of POPPER and its advantages over existing photometer control programs will be discussed. Preliminary light curves of several suspected Mira-type variable stars will also be presented.


CLUTTERING THE MOMENT: AUTHORITARIANISM IN

David Gregg (Hena Ahmad) Department of Language & Literature, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

Every so often in a nation there occurs an event of such cataclysmic magnitude that it forces the nation to define its history preceding the event separately from the history that follows. The Partition of India and Pakistan in 1947 is representative of such an event because of the magnitude of its influence on the history of the subcontinent. From the chance for a fresh start rose new ideas about what a nation could and should be. Two competing viewpoints concerning the structure of the new nation of India were held by Jawaharlal Nehru and Mahatma Gandhi, whose competing ideologies encompass the conflicts of simplicity vs. modernity, homogeneity vs. diversity, hierarchical governance vs. decentralized communalism, and it has grown far beyond these two individuals. My paper will first focus on how these two models can affect the individual psychology of the population that these systems are imposed upon or supported by. I will explore what notions of identity are seen arising in a decentralized communal society as opposed to a hierarchical one. The second aspect of my paper focuses on how two Indian authors, Salman Rushdie and Agha Shahid Ali, contribute to this long-standing discussion. I will explore the clash of Gandhi and Nehru, as well as the corresponding identities their ideas produce, as they manifest themselves in Salman Rushdie's novel, Midnight's Children, especially during the narrator’s conception of the Midnight’s Children Conference. I will also look at one of Agha Shahid Ali's poems, "A Butcher", because I feel it has as much to contribute to this discourse, although it does so less explicitly. When two works are in such a dialogue with each other, the ideal ending is a synthesis of what both works have to communicate; I believe such a synthesis exists and is as applicable today as it would have been in 1947.


IS ACCULTURATION RELATED TO TYPE AND AMOUNT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG HISPANIC ADULTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES?

Kelly Haley, (Dr. Lorraine Weatherspoon) Department of Health and Exercise Sciences, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501; (Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824)

A critical component of Type 2 diabetes self-management is physical activity (both type and amount). The Hispanic population is disproportionately afflicted with Type 2 diabetes, and acculturation may be an important predictor of self-management behaviors including physical activity. Acculturation refers to the process by which immigrants adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs and behaviors of a new culture (Abraido-Lanza, Chao, Florez 2005). Ten Hispanic adults with type 2 diabetes were recruited from the Cristo Rey Clinic in Lansing, MI. A qualitative study triangulated with quantitative descriptive data was conducted to assess the relationship between acculturation and physical activity in a sample of acceptably (HbA1c<8%) and unacceptably (HbA1c>8%) glycemically controlled Hispanic adults with Type 2 diabetes. Full time manual labor employment and family support were key characteristics of the acceptably controlled group. These factors had more of an affect on control of diabetes than acculturation. Self-management education programs need to focus on both traditional as well as non-traditional forms of exercise and family centered approaches.


COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF NUCLEOPHILES ON SUBSTITUTION REACTIONS OF PHOSPHATE ESTERS

Laura A. Kopff (Dr. Eric V. Patterson), Department of Chemistry, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO 63501

Nucleophiles react with phosphate esters by displacing a leaving group via one of two limiting mechanisms; a concerted SN2(P) mechanism or a two-step addition-elimination mechanism involving a trigonal bipyramidal intermediate. The identities of both the nucleophile and the leaving group can change the details of the reaction pathway in significant ways. Alpha-nucleophiles, those that have an atom with at least one lone pair adjacent to the nucleophilic atom, demonstrate reactivity that is often substantially different from normal nucleophiles. This study uses computational chemistry to explore the differences between the normal nucleophile hydroxide and the alpha-nucleophile, hydroperoxide, in the effect they have on the barriers for nucleophilic attack of phosphate esters. In order to understand the differences between these two nucleophiles as well as the effect of the leaving group, the structure of the phosphate ester was varied to incorporate different leaving groups. The possible leaving groups included F, Cl, OMe, and SMe. The relative energies of the reaction pathways can by compared to determine differences between the two nucleophiles. All calculations for this study were run using Gaussian03 at the MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level.


AUTOMATIC WINDOW RESIZING AND ITS IMPACT ON USER PRODUCTIVITY

Nathaniel Marrocco, Donald Patterson, Information and Computer Science, University of California Irvine, University of California, Irvine Irvine, CA 92697

The majority of windowing systems remain unchanged since the 1980's. In the past, low display resolution would limit users to viewing a maximum of one or two windows at once. Now, with larger displays and increased user needs, many believe popular windowing systems need to be modernized. We propose an enhancement to current windowing systems that will allow users to automatically re-size windows. In this approach users have the ability to throw windows around the screen like physical objects. When a thrown window hits another window or the edge of the screen it stops moving and automatically expands or contracts to fill any empty space where it hit. We present three user studies conducted with the tool, and present the tools positive effect on user productivity for some tasks.


AN EXAMINATION OF ACCEPTABLE NAVIGATION ACCURACY FOR LISA ORBITS

Reid Smythe (Richard Fahey and Daryl Boden) Aerospace Engineering Department, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD 21402.

This project assesses the accuracy with which a particular constellation of satellites, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), must be placed into orbit. The LISA formation will consist of three satellites orbiting the Sun at approximately 1 AU, forming an equilateral triangle with leg lengths of 5 million kilometers while maintaining an angular separation of 22.5 degrees from the Earth. Three distinct phases composed this assessment. The first phase dealt with formation parameters (leg length, leg length time rate of change, interior leg angle, and formation, sun, earth angle) as a function of time. Duplication of plots contained in other papers on the topic using independently written orbit data analysis scripts in MATLAB validated the output of those scripts. Preliminary graphical analysis indicated the values of each parameter varied in a sinusoidal manner, and changing the initial conditions tended to reduce the time each parameter fell within the acceptable tolerance values. The second phase dealt with analyzing formation parameters as a function of the error size of specific initial conditions. Up to two of the eighteen state variables were varied simultaneously, resulting in a surface indicating how long a particular formation parameter was out of specification. These surfaces indicated general trends in terms of the sensitivity of the formation to certain specific errors. The formation appeared to be most sensitive to velocity errors in the in-track direction, with position errors in the radial direction having the next largest effect. The third phase analyzed the effect of varying all eighteen variables simultaneously. As the maximum variation in position and velocity errors increased, there tended to be a corresponding increase in the amount of time the formation parameter was out of specification. Using the data from this plot, the LISA team can ensure that the propulsion vehicle placing the satellites into orbit will have the accuracy required to meet the requirements for the science mission.


A CALIBRATON DEVICE FOR ORIENTATION SENSORS

Carrie M. Hall, (Dr. Larry Fennigkoh), Rapid Prototyping Center, Milwaukee School of Engineering , 1025 North Broadway, Milwaukee, WI 53202

This research involves developing a novel method and creating a feasible device to calibrate orientation sensors. Orientation sensors are a developing technology that can find the roll, pitch, and yaw of a moving object; however, unless these sensors are properly calibrated, the information they supply is not reliable. The Microstrain 3DM-GX1 TM gyro enhanced orientation sensor, a focal application of this research, is calibrated when it is manufactured, but the common user has no tool or technique for testing the calibration of the sensor. In order to calibrate the sensor, a device has been created which moves the orientation sensor to different angles in each of the three planes. A vernier scale aids in the accuracy of these angle measurements. Using the information gathered by moving the sensor in the mechanism, a graph that shows the relationship between voltage output and the angle moved can be analyzed to find a proper calibration factor. A prototype of the device was created using the 2050 LaserGraver at the Milwaukee School of Engineering (MSOE). By using the device to test the sensor, the user can ensure that it is properly calibrated for a specific application. The device will also provide a way to do further studies about the effects of age, temperature, magnetism, and weather conditions on the calibration of orientation sensors. Department of Physics and Engineering, Bob Jones University, Greenville, SC 29614


DIGNIFIED ALOOFNESS: CANADA'S FAILED BID TO JOIN THE PAN AMERICAN UNION

Gregory Boubel (Matthew Loayza) History Department Minnesota State University, Mankato Mankato MN 56003

Existing historical scholarship has been critical of the United States' decision to keep Canada out of the Pan American Union in 1941. According to this literature, Canada's failure to join the international organization was a major setback to Canadian-Latin American relations. My research challenges this assertion by investigating the motives behind the Canadian bid for membership. An examination of policy makers' diaries, diplomatic papers, speeches, correspondence, and other key primary sources reveal that Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King held little interest in the Pan American Union. Despite overtures from Brazil, Mexico, and even the United States, King resisted establishing formal diplomatic ties with Latin America. My research reveals that staff members within the Canadian Department of External Affairs initiated the attempt at membership without King's full support. The resulting request for membership took the United States by surprise. While it did oppose the move, I found that United States' opposition was relatively weak. Yet, because King looked unfavorably upon membership, he accepted the United States' position without challenge and quickly buried the issue. I conclude that previous histories have overemphasized the seriousness of United States' objections, while overlooking Prime Minister King's own opposition to membership in the Pan American Union.


GUILT AND DREAD: THE EXISTENTIAL DILEMMA OF THE OUTSIDER IN RICHARD WRIGHT'S NATIVE SON AND ‘THE MAN WHO LIVED UNDERGROUND'

Heather M. Paulson (Veena Deo) Department of English, Hamline University, St. Paul, MN 55104

Though there has been much discussion of Richard Wright's personal immersion in existentialism later in his life and the existentialist themes of his first work in exile, The Outsider, much of his earlier work is seen merely through his espousal of Communist social theories. However, there are clearly existential themes evident and integral to his earlier works, and the main characters of his earliest novels also portray important steps in the evolution of Richard Wright's social thought—from humans as socially determined entities who must organize and act within the system to better their lives, to characters who try to gain agency by ideally removing themselves from a dysfunctional and damaging society, at the expense of any human or social interaction. Wright explores the ramifications of each of these approaches, and ultimately questions how a racialized body can achieve any sort of agency, be it political, social or psychological, in a society plagued by racism. Wright's characters deal with existential questions of man's place in the world and man's relation to self—questions which cause moments of existential guilt and dread and ultimately lead to a desire to recreate an identity in which the outsider gains agency, often through criminalized action. However, these realizations and rebirths are plagued always by the realities of being black in a racist society. By using existentialism as a framework to understand the dilemma of the racial outsider in society, this essay probes deeper into Wright's earlier works to locate moments of existential guilt and dread and examine how these characters use such moments of realization to re-create individual identities which seek to understand and negotiate their outsider status, and examines how these existential contemplations ultimately grow from the outsider's search for agency in a racist society.


GOING AGAINST THE GRAIN: THE LIFE, WORK, AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF OLIVIA AMERICA DAVIDSON WASHINGTON

Mykah R. Newman (Dr. Pero G. Dagbovie), Department of History, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823

From 1877- 1910, blacks as a race experienced severe oppression as a result of Jim Crow segregation. In particular black women faced oppression through gender, race, and class discrimination. Due to this, black women chose to create organized institutions otherwise known as black woman's clubs which stressed public service, social change, and education. In the area of education, a small group of black women created institutions to uplift the race and their sisters. One of these women was Olivia Davison who was a co-founder of Tuskegee Institute in 1881 along with Booker T. Washington. However, the works of Davidson and other black women have been overlooked in the narrative of American and African American History. Therefore, by using the narrative of Olivia Davidson in relation to the absence of the narrative of black women in American and African American History, the lack of scholarship in this area is illuminated. Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL 61455


EFFECTS OF EXCESSIVE STREAM SEDIMENT ON AQUATIC INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES

Robert Lindsey

Abstract. Understanding how aquatic invertebrate communities are affected by sedimentation in a stream ecosystem is important in demonstrating the need for sediment reduction. Aquatic invertebrates are a vital link in the stream food chain connecting stream phytoplankton to larger vertebrates. Fine sediments that are deposited in streams have a negative impact on aquatic invertebrate communities by filling in the space between rocks where they live, and by damaging invertebrate gills. I studied the effects of sedimentation on aquatic invertebrates in Amity Creek, Duluth, MN. I collected sediment samples before and after rain events, and found that rain events of two inches or more decreased fine sediments by 15 percent on average. These rain events also increased average median stream bottom substrate size (D50, using a Wolman pebble count) from 20 to 30 mm, and decreased average depth of fine sediments accumulated behind rocks by 4 cm. These rain events are thought to reduce fine sediments by washing them downstream. I also collected invertebrates from two areas of Amity Creek, one which was more embedded due to a large eroded bank upstream, the other which was less embedded. These data were compared to a third dataset which was from three unembedded riffles. There was significantly fewer total invertebrates in the more embedded part of the stream, and values of an index of biotic integrity was significantly different among the three stream reaches, with the unembedded reach having the most sensitive invertebrate community. My results indicate that between large rain events there is a build up of fine sediments; this sediment is then washed downstream during large rain storms. In turn, the amount of sediment in stream riffles has a strong effect on the invertebrate community.


THE FORGOTTEN CHILDREN: AN EMPIRICAL AND STATISTICAL STUDY

Maren Dermody, Christian Dean, Politics, Dominican University, 50 Acacia Avenue, San Rafael, CA, 94901

The first juvenile justice system in the United States was created nearly 100 years ago in Chicago. One of the most important goals of the institution was to divert youthful offenders from the destructive punishments of criminal courts and encourage rehabilitation based on the individual juvenile's needs. However, resulting from a surge of juvenile violent crime in the 1980's, the juvenile justice system began to abandon rehabilitation in exchange for punitive punishment. I will argue that the rise in juvenile recidivism is correlated to the increase in punitive punishment. In order to reduce the juvenile recidivism rates – which have been steadily increasing since the 1990's – I will argue that programs employing restorative justice need to be used instead of punitive punishment. Restorative justice theory focuses more on rehabilitation and societal inclusion rather than punishment and societal segregation. The experimental restorative justice programs which have been employed throughout the United States have returned positive results in reducing recidivism among its participants. In order to reduce the recidivism rates in the United States, more community and peer based programs based on restorative justice will need to be created and utilized as sentencing within the juvenile justice system. Statistics suggest that, if more programs using restorative justice theories are created, juvenile recidivism in the United States will decrease. I will suggest that if punitive punishment is not replaced with restorative justice programs, then juvenile recidivism will continue to increase, and the effectiveness of the juvenile justice program in rehabilitating delinquents will continue to decline


INTEGRATIVE MEDICINE: A STUDY OF ACUTE CARE NURSES’ PERCEPTIONS, BELIEFS, AND ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE

Christine Cadelina, (Chris Bolla, Olivia Catolico), Department of Nursing, Dominican University of California, 50 Acacia Avenue, San Rafael, CA 94901.

As the use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) increases in the United States, more and more people admitted to hospitals are likely to be using some form of alternative medicine. Examples of CAM include herbal therapy, reflexology, massage, acupuncture, acupressure, therapeutic touch, prayer, meditation, guided imagery, relaxation, exercise, and biofeedback. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2003) concluded in a study that 42.1% of the U.S. population uses some form of CAM, with 46.3% of patients using an alternative practitioner. In addition, the expenditures on these services were estimated at $21.2 billion, exceeding the out-of-pocket expenditures for all U.S. hospitalizations. In order to continue providing optimum quality of care, nurses must stay abreast of their patients’ health practices, including CAM therapy. Little is known about how acute/critical care nurses view CAM therapy. In many critical care settings, patients may request that CAM therapies they have used at home be continued or they may request that certain nontraditional therapies be initiated. It is important for nurses in this healthcare setting to be knowledgeable and understanding of CAM therapies, and to recognize any potential for adverse interactions between these therapies and conventional medicine. This descriptive study aims to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of critical care nurses’ regarding integration of CAM into their practice. A convenience sample of registered nurses working in various acute care settings of a large, west-coast urban hospital will be used in this study. A survey designed to address specific research questions using a Likert scale will be used for data collection and descriptive analysis.


A WOMAN IN THE FIELD: JILL JOHNSTON'S DANCE WRITING

Kate M. Pracher, (Maura Keefe) Dance Department SUNY Brockport 350 New Campus Drive Brockport, NY 14420

Dance critic and personality Jill Johnston has been a powerful and influential woman in the dance world ever since her writing career began and has undoubtedly left her mark. Although Johnston entered the dance world as a dancer, she began her writing career in the field of dance criticism in 1957. She successfully created her own pathway in the dance criticism world. Her reviews, autobiographies, poems, and essays use illuminating metaphors and witty language. She encourages her readers to think about topics in new ways. Her unusual way with words interested readers more than other writers did at the time perhaps because of the different style she produced. This paper strives to examine Jill Johnston's writings to discover just what it is about her that makes her different than her contemporaries. It also demonstrates how her writing reflects the choreography she reviews. By comparing Johnston's writing style to that of her contemporaries, Arlene Croce and Marcia B. Siegel, her distinct voice can be analyzed. Johnston includes her own personal experiences in her reviews as well as a description of and response to the particular performance. While Johnston's reviews are more personal, Croce's and Siegel's are straightforward and contain detailed information strictly about the choreographer and performance. Johnston chooses to focus on her personal experience concerning the performance while her contemporaries focus on movement description. Her writing seems to draw readers in and trap them in her words. Studying Johnston's reviews in Marmalade Me, as well as Deborah Jowitt's introduction and Sally Banes' afterword, is an ideal way to discover her appeal. The analysis will make some general comparisons and then narrow its attention to a comparison of a review by each writer of a performance by the Martha Graham Dance Company. In comparing and analyzing Johnston's writings to her contemporaries, one begins to understand what makes Johnston unique. This paper explores Johnston's allure and what it is that makes her unmistakably fascinating.